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THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


Program has provided considerable food supplies for the 
refugees’ subsistence pending their first harvest. 

Supplementary aid is provided for the neediest refugees 
and may take the form of supplementary feeding, medical 
aid, or clothing. 

Voluntary Repatriation 

The Office assists refugees wherever possible to overcome 
difficulties in the way of their repatriation. In cases where 
no funds are available for their transportation to their 
homeland, arrangements for payment of the cost involved 
may be made by UNHCR under its material assistance 
programmes. 

Resettlement 

From its inception UNHCR has been actively engaged 
in the promotion of resettlement through emigration, in 
close co-operation with interested governments, the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM). 
the United States Refugee Program and voluntary agencies 
concerned with the resettlement of refugees. The task of 
UNHCR in this field is to negotiate with governments in an 
endeavour to obtain suitable resettlement opportunities 
for those refugees both able-bodied and handicapped who 
opt for this solution, to encourage governments to liberalize 
their criteria for the admission of refugees and to draw 
up special immigration schemes for them wherever 
possible. 

Integration of Refugees in their 
Country of Residence 

The object of local integration is to assist refugees to 
become self-supporting in their country of residence. In 
Europe, this is done either by granting refugees loans for 
establishment in agriculture, or by assisting them through 
vocational training or in other ways to learn a skill, or to 
establish themselves in gainful occupations. One major 
form of assistance to help refugees leave camps is to 
provide them with housing. 

In addition there are projects for the settlement in 
institutions of the aged and the sick, rehabilitation projects 
for handicapped refugees, and counselling projects which 
are essential for the guidance of refugees in the choice of a 
solution to their problems. 

In accordance -with the policy, whereby primary respon- 
sibility for aid to refugees falls upon their country of 
residence, arrangements for the provision of material 
assistance to refugees in various European countries are 
being increasingly taken over by governments, local 
authorities and social welfare agencies. UNHCR intervenes 
where it is necessary for the international community to 
provide additional aid. 

The new groups of refugees in Africa and some of the 
refugees in Asia are mainly assisted through local settle- 
ment in agriculture. In Africa consolidation of the settle- 
ment of refugees is effected through close co-operation 
between UNHCR and other members of the UN system 
which provide development assistance to the areas con- 
cerned. 

Educational assistance continues to be provided from 
UNHCR programmes as far as primary education is con- 
cerned and from the UNHCR Education Account as far as 
post-primary education is concerned. UNHCR continues 
to co-operate closely with UNESCO in this field. 


The increasing problem of needy individual refugees in 
urban areas of Africa, mainly ■without agricultural back- 
ground, is requiring increasing attention. A Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees established within 
the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa, with 
the support of UNHCR and other members of the UN 
system is seeking solutions to the problems of these refugees 
through their resettlement in various countries in Africa. 

FINANCE 

The UNHCR material assistance programmes are financed 
from voluntary contributions made by governments and 
also from private sources. The financial targets of the 
UNHCR current programmes for 1969 and 1970 were of 
the order of $6 million. The target of the 1971 programme 
was approved by the Executive Committee of the High 
Commissioner’s Programme at its Twenty-First Session 
held in Geneva from September 28th to October 6th, 1970, 
for an amount of approximately $6.6 million. 

In addition there is a $500,000 Emergency Fund on which 
UNHCR can draw to meet emergency situations. Further- 
more, assistance measures outside the current programme 
are financed from Special Trust Funds donated to or 
channelled through UNHCR. 

DEVELOPMENTS, 1969-70 

As of October 31st, 1970, 60 States were parties to the 
1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 43 
States had acceded to the 1967 Protocol. A Convention 
Governing the Specific Aspects of the Problems of Refugees 
in Africa, which will serve as a valuable complement to the 
1951 Convention, was adopted in September 1969 by the 
Organization of African Unity. The Convention provides 
that the granting of asylum to refugees is a peaceful and 
humanitarian act and cannot be considered by any state as 
unfriendly. It further provides that no refugee can bo 
subjected by a member state of the OAU to treatment 
which would compel him to return to or to stay in a 
territory where he was in danger of persecution. 

In Europe a significant development took place in 
respect of the acquisition by refugees of the nationality of 
their country of residence, once repatriation appears not to 
be practical. The Consultative Assembly of the Council of 
Europe adopted a recommendation which was endorsed by 
the Council’s Committee of Ministers, as well as several 
resolutions, the purpose of which is to facilitate the 
acquisition by refugees in member States of the Council of 
Europe of the nationality of their country of residence 
tlirough naturalization and marriage, through the accession 
to and the liberal implementation of the United Nations 
Convention of 1961 on the Reduction of Statelessness and 
also through the dissemination of information concerning 
the relevant legislation among the refugees. The Executive 
Committee at its Twenty-First Session also endorsed the 
efforts made in this field. 

During 1969 some 275,000 refugees benefited {corn 
UNHCR material assistance programmes, the majority, 
some 250,000, in Africa. Progress continued to be achieved 
in the rural settlement of refugees and the phase of con- 
solidation has often boon reached thanks to the generous 
support of governments and the co-operation of other 
interested members of the United Nations system, m- 


74 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


eluding, in particular, WFP, FAO, ILO, UNESCO, 
UNICEF, WHO and UNDP. In two countries, Burundi 
and the Central African Republic, refugee settlements are 
included in integrated zonal development plans, imple- 
mented by the United Nations Development Programme, 
the executing agency being FAO. In 1969 major now rural 
settlement projects were launched in three countries, the 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and the 
Sudan. 

In the Congo plans which were still under way in 1968 
for the settlement of refugees from the Sudan in the 
Province Orientale finally reached fruition and the project 
launched towards the end of 1969 was gaining impetus at 
the beginning of 1970. In Ethiopia a programme was 
initiated and launched to assist a group of refugees Irom 
the Sudan, mainly in the fields of health and education. In 
the Sudan work started on the settlement of a sizeable 
group of refugees from Ethiopia. 

In spile of the attention which the OAU Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees is devoting to the 
needy indmdual refugees, their grorving number in African 
cities constitutes a major challenge for the immediate 
future. Thanks mainly to the generous support of Nordic 
governments, UNHCR hopes, through educational assist- 
ance and vocational training, to be able to provide some of 


the refugees concerned with the necessary skills they need 
to integrate themselves and become self-supporting. 

UNHCR and the United Nations Educational and 
Training Programme for Southern Africa concluded an 
agreement whereby UNHCR will provide assistance to 
refugees from Southern Africa up to the first level of 
secondary education, while the Programme will be respon- 
sible for education at the higher levels to those eligible 
refugees living in that region. 

In Europe the long-term major aid programmes to 
provide permanent solutions for the “old” European 
refugees, including in particiUar housing projects for 
refugees in Greece, are in their final phase. Any new 
need for assistance which might arise among these refugees 
is met through the current UNHCR programme when the 
country of residence is not in a position to pro-vide the 
assistance necessary'. 

Resettlement continues to play a major part in the 
solution of the problems of new European refugees of 
whom a larger number entered certain European countries 
in 1968 and 1969. The share taken by countries of asylum 
and of resettlement and the long established co-operation 
between UNHCR, ICEM and the United States Refugee 
Program contribute to prevent an accumulation of these 
refugees in reception centres. 


STATUTE 


Chapter I 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

1. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 
acting under the authority of the General Assembly, shall 
assume the function of providing international protection, 
under the auspices of the United Nations, to refugees who 
fall within the scope of the present Statute and of seeking 
permanent solutions for the problem of refugees by assist- 
ing governments and, subject to the approval of the govern- 
ments concerned, private organizations to facilitate the 
voluntary repatriation of such refugees, or their assimilation 
within new national communities. 

2. The work of the High Commissioner shall be of an 
entirely non-political character; it shall be humanitarian 
and social and shall relate, as a rule, to groups and 
categories of refugees. 

3- The High Commissioner shall follow policy directives 
fiiven him by the General Assembly or the Economic and 
Social Council. 

4- Provisions for the establishment of an Executive 

Committee. 

5- Provisions for the continuation of the Office. 

Chapter II 

functions of THE HIGH COMMISSIONER 

6. The competence of the High Commissioner shall 
^tend to any person who, owing to well-founded fear of 
-mg persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality 
opinion, is outside the country of his nationality 
and is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other 
an personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of 
c^ protection of that country; or w'ho, not having a 
nationality and being outside the country of his former 


habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear or for 
reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to 
return to it. 

Any other person who is outside the country of his 
nationality or, if he has no nationalitj', the couni^ of his 
former habitual residence, because he has had well- 
founded fear of persecution by reason of his race, religion, 
nationality or political opinion and is unable or, because of 
such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of 
the government of the country of his nationality, or, if he 
has no nationality, to return to the country of bis former 
habitual residence. 

7. Refugees to whom the High Commissioner’s compe- 
tence shall not extend. 

8. Means of providing protection for refugees. 

9. The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional 
activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the 
General Assembly may determine, within the limits of the 
resources placed at his disposal. 

10. The High Commissioner shall administer any funds, 
public or private, which he receives for assistance to 
refugees, and shall distribute them among the private and, 
as appropriate, public agencies wliich he deems best 
qualified to administer such assistance. 

11. Presentation of report to the Economic and Social 
Committee and to the General Assembly. 

12. Co-operation with the various specialized agencies. 

Chapter HI 

ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 

13. Election of the High Commissioner. 

14. Appointment of Deputy High Commissioner and 
other staff. 

15-22. Organization and Finance. 


75 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY— IAEA 

Kaerntnerring 11, 1010 Vienna 

Telephone: 52 45 ii. 

Founded in 1957, an autonomous intergovernmental organization related to the United Nations by the terms 
of an Agreement which recognizes it as "the agency under the aegis of the United Nations responsible for inter- 
national activities concerned with the peaceful uses of atomic energy”. Its objectives are "to seek to accelerate 
and enlarge the contributions of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world" and "to 
ensure that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a 

way as to further any military purpose.” Members: 103. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Consists of representatives of all member states. It 
convenes each year to participate in the general debate on 
the Agency's policy and programme, to approve the budget 
and the annual report, to approve applications for 
membership, to elect new members to the Board of 
Governors and to consider all matters referred to it by the 
Board of Governors; and, every four years, to approve the 
appointment of a Director-General. 

President (1970): Prof. Vikram A. Sarabhai (India). 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Consists of 25 member states, 13 designated by the Board 
of Governors and 12 elected by the General Conference. It 
has authority to carry out the functions of the Agency in 
accordance with the Statxxte and subject to its responsi- 
bilities to the General Conference. It meets four or five 
times a year to consider matters proposed to it by member 
states or the Director-General. It approves and submits the 
draft budget and the Agency’s programme to the General 
Conference. Every fourth year it appoints a Director- 
General subject to approval by the General Confer- 
ence. 

Board Members (1970-71): Argentina, Australia, Belgium, 
Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Hungary, 
India, Japan, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, 


Poland, South Africa, Spain, Syria, Thailand, U.S.S.R., 
U.K., U.S.A., Uruguay, Vietnam. 

Chairman (1970-71): Mr. Vishnu Trivedi (India). 

SECRETARIAT 

Consists of approximately 354 professional staff and 
about 700 general service staff. It is headed by the 
Director-General who is responsible for the administration 
and implementation of the Agency’s programme. Ho is 
assisted by four Deputy Directors-General and an 
Inspector-General. The Secretariat is divided into five 
departments: Technical Assistance and Publications; 
Technical Operations; Research and Isotopes; Safeguards 
and Inspection; Administration. 

Director-General (reappointed 1969 for a term of four 
years): Dr. Sigvard Ekeond (Sweden). 

SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

The Committee was set up in 1958 to advise the Board 
of Governors and the Director-General upon scientific and 
technical matters. In June 1969. the following distinguished 
scientists were appointed for terms of three years. 

Dr. M. A. El-Guebelly (U.A.R.), Dr. Bertrand Gold- 
schmidt (France), Dr. W. B. Lewis (Canada), Prof. I. 
Malek (Czechoslovakia), Prof. S. Mitsui (Japan), Prof. 
L. CiNTRA DO Prado (Brazil), Prof. Isidor I. Rabi (tl.S.A.), 
Dr. Homi N. Sethna ^India), Prof. V. I. SpitsV-n 
(U.S.S.R.). 


ACTIVITIES 


Technical Assistance and Training. Last year the IAEA 
provided 230 experts and visiting professors to developing 
countries, awarded 484 fellowships and arranged the loan 
of equipment valued at $883,000. Twelve regional training 
courses and tavo visiting seminars provided instruction on 
beneficial uses of nuclear energy to 692 participants in 
14 countries. 

Food and Agriculture, In co-operation with FAO, the 
Agency programme covers research on the use of radiation 
and radioisotopes in six fields: plant improvement by 
radiation mutation; eradication of destructive insects by 
the sterile-male technique; improvement of livestock and 
preparation of animal vaccines; study of effect of insecti- 
cide residues; preservation of food by irradiation; improve- 
ment of the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer. Over 


200 projects are carried out annually in co-ordination 
with member states. 

Life Sciences. The programme in life science includes 
nuclear medicine, radiation biology and dosimetry. Thirty- 
four countries have undertaken research in nuclear medi- 
cine with Agency support on such topics as the use of 
radioisotopes in diagnosis and treatment of anaemia, 
goitre and malnutrition. Research in radiation biology 
%vith Agency support is being conducted in 32 countries. 
In collaboration m'th WHO the Agency prepared a manual 
on radiation haematology and one on basic dosimetry — the 
science of measurement of radiation doses. 

Physical Sciences. The Agency’s programme in physical 
sciences is designed to develop or disseminate basic know- 
ledge that y-ill eventually be of practical use. Regular 


76 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


international conferences on fission physics, neutron 
inelastic scattering, and controlled nuclear fusion are the 
primary means of world-wide communication in these 
research areas. Agency experts, in co-operation with 
UNESCO and FAO, have made use of isotope techniques 
to investigate water sources. A sub-regional co-operation 
plan in the Far East will study the upgrading of bagasse 
and other fibre boards by radiation for low cost housing. 
In mining, radioisotope X-ray fluorescence makes possible 
on-the-spot analysis of the mineral content of ore samples. 
This technique is being tested in India, the Philippines and 
Yugoslavia. 

Nuclear Power and Reactors. To help developing coun- 
tries the IAEA is stimulating research toward improved 
economy of small and medium-sized reactors. It has also 
sent missions to advise many’ developing countries in 
planning nuclear power programmes and on the siting of 
proposed nuclear power facilities. The IAEA is partici- 
pating in a number of studies concerning dual-purpose 
reactors-to produce fresh water from the sea as well as to 
provide power and light. Developing countries have shorni 
interest in the engineering possibilities of nuclear explo- 
sives. It is expected that nuclear energy can perform civil 
engineering feats beyond the range of ordinary explosives. 
To this end, the IAEA has expanded its programme to 
promote the exchange of relevant information, and the 
first international technical meeting on nuclear explosions 
for peaceful purposes was held in March 1970. Three 
research reactor projects sponsored by the Agency arc; 
Nora, based in Nonvay, pioneered in new measurements 
for light and heavy water lattices. The IPA (India/ 
Philippines/Agency) project, completed in I9fi9. concen- 
trated on solid state physics, and the NPY (Norway/ 
Poland/Yugoslavia) has enabled the three countries con- 
cerned to solve a number of problems in nuclear power 
physics. 

Health Safety and Waste Management. In co-operation 
with other international organizations, the Agency has 
established basic standards and recommendations relating 
to all aspects of radiation safety under both normal and 
emergency conditions. Thirty publications concerning 
these standards and recommendations have been issued. 
IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive 
materials by rail, road, sea and air have been adopted as 
legal standards by many governments and have been 
included in the conventions and recommendations of 
nearly all international organizations concerned rvith 
transport. In 1969 the revised codes of practice for the safe 
operation of nuclear power plants and research reactors 
and a series of recommendations on the use of ports by 
nuclear merchant ships were published. In I 97 ° special 
attention was being given to the problem of radioactive 
environmental pollution. 

, Information and Technical Services. Ten to fifteen large 
mtemational conferences and symposia are organized each 
year and some 40 smaller panels and meetings. Papers 
presented at these meetings are published by the Agency 
and distributed for sale all over the world. The head- 
quarters library contains approximately 30,000 boolcs, 
100,000 reports and 1,000 films. The International Nuclear 
^uformation System (INIS), an information-handling 
Sc eme, began operations in 1970. Employing computer 
techniques for storage, correlation and retrieval, INIS will 


provide a world catalogue of technical information relating 
to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. When in full 
operation, it is estimated that approximately 85,000 pieces 
of new literature will be catalogued annually by INIS. The 
Nuclear Data Unit is an international centre for neutron 
data basic for reactors. In co-operation with three other 
principal centres at Brookhaven (U.S.A.), Obninsk 
(U.S.S.R.) and the European Nuclear Energy Agency 
(ENEA) centre at Saclay (France), the world's neutron 
data are collected, processed by means of computers and 
distributed, free of charge. 

Safeguards. At present, safeguards are applied by the 
Agency to 70 reactors and 37 other nuclear facilities. 
Mexico became the first country to request safeguards for 
all its nuclear activities under the terms of the Tlatclolco 
Treaty which creates a nuclear-free Latin America. At 
present a total of 44 agreements wth 32 countries are in 
effect. By the terms of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation 
of Nuclear Weapons, signatory countries which have no 
nuclear weapons agree to accept Agency safeguards. After 
the Treaty came into force in March 1970 a "Safeguards 
Committee” has been established to advise the Agency on 
the content of the agreements to be concluded between 
parties to NPT and the Agency. More attention is being 
given to safeguards research, including the use of instru- 
ments to simplify procedures and minimize manpower 
required. A list ol 39 staff members available to ser\’c as 
inspectors has been approved. 

Laboratories. The IAEA operates three laboratories, one 
in Seibersdorf, Austria, one at the Agency’s headquarters 
in Vienna and one in Monaco devoted to the study of 
marine radioactivity. The Seibersdorf and Headquarters 
Laboratories, working jointly, provide services for many 
of the Agency’s programmes in physics, chemistry, 
hydrology, nuclear medicine and agriculture. This work 
involves the analysis of hundreds of samples of plant 
material in fertilizer research, the preparation and inter- 
comparison of labelled compounds for use in nuclear 
medicine and the analysis of water samples for isotope 
content. An agreement between the Agency, the Govern- 
ment of the Principality of Monaco and the Oceanographic 
Institute at Monaco established the IAEA International 
Laboratory on the Mediterranean coast. This agreement 
has been e.xtended until the end of 1974. The laboratory 
will concentrate on the study of health and safety aspects 
concerning radioactive pollution of the sea. 

Centre for Theoretical Physics. One of IAEA's out- 
standing contributions in pure science has been the 
establishment, in 1964, of the International Centre for 
Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy. Generous support 
from the Italian Government and a number of other 
organizations has enabled the Centre to bring together in 
a working relationship scientists from both developed and 
developing countries. Eight Nobel laureates attended the 
four-week symposium held in June 1968 to review the 
entire field of contemporary physics. Recently, agreement 
was reached between the Agency and UNESCO to operate 
the Trieste Centre jointly. 

Supplying Fissionable Materials. The Agency is em- 
powered by its Statute to serve as an intermediary in 
arranging the delivery of special fissionable materials to 
member states. By June 1970, 98 transfers of such 


77 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


material, about half of them gifts, had been made to 22 
recipient countries. All material supplied was for research 
reactors or other research purposes. Supplier States have 
been Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Sweden, the U.S.S.R., U.K. and the U.S.A. The 
fund of special fissionable material still available to the 
Agency for supply to its members is almost 5,000 kilo- 
grammes of uranium-235 contained in enriched uranium. 

BUDGET 

The Regular Budget for 1971 amounts to $13,778,000. 
The new target for voluntary contributions to finance the 
IAEA programme of technical assistance is $2.5 million. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Proceedings of Conferences, Symposia and Seminars. 

IAEA Bulletin. 

Atomic Energy Review. 

Nuclear Eusion: fournal of Plasma Physics and Thermo- 
nuclear Fusion. 

Technical Directories. 

Panel Proceedings Series. 

Safety Series. 

Bibliographical Series. 

Technical Reports Series. 

Science Features. 


SUMMARY OF THE STATUTE 

(Adopted October 23rd, 1956) 


The Agency is authorized: 

1 . To encourage and assist research on, and development 
and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful 
uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to 
act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the 
performance of services or the supplying of materials, 
equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for 
another; and to perform any operation or service useful in 
research on, or development or practical application of, 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes. 

2. To make provision, in accordance with this Statute 
for materials services, equipment, and facilities to meet 
the needs of research on, and development and practical 
application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, in- 
cluding the production of electric power, with due con- 
sideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of 
the world. 

3. To foster the exchange of scientific and technical 
information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

4. To encourage the exchange and training of scientists 
and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

5. To establish and administer safeguards designed to 
ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or 
control are not used in such a way as to further any 
military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request 
of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement 
or, at the request of a State, to any of that State’s activ- 
ities in the field of atomic energj'. 

6. To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where 
appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs 
of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies 
concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and 
minimization of danger to life and property (including such 
standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the 
application of these standards to its own operations as 
well as to the operations making use of materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its control or super- 
vision; and to provide for the application of these stan- 
dards, at the request of the parties; to operations under 
any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the 
request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the 
field of atomic energy. 


7. To acquire or establish any facilities, plant and equip- 
ment useful in carrying out its authorised functions, when- 
ever the facilities, plant, and equipment otherwise available 
to it in the area concerned are inadequate or available 
only on terms it deems unsatisfactory. 

ORGANIZATION 

General Conference. A General Conference consisting of 
representatives of all members shall meet in regular annual 
session and in such special sessions as shall be convened. 
The Conference may discuss any matters within the scope 
of this statute or relating to the powers and functions of 
any organs provided for in this Statute, and may make 
recommendati ons . 

The General Conference shall; 

1. Elect members of the Board of Governors. 

2. Approve states for membership. 

3. Consider the annual report of the Board. 

4. Approve reports to be submitted to the United 
Nations. 

5. Approve any agreement or agreements between the 
Agency and the United Nations and other organizations. 

6. Approve rules and limitations regarding the exercise 
of borrow'ing powers. 

7. Approve amendments to the Statute. 

8 . Approve the appointment of the Director-General. 

Board of Governors. The Board of Governors is chosen 
by rules laid do%vn in Article VI of the Statute. 

The Board shall have authority to carry out the func- 
tions of the Agency in accordance with the Statute, subject 
to its responsibilities to the General Conference. It shall 
meet at such times as it may determine and may establish 
such committees as it deems advisable. 

The Board shall prepare an annual report and any other 
reports the Agency is required to make. These shall be 
submitted to the General Conference. 

Staff. The staff of the Agency shall be headed by a 
Director-General. The Director-General shall be appointed 
by the Board of Governors with the aproval of the General 
Conference for a term of four years. The Director-General 
shall be responsible for the appointment, organization, and 
functioning of the staff. The staff shall include such 
qualified scientific and technical and other personnel ns 


78 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


may be required to fulfil the objectives and functions of 
the Agency. The Agency shall be guided by the principle 
that its permanent staff shall be kept to a minimum. 

Intormaiion and Materials. Each member should make 
available such information as would, in the judgment of the 
member, be helpful to the Agency. 

Members may make available to the Agency such quan- 
tities of special fissionable materials as they deem advisable 
and on such terms as shall be agreed with the Agency. On 
request of the Agency a member shall deliver to another 
member or group of members such quantities of such 
materials as the Agency may specify. The Agency shall be 
responsible for storing and protecting materials in its 
possession. It shall ensure that these materials shall be 
safeguarded against hazards of the weather, unauthorised 
removal or diversion, damage or destruction, including 
sabotage, and forcible seizure. In storing special fissionable 
materials in its possession, the Agency shall ensure the 
geographical distribution of these materials in such a way 
as not to allow concentration of large amounts of such 
materials in any one country or region of the world. 

Projects and Safeguards. Any member or group of 
members of the Agency desiring to set up any research 
project for peaceful purposes may request the assistance 
of the Agency in securing special fissionable and other 
materials. For the purpose of considering the request, the 
Agency may send into the territory of the member or 
group persons qualified to examine the project. 

With respect to any Agency project the Agency shall 
have the following rights and responsibilities: 

I. To examine the design of specialised equipment and 
facilities, including nuclear reactors, and to approve it 
only from the viewpoint of assuring that it will not further 


any military purpose, that it complies with applicable 
health and safety standards. 

2. To require the maintenance and production of 
operating records and progress reports. 

3. To approve the means to be used for the chemical 
processing of irradiated materials solely to ensure that this 
chemical processing will not lend itself to diversion of 
materials for military purposes and will comply with 
applicable health and safety standards. 

4. To send into the territory inspectors who shall have 
access at all times to all places and data and relevant 
persons. 

Finance. The Board of Governors shall submit to the 
General Conference the annual budget estimates for the 
expenses of the Agency. 

Expenditure shall be classified as: 

1. Administrative expenses (including costs of staff and 
meetings and costs of implementing safeguards). 

2. Expenses in connection with any materials, facilities, 
plant, and equipment acquired or established by the 
Agency. 

The Board shall have the authority to exercise borrowing 
powers on behalf of the Agency. 

Privileges and Immunities. The Agency shall enjoy in the 
territory of each member such legal capacity and such 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise 
of its functions. 

Disputes. Any question or dispute concerning the inter- 
pretation or application of this Statute which is not settled 
by negotiation shall be referred to the International Court 
of Justice unless the parties concerned agree on another 
mode of settlement. 


WORLD FOOD PROGRAM— WFP 

Via delle Terme dl Caracalla, Rome, Italy 


Established 1963 for a three-year experimental period, and extended 1965. the WFP is effort 

to provide emergency reUef and to stimulate economic and social development through aid in the form of food. 


ORGANIZATION 

Intergovernmental Committee: 24 members, iz elected 
by ECOSOC and 12 by FAO. 

'Joint UN-FAO Administrative Unit: carries out the day- 
to-day activities of the WFP. 

Executive Director: Francisco Aquino. 


ACTIVITIES 

Member governments of the United Nations and FAO 
make voluntary contributions of commodities, cash, and 
services (particularly shipping) to WFP, which uses the 
wod for emergency relief for victims of natural and man- 
wade disasters and for support for economic and social 
ovelopment projects in the developing countries. The food 


is supplied, for example, as an incentive in development 
self-help schemes, as part wages in labour-intensive pro- 
jects of many kinds, particularly in the rural economy, but 
also in the industrial field, and in support of institutional 
feeding schemes where the emphasis is mainly on enabling 
the beneficiaries to have an adequate and balanced diet. In 
some cases it is feed for livestock that is supplied, the 
introduction of modem feeding practices leading to in- 
creased production and thus to an improvement of the 
people’s nutrition. Recipient governments are encouraged 
to take steps to replace the WFP aid as soon as each 
project, which maj' be for anything up to five years, comes 
to an end. 

As at October ist, 1970, 459 development projects had 
been approved since the beginning of the Programme’s 

'9 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Page 

The United Nations — continued 

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan — 

UNMOGIP 72 

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization — UNTSO 72 

United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of 

Korea— UNCURK 72 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees — UNHCR 73 

International Atomic Energy Agency — IAEA 76 

World Food Program — WFP 79 

United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus — UNFICYP 80 

United Nations Conference on Trade arid Development — UNCTAD 80 

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 82 

United Nations Institute for Training and Research — UNITAR 84 

United Nations Development Programme — UNDP 85 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization — UNIDO 87 

United Nations Capital Development Fund 89 

United Nations Middle East Mission — UNMEM 89 

Charter of the United Nations 90 

Charter Amendments 99 

African Development Bank — ^AfDB 100 

ANZUS Treaty 102 

Arab League 104 

Arab Economic Unity Agreement 112 

Asian and Pacific Council — ASPAC 115 

Asian Development Bank — ^AsDB 117 

Association of South East Asian Nations — ^ASEAN 121 

Bank for International Settlements — BIS 123 

Benelux 125 

Caribbean Free Trade Association — CARIFTA 133 

Central American Common Market — CACM- 134 

Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine 138 

Central Treaty Organization — CENTO 141 

Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic Development in South and 

South-East Asia 145 

Columbia River Treaty 148 

The Commonwealth 150 

Conseil de I’Entente 162 

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences — CIOMS 164 

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance — CMEA (COMECON) 165 

Council of Europe 173 

Danube Commission 181 

East African Community 183 

East African Development Bank 185 

European Association of Music Festivals 192 

European Broadcasting Union — ^EBU 194 

vixi 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

The European Communities 

European Economic Community — EEC (Common Market) 
European Coal and Steel Community — ^ECSC 
European Atomic Energy Community — EUR ATOM 
Private Organizations within the Community 
European Conference of Ministers of Transport — ECMT 
European Free Trade Association — EFTA 
European Organization for Nuclear Research — CERN 
European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation — 
EUROCONTROL 

European Space Research Organisation — ESRO 

Emopean Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organisation — ELDO 

The Franc Zone 

African Financial Community 
French Community 
Indus Waters Treaty 
Inter-American Development Bank — IDB 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration — ICEM 
International Air Transport Association — lATA 
International Association of Universities — lAU 
International Bank for Economic Co-operation — IBEC 
International Chamber of Commerce — ICC 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions — ICFTU 
Associated International Trade Secretariats 
International Co-operative Alliance — ICA 
International Council of Scientific Unions — ICSU 
The International Lenin Peace Prize Committee 
International Organisation of Employers — lOE 
International Press Institute — IPI 

International Radio and Television Organization — OIRT 
International Red Cross 

International Committee of the Red Cross 
League of Red Cross Societies 
International Secretariat for Volunteer Service — ISVS 
International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium — INTELSAT 
Inter-Parliamentary Union 
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 

Latin American Free Trade Association — LAFTA (ALALC) 

Andean Development Corporation 
Maghreb Permanent Consultative Committee 
Mekong River Development Project 
Nobel Foundation 
Nordic Council 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization— NATO 

ix 


Page 

19S 

203 

207 

207 

224 

232 

234 

240 

243 

245 

248 

250 

251 

252 

253 

256 

259 

261 

263 

264 

265 

267 

268 
271 
273 

276 

277 

278 
281 
283 

283 

284 

288 

289 

291 

292 
294 
296 
299 
302 

304 

305 
311 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


Program has provided considerable food supplies for the 
refugees’ subsistence pending their first harvest. 

Supplementary aid is provided for the neediest refugees 
and may take the form of supplementary feeding, medical 
aid, or clothing. 

Voluntary Repatriation 

The Office assists refugees wherever possible to overcome 
difficulties in the way of their repatriation. In cases where 
no funds are available for their transportation to their 
homeland, arrangements for payment of the cost involved 
may be made by UNHCR under its material assistance 
programmes. 

Resettlement 

From its inception UNHCR has been actively engaged 
in the promotion of resettlement through emigration, in 
close co-operation with interested governments, the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), 
the United States Refugee Program and voluntary agencies 
concerned with the resettlement of refugees. The task of 
UNHCR in this field is to negotiate with governments in an 
endeavour to obtain suitable resettlement opportunities 
for those refugees both able-bodied and handicapped who 
opt lor this solution, to encourage governments to liberalize 
their criteria for the admission of refugees and to draw 
up special immigration schemes for them wherever 
possible. 

Integration of Refugees in their 
Country of Residence 

The object of local integration is to assist refugees to 
become self-supporting in their country of residence. In 
Europe, this is done either by granting refugees loans for 
establishment in agriculture, or by assisting them through 
vocational training or in other ways to leam a skill, or to 
establish themselves in gainful occupations. One major 
form of assistance to help refugees leave camps is to 
provide them with housing. 

In addition there are projects for the settlement in 
institutions of the aged and the sick, rehabilitation projects 
for handicapped refugees, and counselling projects which 
are essential for the guidance of refugees in the choice of a 
solution to their problems. 

In accordance with the policy, whereby primary respon- 
sibility for aid to refugees falls upon their country of 
residence, arrangements for the provision of material 
assistance to refugees in various European countries are 
being increasingly taken over by governments, local 
authorities and social welfare agencies. UNHCR intervenes 
where it is necessary for the international community to 
provide additional aid. 

The new groups of refugees in Africa and some of the 
refugees in Asia are mainly assisted through local settle- 
ment in agriculture. In Africa consolidation of the settle- 
ment of refugees is effected through close co-operation 
between UNHCR and other members of the UN system 
which provide development assistance to the areas con- 
cerned. 

Educational assistance continues to be provided from 
UNHCR programmes as far as primary education is con- 
cerned and from the UNHCR Education Account as far as 
post-primary education is concerned. UNHCR continues 
to co-operate closely with UNESCO in this field. 


The increasing problem of needy individual refugees in 
urban areas of Africa, mainly without agricultural back- 
ground, is requiring increasing attention. A Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees established within 
the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa, wth 
the support of UNHCR and other members of the UN 
system is seeking solutions to the problems of these refugees 
through their resettlement in various countries in Africa. 

FINANCE 

The UNHCR material assistance programmes are financed 
from voluntary contributions made by governments and 
also from private sources. The financial targets of the 
UNHCR current programmes for 1969 and 1970 were of 
the order of 56 million. The target of the 1971 programme 
was approved by the Executive Committee of the High 
Commissioner’s Programme at its Twenty-First Session 
held in Geneva from September zSth to October 6th, 1970, 
lor an amount of approximately $6.6 million. 

In addition there is a $500,000 Emergency Fund on which 
UNHCR can draw to meet emergency situations. Further- 
more, assistance measures outside the current programme 
are financed from Special Trust Funds donated to or 
channelled through UNHCR. 

DEVELOPMENTS, 1969-70 

As of October 31st, 1970. 60 States were parties to the 
1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 43 
States had acceded to the 1967 Protocol. A Convention 
Governing the Specific Aspects of the Problems of Refugees 
in Africa, which will serve as a valuable complement to the 
1951 Convention, was adopted in September 1969 by tlie 
Organization of African Unity. The Convention provides 
that the granting of asylum to refugees is a peaceful and 
humanitarian act and cannot be considered by any state as 
unfriendly. It further provides that no refugee can bo 
subjected by a member state of the OAU to treatment 
rvhich w'ould compel him to return to or to stay in a 
territory where he was in danger of persecution. 

In Europe a significant development took place in 
respect of the acquisition by refugees of the nationality of 
their country of residence, once repatriation appears not to 
be practical. The Consultative Assembly of the Council of 
Europe adopted a recommendation which was endorsed by 
the Council’s Committee of Ministers, as well as several 
resolutions, the purpose of which is to facilitate the 
acquisition by refugees in member States of the Council of 
Europe of the nationality of their country of residence 
through naturalization and marriage, through the accession 
to and the liberal implementation of the United Nations 
Convention of 1961 on the Reduction of Statelessness and 
also through the dissemination of information concerning 
the relevant legislation among the refugees. The Executive 
Committee at its Twenty-First Session also endorsed the 
efforts made in this field. 

During 19G9 some 275,000 refugees benefited from 
UNHCR material assistance programmes, the majority, 
some 250,000, in Africa. Progress continued to be achieved 
in the rural settlement of refugees and the phase of con- 
solidation has often been reached tlianks to the generous 
support of governments and the co-operation of other 
interested members of the United Nations S3'stcm, in- 


7-1 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


eluding, in particular, WFP, FAO, ILO, UNESCO, 
UNICEF, WHO and UNDP. In two countries, Burundi 
and the Central African Republic, refugee settlements are 
included in integrated zonal development plans, imple- 
mented by the United Nations Development Programme, 
the e.xecuting agency being FAO. In 1969 major new rural 
settlement projects were launched in three countries, the 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and the 
Sudan. 

In the Congo plans which were still under way in 1968 
for the settlement of refugees from the Sudan in the 
Province Orientale finally reached fruition and the project 
launched towards the end of 1969 was gaining impetus at 
the beginning of 1970. In Ethiopia a programme was 
initiated and launched to assist a group of refugees from 
the Sudan, mainly in the fields of health and education. In 
the Sudan work started on the settlement of a sizeable 
group of refugees from Ethiopia. 

In spile of the attention which the OAU Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees is devoting to the 
needy individual refugees, their growing number in African 
cities constitutes a major challenge for the immediate 
future. Thanks mainly to the generous support of Nordic 
governments, UNHCR hopes, through educational assist- 
ance and vocational training, to be able to provide some of 


the refugees concerned with the necessary skills they need 
to integrate themselves and become self-supporting. 

UNHCR and the United Nations Educational and 
Training Programme for Southern Africa concluded an 
agreement whereby UNHCR will provide assistance to 
refugees from Southern Africa up to tlie first level of 
secondary education, while the Programme will be respon- 
sible for education at the higher levels to those eligible 
refugees living in that region. 

In Europe the long-term major aid programmes to 
provide permanent solutions for the "old” European 
refugees, including in particular housing projects for 
refugees in Greece, are in their final phase. Any new 
need for assistance which might arise among these refugees 
is met through the current UNHCR programme when the 
country of residence is not in a position to pro\'ide the 
assistance necessary'. 

Resettlement continues to play a major part in the 
solution of the problems of new European refugees of 
whom a larger number entered certain European countries 
in 196S and 1969. The share taken by countries of asylum 
and of resettlement and the long established co-operation 
between UNHCR, ICEM and the United States Refugee 
Program contribute to prevent an accumulation of these 
refugees in reception centres. 


STATUTE 


Chapter I 

general PROVISIONS 

1. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 
acting under the authority of the General Assembly, shall 
assume the function of providing international protection, 
under the auspices of the United Nations, to refugees who 
fall within the scope of the present Statute and of seeking 
permanent solutions for the problem of refugees by assist- 
ing governments and, subject to the approval of the govern- 
ments concerned, private organizations to facilitate the 
voluntary repatriation of such refugees, or their assimilation 
within new national communities. 

2. The work of the High Commissioner shall be of an 
entirely non-political character; it shall be humanitarian 
and social and shall relate, as a rule, to groups and 
categories of refugees. 

3- The High Commissioner shall follow policy directives 
given him by the General Assembly or the Economic and 
Social Council. 

4- Provisions for the establishment of an Executive 

Committee. 

5- Provisions for the continuation of the Office. 

Chapter II 

functions of THE HIGH COMMISSIONER 
The competence of the High Commissioner shall 
wtend to any person who, owing to well-founded fear of 
^.ing ^persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality 
or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality 
^d is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other 
, Personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of 
e protection of that country; or who, not having a 
oa lonality and being outside the country of his former 


habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear or for 
reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to 
return to it. 

Any other person who is outside the country of his 
nationality or. if he has no nationality, the coun^ of his 
former habitual residence, because he has had well- 
founded fear of persecution by reason of his race, religion, 
nationality or political opinion and is unable or, because of 
such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of 
the government of the country of his nationality, or, if he 
has no nationality, to return to the country of his former 
habitual residence. 

7. Refugees to whom the High Commissioner's compe- 
tence shall not extend. 

8. Means of providing protection for refugees. 

9. The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional 
activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the 
General Assembly may determine, within the limits of the 
resources placed at his disposal. 

10. The High Commissioner shall administer any funds, 
public or private, which he receives for assistance to 
refugees, and shall distribute them among the private and, 
as appropriate, public agencies which he deems best 
qualified to administer such assistance. 

11. Presentation of report to the Economic and Social 
Committee and to the General Assembly. 

12. Co-operation with the various specialized agencies. 

Chatter III 

ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 

13. Election of the High Commissioner. 

14. Appointment of Deputy High Commissioner and 
other staff. 

15-22. Organization and Finance. 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY— IAEA 

Kaerntnerring 11, 1010 Vienna 

Telephone: 52 45 ii. 

Founded in 1957. autonomous intergovernmental organization related to the United Nations by the terms 
of an Agreement which recognizes it as "the agency under the aegis of the United Nations responsible for inter- 
national activities concerned with the peaceful uses of atomic energy”. Its objectives are "to seek to accelerate 
and enlarge the contributions of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world” and "to 
ensure that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a 

way as to further any military purpose.” Members: 103. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONEERENCE 

Consists of representatives of all member states. It 
convenes each year to participate in the general debate on 
the Agency’s policy and programme, to approve the budget 
and the annual report, to approve applications for 
membership, to elect new members to the Board of 
Governors and to consider all matters referred to it by the 
Board of Governors; and, every four years, to approve the 
appointment of a Director-General. 

President {1970): Prof. Vikram A. Sarabhai (India). 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Consists of 25 member states, 13 designated by the Board 
of Governors and 12 elected by the General Conference. It 
has authority to carry out the functions of the Agency in 
accordance with the Statute and subject to its responsi- 
bilities to the General Conference. It meets four or five 
times a year to consider matters proposed to it by member 
states or the Director-General. It approves and submits the 
draft budget and the Agency’s programme to the General 
Conference. Every fourth year it appoints a Director- 
General subject to approval by the General Confer- 
ence. 

Board Members (1970-71): Argentina, Australia, Belgium, 
BrazU, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Hungary, 
India, Japan, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, 


Poland, South Africa, Spain, Syria, Thailand, U.S.S.R., 
U.K., U.S.A., Uruguay, Vietnam. 

Chairman (1970-71); Mr. Vishnu Trivedi (India). 

SECRETARIAT 

Consists of approximately 354 professional staff and 
about 700 general service staff. It is headed by the 
Director-General who is responsible for the administration 
and implementation of the Agency’s programme. He is 
assisted by four Deputy Directors-General and an 
Inspector-General. The Secretariat is divided into five 
departments: Technical Assistance and Publications; 
Technical Operations; Research and Isotopes; Safeguards 
and Inspection; Administration. 

Director-General (reappointed 1969 for a term of four 
years): Dr. Sigvard Eklund (Sweden). 

SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

The Committee was set up in 1958 to advise the Board 
of Governors and the Director-General upon scientific and 
technical matters. In June 1969, the following distinguished 
scientists were appointed for terms of three years. 

Dr. M. A. El-Guebellv (U.A.R.), Dr. Bertrand Gold- 
schmidt (France), Dr. W. B. Lewis (Canada), Prof. I. 
Malek (Czechoslovakia), Prof. S. Mitsui (Japan), Prof. 
L. CiNTRA DO Prado (Brazil), Prof. Isidor I. Rabi (U.S.A.), 
Dr, Homi N. Sethna ^India), Prof. V. I. Spitsyn 
(U.S.S.R.). 


ACTIVITIES 


Technical Assislanco and Training. Last year the IAEA 
provided 230 experts and visiting professors to developing 
countries, awarded 484 fellowships and arranged the loan 
of equipment valued at $883,000. Twelve regional training 
courses and two visiting seminars provided instruction on 
beneficial uses of nuclear energy to 692 participants in 
14 countries. 

Food and Agriculture. In co-operation with FAO, the 
-Agency programme covers research on the use of radiation 
and radioisotopes in six fields: plant improvement by 
radiation mutation: eradication of destructive insects by 
the sterile-male technique; improvement of livestock and 
preparation of animal vaccines; study of effect of insecti- 
cide residues; preservation of food by irradiation; improve- 
ment of the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer. Over 


200 projects are carried out annually in co-ordination 
with member states. 

Life Sciences. The programme in life science includes 
nuclear medicine, radiation biology and dosimetry. Thirty- 
four countries have undertaken research in nuclear medi- 
cine with Agency support on such topics as the use of 
radioisotopes in diagnosis and treatment of anaemia, 
goitre and malnutrition. Research in radiation biology 
with Agency support is being conducted in 32 countries. 
In collaboration witli AVHO the Agency prepared a manual 
on radiation haematology and one on basic dosimetry — the 
science of measurement of radiation doses. 

Physical Sciences. The Agency’s programme in physical 
sciences is designed to develop or dis.scminate basic know- 
ledge that yill eventually be of practical use. Regular 


76 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


international conferences on fission phj'sics, neutron 
inelastic scattering, and controlled nuclear fusion are the 
primary means of world-wdo communication in these 
research areas. Agency experts, in co-operation with 
UNESCO and FAO, have made use of isotope techniques 
to investigate water sources. A sub-regional co-operation 
plan in the Far East wll study the upgrading of bagasse 
and other fibre boards by radiation for low cost housing. 
In mining, radioisotope X-ray fluorescence makes possible 
on-the-spot analjrsis of the mineral content of ore samples. 
This technique is being tested in India, tlie Philippines and 
Yugoslavia. 

Nuclear Power and Reactors. To help developing coun- 
tries the IAEA is stimulating research toward improved 
economy of small and medium-sized reactors. It has also 
sent missions to advise many developing countries in 
planning nuclear power programmes and on the siting of 
proposed nuclear power facilities. The IAEA is partici- 
pating in a number of studies concerning dual-purpose 
rcactors-to produce fresh water from the sea as well as to 
provide power and light. Developing countries have shown 
interest in the engineering possibilities of nuclear explo- 
sives. It is expected that nuclear energy can perform civil 
engineering feats beyond the range of ordinary explosives. 
To this end, the IAEA has expanded its programme to 
promote the exchange of relevant information, and the 
first international technical meeting on nuclear explosions 
for peaceful purposes was held in March 1970. Three 
research reactor projects sponsored by the Agency arc; 
NORA, based in Norway, pioneered in new measurements 
for light and heavy water lattices. The IPA (India/ 
Philippines/Agency) project, completed in 1969, concen- 
trated on solid state physics, and the NPY (Nonvay/ 
Poland/Yugoslavia) has enabled tho three countries con- 
cerned to solve a number of problems in nuclear power 
physics. 

Health Safety and Waste Management. In co-operation 
'vith other international organizations, the Agency has 
established basic standards and recommendations relating 
to all aspects of radiation safety under both normal and 
emergency conditions. Thirty publications concermng 
these standards and recommendations have been issued. 
IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive 
materials by rail, road, sea and air have been adopted as 
legal standards by many governments and have been 
included in the conventions and recommendations of 
nearly all international organizations concerned vrith 
transport. In 1969 the revised codes of practice for the safe 
operation of nuclear power plants and research reactors 
■ind a series of recommendations on the use of ports by 
nuclear merchant ships were published. In 197 ° special 
attention was being given to the problem of radioactive 

environmental pollution. 

. Information and Technical Services, Ten to fifteen large 
international conferences and symposia are organized each 
year and some 40 smaller panels and meetings. Papers 
presented at these meetings are published by the Agency 
mid distributed for sale all over the world. The head- 
quarters library contains approximately 30,000 boolcs, 
100,000 reports and 1,000 films. The International Nuclear 
Mormalion System (INIS), an information-handling 
Sc eme, began operations in 1970. Employing computer 

ec mques for storage, correlation and retrieval, INIS ivil 


provide a world catalogue of technical information relating 
to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. When in full 
operation, it is estimated that approximately 85,000 pieces 
of new literature will be catalogued annually by INIS. The 
Nuclear Data Unit is an international centre for neutron 
data basic for reactors. In co-operation with three other 
principal centres at Brookhaven (U.S.A.), Obninsk 
(U.S.S.R.) and the European Nuclear Energy Agency 
(ENEA) centre at Saclay (France), the world’s neutron 
data are collected, processed by means of computers and 
distributed, free of charge. 

Safeguards. At present, safeguards are applied by the 
Agency to 70 reactors and 37 other nuclear facilities. 
Mexico became the first country to request safeguards for 
all its nuclear activities under the terms of the Tlatelolco 
Treaty which creates a nuclear-free Latin America. At 
present a total of 44 agreements with 3Z countries are in 
effect. By the terms of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation 
of Nuclear Weapons, signatory countries which have no 
nuclear weapons agree to accept Agency safeguards. After 
the Treaty came into force in March 1970 a "Safeguards 
Committee" has been established to advise the Agency on 
the content of the agreements to be concluded between 
parties to NPT and the Agency. More attention is being 
given to safeguards research, including the use of instru- 
ments to simplify procedures and minimize manpower 
required. A list ot 39 staff members available to serve as 
inspectors has been approved. 

Laboratories. The IAEA operates three laboratories, one 
in Seibersdorf, Austria, one at the Agency’s headquarters 
in Vienna and one in Monaco devoted to the study of 
marine radioactivity. The Seibersdorf and Headquarters 
Laboratories, working jointly, provide services for many 
of the Agency’s programmes in physics, chemistry, 
hydrology, nuclear medicine and agriculture. This work 
involves the analysis of hundreds of samples of plant 
material in fertilizer research, the preparation and inter- 
comparison of labelled compounds for use in nuclear 
medicine and the analysis of water samples for isotope 
content. An agreement between the Agency, the Govern- 
ment of the Principality of Monaco and the Oceanographic 
Institute at Monaco established the IAEA International 
Laboratory on the Mediterranean coast. This agreement 
has been extended until the end of 1974. The laboratory 
vrill concentrate on the study of health and safety aspects 
concerning radioactive pollution of the sea. 

Centre for Theoretical Physics. One of IAEA’s out- 
standing contributions in pure science has been the 
establishment, in 1964, of the International Centre for 
Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy. Generous support 
from the Italian Government and a number of other 
organizations has enabled the Centre to bring together in 
a working relationship scientists from both developed and 
developing countries. Eight Nobel laureates attended the 
four-week symposium held in June 1968 to review the 
entire field of contemporarj’- physics. Recently, agreement 
was reached between the Agency and UNESCO to operate 
the Trieste Centre jointly. 

Supplying Fissionable Materials, The Agency is em- 
powered by its Statute to serve as an intermediary in 
arranging the delivery of special fissionable materials to 
member states. By June 1970, 98 transfers of such 


77 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


material, about half of them gifts, had been made to 22 
recipient countries. All material supplied was for research 
reactors or other research purposes. Supplier States have 
been Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Sweden, the U.S.S.R., U.K. and the U.S.A, The 
fund of special fissionable material still available to the 
Agency for supply to its members is almost 5,000 kilo- 
grammes of uranium-235 contained in enriched uranium. 

BUDGET 

The Regular Budget for 1971 amounts to $13,778,000. 
The new target for voluntary contributions to finance the 
IAEA programme of technical assistance is §2.5 million. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Proceedings of Conferences, Symposia and Seminars. 

IAEA Bulletin. 

Atomic Energy Review. 

Nuclear Fusion: Jourtial of Plasma Physics and Thermo- 
nuclear Fusion. 

Technical Directories. 

Panel Proceedings Series. 

Safety Series. 

Bibliographical Series. 

Technical Reports Series. 

Science Features. 


SUMMARY OF THE STATUTE 

(Adopted October 23rd, 1956) 


The Agency is authorized: 

1. To encourage and assist research on, and development 
and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful 
uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so. to 
act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the 
performance of services or the supplying of materials, 
equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for 
another; and to perform any operation or service useful in 
research on, or development or practical application of, 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes. 

2. To make provision, in accordance with this Statute 
for materials services, equipment, and facilities to meet 
the needs of research on, and development and practical 
application of. atomic energy for peaceful purposes, in- 
cluding the production of electric power, with due con- 
sideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of 
the world. 

3. To foster the exchange of scientific and technical 
information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

4. To encourage the exchange and training of scientists 
and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

5. To establish and administer safeguards designed to 
ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or 
control are not used in such a way as to further any 
military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request 
of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement 
or, at the request of a State, to any of that State’s activ- 
ities in the field of atomic energy. 

6. To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where 
appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs 
of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies 
concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and 
minimization of danger to life and property (including such 
standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the 
application of these standards to its own operations as 
well as to the operations making use of materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its control or super- 
vision: and to provide for the application of these stan- 
dards, at the request of the parties: to operations under 
any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or. at the 
request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the 
field of atomic energy. 


7. To acquire or establish any facilities, plant and equip- 
ment useful in carrying out its authorised functions, when- 
ever the facilities, plant, and equipment otherwise available 
to it in the area concerned are inadequate or available 
only on terms it deems unsatisfactory. 

ORGANIZATION 

General Conference. A General Conference consisting of 
representatives of all members shall meet in regular annual 
session and in such special sessions as shall be convened. 
The Conference may discuss any matters within the scope 
of this statute or relating to the powers and functions of 
any organs provided for in this Statute, and may make 
recommendati ons . 

The General Conference shall: 

1. Elect members of the Board of Governors. 

2. Approve states for membership. 

3. Consider the annual report of the Board. 

4. Approve reports to be submitted to the United 
Nations. 

5. Approve any agreement or agreements between the 
Agency and the United Nations and other organizations. 

6. Approve rules and limitations regarding tlie exercise 
of borrowing powers. 

7. Approve amendments to the Statute. 

8. Approve the appointment of the Director-General. 

Board of Governors. The Board of Governors is chosen 
by rules laid do^vn in Article VT of the Statute. 

The Board shall have authority to carry out the func- 
tions of the Agency in accordance with the Statute, subject 
to its responsibilities to the General Conference. It shall 
meet at such times as it may determine and may establish 
such committees as it deems advisable. 

The Board shall prepare an annual report and any other 
reports the Agency is required to make. These shall be 
submitted to the General Conference. 

Staff. The staff of the Agency shall be headed by a 
Director-General. The Director-General shall be appointed 
by the Board of Governors with the aproval of the General 
Conference for a term of four years. The Director-General 
shall be responsible for the appointment, organization, and 
functioning of the staff. The staff shall include such 
qualified scientific and technical and other personnel as 


78 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


may be required to fulfil the objectives and functions of 
the Agency. The Agency shall be guided by the principle 
that its permanent staff shall be kept to a minimum. 

Information and Materials. Each member should make 
available such information as would, in the judgment of the 
member, be helpful to the Agency. 

Members may make available to the Agency such quan- 
tities of special fissionable materials as they deem advisable 
and on such terms as shall be agreed with the Agency. On 
request of the Agency a member shall deliver to another 
member or group of members such quantities of such 
materials as the Agency may specify. The Agency shall be 
responsible for storing and protecting materials in its 
possession. It shall ensure that these materials shall be 
safeguarded against hazards of the weather, unauthorised 
removal or diversion, damage or destruction, including 
sabotage, and forcible seizure. In storing special fissionable 
materials in its possession, the Agency shall ensure the 
geographical distribution of these materials in such a way 
as not to allow concentration of large amounts of such 
materials in any one country or region of the world. 

Projects and Safeguards. Any member or group of 
members of the Agency desiring to set up any research 
project for peaceful purposes may request the assistance 
of the Agency in securing special fissionable and other 
materials. For the purpose of considering the request, the 
Agency may send into the territory of the member or 
group persons qualified to examine the project. 

With respect to any Agency project the Agency shall 
have the following rights and responsibilities: 

I. To examine the design of specialised equipment and 
facilities, including nuclear reactors, and to approve it 
only from the vie^vpoint of assuring that it will not further 


any military purpose, that it complies with applicable 
health and safety standards. 

2. To require the maintenance and production of 
operating records and progress reports. 

3. To approve the means to be used for the chemical 
processing of irradiated materials solely to ensure that this 
chemical processing will not lend itself to diversion of 
materials for military purposes and will comply with 
applicable health and safety standards. 

4. To send into the territory inspectors who shall have 
access at all times to all places and data and relevant 
persons. 

Finance. The Board of Governors shall submit to the 
General Conference the annual budget estimates for the 
expenses of the Agency. 

Expenditure shall be classified as: 

1. Administrative expenses (including costs of staff and 
meetings and costs of implementing safeguards). 

2. Expenses in connection with any materials, facilities, 
plant, and equipment acquired or established by the 
Agency. 

The Board shall have the authority to exercise borrowing 
powers on behalf of the Agency. 

Privileges and Immunities. The Agency shall enjoy in the 
territory of each member such legal capacity and such 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise 
of its functions. 

Disputes. Any question or dispute concerning the inter- 
pretation or application of this Statute which is not settled 
by negotiation shall be referred to the International Court 
of Justice unless the parties concerned agree on another 
mode of settlement. 


WORLD FOOD PROGRAM — ^WFP 

Via delle Terms di Caracalia, Rome, Italy 


Established 1963 for a three-year experimental period, 
to provide emergency relief and to stimulate economic 

ORGAMIZATION 

Intergovernmental Committee: 24 members, iz elected 
fiy ECOSOC and iz by FAO. 

Joint UN-p/vo Administrative Unit: carries out the day- 
to-day activities of the WP. 

Executive Director: Francisco Aquino. 


ACTIVITIES 

Member governments of the United Nations and FAO 
e Voluntary contributions of commodities, cash, and 
services (particularly shipping) to WFP, which uses the 
°° emergency relief for victims of natural and man- 
® disasters and for support for economic and socia 
opment projects in the developing countries. The food 


d extended 1965, the WFP is a joint UN-FAO effort 
i social development through aid in the form of food. 

is supplied, for example, as an incentive in development 
self-help schemes, as part wages in labour-intensive pro- 
jects of many kinds, particularly in the rural economy, but 
also in the industrial field, and in support of institutional 
feeding schemes where the emphasis is mainly on enabling 
the beneficiaries to have an adequate and balanced diet. In 
some cases it is feed for livestock that is supplied, the 
introduction of modern feeding practices leading to in- 
creased production and thus to an improvement of the 
people’s nutrition. Recipient governments are encouraged 
to take steps to replace the WFP aid as soon as each 
project, which may be for anything up to five years, comes 
to an end. 

As at October ist, 1970, 459 development projects had 
been approved since the beginning of the Programme’s 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


operations at a total cost to WFP of §937,439,100. Broken 
down by region: in Latin America and the Caribbean, 
72 projects in 19 countries; in North Africa and the Near 
East, 106 projects in ii countries; in West Atrica, 79 
projects in 22 countries; in Mediterranean Europe and 
East Africa, 79 projects in 17 countries; in Asia and the 
Far East, 123 projects in 14 countries. In addition, 117 
emergency operations have been undertaken in 67 coun- 
tries at a total cost to the Programme of §91,389,500. 

The biggest single project ever undertaken is for the 
development of the dairy industry in several areas of India 
at a total cost to the Programme ot nearly §56 million. 


RESOURCES 

As at October ist, 1970, the resources made available to 
the Programme through voluntary contributions by 
governments, including pledges for the period 1969-70, 
stood at a total of §532,504,500; §384,610,765 were in 
commodities and §147,893,735 in cash and services. A 
further §41,760,746 worth of food grains was made avail- 
able to the Programme by signatories of the Food Aid 
Convention. The target set by the UN and FAO for the 
pledging period 1971-72 amounts to §300 million. By the 
end of August 1970 a total of §215,774,725 had been 
pledged by 58 countries. 


UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IN CYPRUS— UNFICYP 

P.O. Box 1G42, Nicosia, Cyprus 


Set up in March 1964 by Security Council Resolution, for 
a three-month period, subsequently extended to June 
1971. The purpose of the Force is to keep the peace between 
the Greek and Turkish communities pending a resolution 
of outstanding issues between them. 

Commander: Maj.-Gen. D. Prem Chand (India). 

Special Representative of the Secretary-General : Bibiano F. 
Osorio-Tafall (Mexico). 


COMPOSITION OF FORCE 

(December 1970) 


Australia 

Military 

Police 

50 

Austria (medical unit) 

55 

45 

Canada 

577 

— 

Denmark 

. 296 

40 

Finland . 

288 

- 

Ireland . 

. 428 

- 

Sweden 

285 

40 

United Kingdom 

. 1,078 


Total 

3.007 

175 


40 civilians are attached to UNFICYP. 
Grand Total ; 3,222. 


FINANCE 

Provisional estimate of cost for the period from March 
1964 to December 1970 was §122,605,000. 


UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT— 

UNCTAD 

Palais des Nations, Geneva 
Telephone: 34 60 ii, 33 40 00, 33 20 00, 33 10 00. 

Set up as an organ of tlie United Nations General Assembly by a resolution of December 1964 on the recom- 
mendation of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, held March-June 1964. Aims to promob 
international trade with a view to accelerating economic development. 


ORGANIZATION 


CONFERENCE 

First session, Geneva, March 23rd-June 16th, 1964. 
Second session, New Delhi, February ist-JIarch 29th, 
1968. Members: 136 (end of 1970). 

Secretary-General: Manuel Perez Guerrero (Venezuela) 
in March 1969 succeeded Dr. Ra6l Prebisch (Argen- 
tina). 


TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

UNCTAD’s main executive organ, the Board carries ou 
the functions of the Conference when the latter is not ii 
session. Members: 55 states elected by the Confcrcnc( 
having regard to geographical distribution and continuinf 
representation for the principal trading states; 31 members 
of tlic Board are developing countries. In 1970 the Bo.ar(l 


80 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


held its tenth regular and its lourth "special” sessions. At 
the regular session, tlie Board recommended policy 
measures on shipping and ports wth a view to promoting 
the earnings of developing countries from invisible trade, 
reached consensus of principles of pricing policy for com- 
modities, established a new Intergovernmental Group to 
examine problems of transfer of technologj’ to developing 
countries, and reviewed the recommendations of the 
various subsidiary bodies. At the special session, the Board 
approved arrangements for the implementation, in 1971 if 
possible, of a generalized system of tariff preferences for 
exports of developing countries. 

President (1970): Pierue-Attilio Porthomme (Belgium). 

MAIN COMMITTEES 

The Board has four main committees and a Special 
Committee on Preferences. 

Committee on Commodities: 55 members. Chamnan (1970): 
Jos£ Martinez Cobo (Ecuador). Fifth session, July 
7tli-i8th, 1970, Adopted recommendations for the 
regulation of disposals of surpluses and strategic 
reseu-es, made new arrangements to improve the 
process of intergovernmental consultations on com- 
modity problems, and reviewed the market situation 
of a series of individual commodities. 

Permanent Group on Synthetics and Substitutes: 21 

members. Chairman (1970); Maruli H. Pang- 
GABEAN (Indonesia). Fourth session, Juno 29th- 
July 3rd, 1970. Made recommendations relating to 
research programmes for natural products and 
recommendations to improve the market situation 
of rubber, cotton and shellac. 

Committee on Manufactures: 45 members. Chairman (197°)' 


Brij Nandan Swarup (India). Fourth session, 
Januaiy 20th-30th, 1970. Approved a work pro- 
gramme for the liberalization of non-tariff barriers 
affecting trade of developing countries, studied 
restrictive business practices, examined problems of 
tariff reclassification. 

Special Committee on Preferences: open to all interested 
UNCTAD member countries. Chairman (1970): Thiru- 
malraya Swaminathan (India). Met from March 31st 
to April 17th, and again from September 2 1st to 
October 12th, 1970. Agreed on mutually acceptable 
arrangements concerning the establishment of general- 
ized, non-discriminatory, non-reciprocal preferential 
treatment to exports of developing countries in the 
markets of developed countries. Preference-giving 
countries udll seek necessary legislative or other 
sanction with the aim of implementing the preferential 
arrangements as early as possible in 1971. 

Committee on Invisibles ond Financing related to Trade: 
45 members. Chairman (1970): Jerzy Bilinski 
(Poland). Fourth session, July 2oth-3rst, 1970. 
Recommended continuity in the provision of financial 
resources for development, discussed measures to 
liberalize assistance such as untying of aid, studied 
further possibility of establishing a direct link between 
Special Drawing Rights of the International Monetary 
Fund and development finance. 

Committee on Shipping: 45 members. Chairman (1970): 
Jean Robert (France). Fourtlr session, April 20th- 
May 4th, 1970. Made recommendations for easing 
freight rates on cargoes from developing countries, for 
the latter’s participation in liner conferences, for 
assisting the expansion of their merchant marines, and 
for training of personnel. 


AIMS 


The principal functions of UNCTAD are: to promote 
International trade, in order to accelerate economic 
development, particularly trade between countries ^ at 
different stages of development, between developing 
countries and between countries with different systenw of 
economic and social organization; to formulate principles 
and policies on international trade and related problems 


of economic development; to make proposals for putting 
these principles and policies into effect; to review and 
facilitate the co-ordination of activities of other UN bodies 
dealing with related problems; to initiate action for the 
negotiation and adoption of multilateral legal instruments 
in the field of trade; to harmonize trade and related policies 
of governments and regional economic groupings. 


developments in 1970 


During 1970, exports from developing countries grew at 
arate of 10.5 per cent, the highest in the First Development 
Decade. Nevertheless, their share in world exports co^ 
tmued to decline due to the considerably more rapid 
progress of the industrialized countries. 

The international strategy for the second Umted 
ations Development Decade, the 1970s, adopted by o 
^'enty-fifth session of the United Nations General 
^sembly, reflects all the key ideas advanced within 
VNCTAD with a view to increasing export earnings o 


developing countries and accelerating their rate of econo- 
mic growth. 

Important UNCTAD activities during 1970, in addition 
to those cited above, included the negotiation of the 
fourth International Tin Agreement; a session from 
November 2nd-i8th, 1970, ot an Intergovernmental Group 
seeking to facilitate trade expansion, economic co-operation 
and regional integration among developing countries; and 
technical assistance activities in the field of trade and 
development. 


81 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 

BUDGET 

1970: U.S. $8,823,200. 

1970 (Estimate): U.S. $10,686,200. 

PUBLICATIONS 


The complete proceedings of UNCTAD II (New Delhi 
February ist-March 29th, 1968) appear in the followng 
five volumes: 

Volume I, Report and Annexes: Background, list of 
resolutions, declarations and other decisions, and 
adoption of the report of the Conference. 

Volume II, Commodity Problems and Policies: The develop- 
ment of an international commodity policy, liberaliza- 
tion of trade, recent developments and long-term 
trends. 

Volume III, Problems and Policies of Trade in Manufac- 
tures and Semi-Manufactures: Preferences, trade 
liberalization, export credits, labour implications for 
developing countries. 


Volume IV, Problems and Policies of Financing: Growth, 
development finance, mobilization and evaluation of 
resources, economic management and international 
monetary issues. 

Volume V, Special Problems in World Trade and Develop- 
ment: The international division of labour and the 
developing countries, trade relations, trade expansion 
and economic integration, special preferences, needs of 
the least developed countries, and the world food prob- 
lem. 

TTie reports of the main UNCTAD bodies, as well as 
.several important studies on specific problems, have been 
published during 1970. 


UNITED NATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR 
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT— UNRISD 

Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland 

Established in 1964 as an autonomous UN activity to conduct research into problems and pohcics of social 
development and economic development during different phases of economic growth. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD 

Superrtses the activities of the Institute. Members 
include representatives of the Secretary-General of UN, of 
two of the four Specialized Agencies directly concerned 
(ILO, UNESCO, FAO, WHO) in rotation, and of the UN 
regional institutes for Asia, Latin America and Africa, as 
well as the Institute’s Director and seven individuals 
nominated by the Commission for Social Development and 
elected by the Economic and Social Council. 

Chairman: Jan Tinbergen (Netherlands). 


Members: Jan Szczepanski (Poland); Gonzalo Aguirre 
BeltrAn (Mexico): Jacques Delors (France); 
Moh.\med Ennaceur (Tunisia): Philip M. Hauser 
(U.S. A.); Akhter Hameed Khan (Pakistan); Gunnar 
Karl jMyrdal (Sweden). 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Director: D. V. McGranahan (U.S.A.). 

Secretary: G. Lambert-Lamond (France). 


FUNCTIONS 


The Institute was created to conduct research into 
problems and policies of social development and relation- 
ships between various types of social development and 
economic development during different phases of economic 
growth. It was intended that the studies of the Institute 
should contribute to (a) the work of the United Nations 
Secretariat in the field of social policy, social development 
planning and balanced economic and social development; 
(6) regional planning institutes already existing or in the 
process of being set up under the auspices of the United 
Nations; (c) national institutes in the field of economic 
and/or social development and planning. 


The Institute was set up with the active support of the 
Social Commission of the United Nations (now the Com- 
mission for Social Development), which had for some time 
been emphasizing, in reports and resolutions, the im- 
portance of taking social factors into account in develop- 
ment planning and of achieving a balanced and integrated 
economic and social development policy. Intensified 
research on the means of achieving tliat goal was felt to be 
desirable. 


82 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies; 


ACTIVITIES 


Research is carried out under four programmes as listed 
below: 

I. The Inter-relations between Social and Economic Develop- 
ment. 

Contents and measurement of development. 

The general development index. 

Factors associated with fast and slow rates of economic 
growth. 

Jfeasurement of real progress at the local level. 

The Data Bank of development indicators. 

z. Methodology of Social Planning. 

Empirical study of decision-making processes in the 
social sectors. 

Social prognosis. 

3. The Introduction of Social Change and Innovation. 

Rural institutions and planned change. 

Preparation of the child for modernization. 

Refugee resettlement and rural development. 

Mail survey of experiences in vocational training. 

Social implications of tlie Green Revolution. 

4 . Regional Development. 

Regional development: experiences and prospects — a 
worldwide study. 

Regional disaggregation of national policies and plans. 
The role of growth policies and growth centres in 
regional development. 

Information systems for regional development. 

Regional sociology. 

FINANCE 

The Institute is financed by voluntary contributions of 
member countries of the United Nations. 

PUBLICATIONS 

SALES PUBLICATIONS 

Inducing Social Change in Developing Communities 
(English, French, Spanish; 1967). 

Planning for Children and Youth within National Develop- 


ment Planning (jointly mth UNICEF; English, French; 
1967). 

Levels of Living and Economic Growth (English; 1969). 

.4 Review of Rural Co-operation in Developing Areas 
(English; 1969). 

Esludios de la Realidad Campesina: Coopcracidn y Cambio 
(Spanish; 1970). 

Distribution of Income and Economic Growth: concepts and 
issues (English; 1970). 

Compilation of Development Indicators (1969). 

NON-SALES PUBLICATIONS 

Research Notes (English, French, Spanish; annually). 

The following were published during 1970: 

Organization of Land Redistribution Beneficiaries. 

Regional Development — Experiences and Prospects: South 
and Southeast Asia. 

Studies in the Measurement of Levels of Living and Welfare. 

Interregional Allocation of Investments for Social and 
Economic Development: an elementary model approach to 
analysis. 

Studies in the Methodology of Social Planning. 

Social Modernisation and Economic Development in 
Argentina. 

La preparation de V enfant h la modernisation: I’exemple de 
la Tunisie. 

Case Studies on Information Systems for Regional Develop- 
ment: Sweden. 

Case Studies on Information Systems for Regional Develop- 
ment: Chile. 

Contents and Measurement of Socio-Economic Development. 

Etude sur les systemes de dicision. 

Growth Poles and Growth Centres as Instruments of Regional 
Development and Modernisation with Special Reference 
to Bulgaria and France (also in French). 

Preparation of the Child for Modernisation: Skills and 
Intellectual Requirements (review of the literature). 

Le changement social el les institutions du diveloppement dans 
line population rifugice. 

Rural Co-operatives and Planned Change in Africa. 


83 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH— 

UNITAR 

801 United Nations Piaza, New York 

Established 1965 as an autonomous body within the framework of the United Nations. Provides training to 
personnel, particularly from developing countries, for national and international service, and conducts research 
and study related to the functions and objectives of the United Nations. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Composed of eighteen members appointed by the UN 
Secretary-General to serve for two years. The UN Secretary- 
General and the Presidents of the General Assembly and 
ECOSOC, and the Executive Director of the Institute are 
ex-officio members. Specialized agencies are represented 
appropriately at meetings. The Board meets usually once 
a year and is responsible for determining basic policies of 
the Institute and for reviewing and adopting the annual 
budget. 


Subsidiary Committees: Administrative and Financial; 
Research; Training. 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 

The Executive Director is appointed by the Secretary- 
General, after consultation with the Board, and is respon- 
sible for the overall organization, direction and administra- 
tion of the Institute. 

Executive Director: Chief S. O. Adebo, c.m.g. (Nigeria). 


FUNCTIONS 


The purpose of the Institute is to enhance, by training 
and research, “the effectiveness of the United Nations in 
achieving the major objectives of the Organization, in 
particular the maintenance of peace and security and the 
promotion of economic and social development”. Training 
at various levels is provided to persons, particularly from 
the developing countries, for assignments u-ith the UN or 
the specialized agencies and for assignments in their 
national services which are connected with the work of the 
UN. The Institute also conducts research and study into 
problems which may concern the UN. 

Training Programmes in igyi; 

1. UNITAR seminars on international organization and 
multilateral diplomacy in New York and Geneva. 

2. Basic training courses for new recruits and junior 
officers of the foreign service. 

3. Regional seminars on procedures and techniques of 
technical assistance. 

4. Seminar on major problems of technical and financial 
co-operation. 

5. Colloquium for senior officials in the United Nations 
system. 

6. United Nations/UNITAR fellowships in international 
law. 

7. Regional refresher training course in international law. 

8. UNIT.AR weekends bringing together senior diplo- 
mats, UN officials and eminent scholars for informal 
exchanges of views. 

9. Special lecture series. 


10. Study on the feasibility of a United Nations staff 
college. 

11. Seminar for international procurement officers. 

Research Programmes in 1571: 

1. Relations between United Nations and regional 
organizations. 

2. Braindrain: the international migration of profes- 
sionals from developing to developed countries. 

3. Transfer of technology from enterprise to enterprise. 

4. New techniques and methods of training. 

5. Comparative study of measures against racial dis- 
crimination. 

6. Peaceful settlement of disputes. 

7. Safeguards machinery of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency. 

8. Financing of international waterways. 

9. Planning .and development in relation to ocean 
resources and marine pollution. 

10. Youth and international society. 

11. Evaluation of technical assistance. 

12. Operational analysis of the UN Economic and Social 
Council. 

13. Use by mass media of UN public information. 

14. Regional seminar on international l.aw for Africa. 


84 



THE UNITED NATIONS— {Other Bodies) 

FINANCE 

Expenses are met from voluntary contributions made by 
governments, inter-govemmental organizations, from 
foundations and other non-govemraental sources. 
Estimated Budget (1971): ?i,5oo.ooo- 


PUBLICATIONS 


VN Development Aid: Criteria and Methods of Evaluation. 
Towards Wider Acceptance of UN Treaties. 

Small States and Territories: Status and Problems. 

Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: Ideas and Proposals for 
Research. 

Social Psychological Techniques and the Peacefid Settlement 
of International Disputes. 


Report of the International Research Conference on Race 
Relations, Aspen, Colorado, June 1970. 

Emigration of Highly-Skilled Manpower from the Developing 
Countries. 

Manual of United Nations Technical Assistance. 

Manual of External Financing. 


UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME— UNDP 

New York City 


Established in 1965 to aid the developing countries in increasing the wealth-producing capabilities of their natural 
and human resources by supporting economic and social projects, with pre-investment, help and^ technical 
assistance. The UNDP came into effect in January 1966, bringing together the previous activities of the 
Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance and the UN Special Fund. 


EXECUTING AGENCIES 


UN 

IBRD 

UNCTAD 

ILO 

ITU 

UNIDO 

FAO 

mio 

IDB 

UNESCO 

IAEA 

AfDB 

ICAO 

UPU 

AsDB 

^VHO 

IMCO 



The UNDP functions under the authority of ECOSOC 
and of the General Assembly. 

Governing Council: 37 mems., representing both developed 


and developing countries; the policy-making body of 
the UNDP. 

President (1971): HernAn Santa Cruz (Chile). 
Administrator: Paue G. Hoffman (U.S.A.). 
Co-Administrator: C. V. Narasimhan (India). 

Inter-Agency Consultative Board (lACB) : composed of the 
UN Secretary-General and the Executive Heads of 
the Specialized Agencies and other bodies; provides 
guidance and advice. 


ACTIVITIES 


The UNDP today is the world’s largest programme of 
multinational technical co-operation. It works in partner- 
ship wth over 130 governments, representing almost 
three thousand million people. Voluntary contributions 
from almost every nation in the world provide the UNDP 
with its financial resources. Governments of low-income 
countries all over the world, together with the United 
Nations and 16 other international agencies, are currently 
carrying out UNDP-assisted activities which will cost 
almost $2,500 million on completion. Development work 
already completed has cost close to $1,500 million, more 
than half of it paid by the developing countries themselves. 

In pursuit of its basic objective — helping the poorer 
nations to develop their human and natural resources more 
fully— the UNDP affords the international community a 
significant opportunity for productive co-operation. Tlie 
sha.ring of technical knowledge, skills, personnel and 
facilities by participating countries is an essential part of 
the UNDP’s day-to-day operations. 


By mid-1970 over 1,000 large-scale pro-investment pro- 
jects had been undertaken by the developing countries 
•viath UNDP support, and more than 200 others were about 
to get under way. These projects cost an average of over 
$2 million each, generally take between four and five years 
to complete, can engage the services of a score of inter- 
national exports and require a large inventory of specialized 
modem equipment. 

UNDP-supported pre-investment projects assist the 
development efforts of low-income countries in one or more 
of four basic ways: 

(o) By uncovering, inventorying and determining the 
economic potential of natural resources; 

(6) By educating and training people in the knowledge 
and skills necessary to build and maintain modem 
economic and social systems; 

(c) By establishing research centres for the development 
and application of modern productive technologies; 


85 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


{d) By strengthening national and regional frameworks 
for development planning and administration. 

In addition, during a typical year the UNDP supports 
about 2,500 smaller-scale development projects. With 
average yearly expenditures of some $25,000 each, these 
projects often employ only a single international expert, 
can be completed in several months, rarely require outlays 
for equipment, but do provide low-income countries with 
critically needed advisorj', consultant and training 
services. 

UNDP support for well over 300 large-scale and tens of 
thousands of smaller projects has now been completed and 
country and regional projects are currently operational in 
all parts of the world. 

UNDP-assisted projects — large and small — annually 


engage the services of some 8,000 international experts, 
provide over 5,000 fellowships for advanced study abroad 
and supply almost $30 million worth of equipment. The 
projects help stimulate progress in virtually every economic 
and social sector. 

UNDP Resident Representatives direct Field OfKces in 
over go developing countries throughout the world. These 
officials, as leaders of the team of representatives of all 
United Nations organizations concerned, assist govern- 
ments in formulating programmes of UNDP aid and in 
seeing that the Programme’s field operations are carried 
out. 

UNDP Headquarters in New York, with an international 
staff drawn from more than 60 countries, maintains a close 
and co-ordinated supervision of all Programme activities. 


LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 
APPROVED FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE. 1959-70 


Field of Activity 

Number 

OF 

Projects 

Project 
Costs 
( in million 
U.S. $ 
equivalents) 

Resource Suiwcys 

479 

805.4 

Education and Training 

444 

1,264.9 

Applied Research 

277 

624.5 

Economic Development 
Planning 

34 

88.0 

Tot,\l 

1^234 

i 

2,782 . 8* 


* Of which $1,064.9 provided by UNDP and $1,717.9 
provided by recipient governments. 


COST OF DEVELOPMENT WORK APPROVED 
FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE BY ECONOMIC AND 
SOCIAL SECTOR, 1959-69 


Sector 

Project 
Costs 
(in million 
U.S. $ 

equivalents) 

Agriculture ...... 

1,176.2 

Industry ...... 

746.7 

Education and Science .... 

589-7 

Public Services ..... 

- 132.6 

Health ....... 

179.0 

Housing, Building, Phj’sical Planning 

60.3 

Public Administration .... 

205.4 

Social Welfare ..... 

40-3 

Multi-sector ...... 

1S1.6 

To be allocated ..... 

381.0 

Total ..... 

3,992.8 


COST OF DEVELOPMENT WORK APPROVED 
FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE BY 
GEOGRAPHICAL REGION, 1959-70 


Region' 

Project 
Costs 
(in million 
U.S. s 
equivalents) 

Africa ....... 

1.324.1 

The Americas ..... 

894.1 

Asia and the Far East .... 

1,043.4 

Europe , . 

326.0 

Middle East ...... 

254.3 

Inter-regional ..... 

53-6 

Global ....... 

1-5 

To bo allocated ..... 

95-8 

Total ..... 

3,992.8 


86 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


FINANCE 


The Development Programme is financed by the 
voluntary contributions of members of the United Nations, 
the Specialized Agencies, and the IAEA. Contributions 
pledged for 1971 reached an estimated total of U.S. $240 
million (as of October 1970). The cumulative total of 


contributions pledged by some 120 countries since the 
inception of activities (the Expanded Programme of 
Technical Assistance in 1950, and the UN Special Fund in 
1959) to the end of 1970 is approximately $2,107 million. 


UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION— 

UNIDO 


Felderhaus, Rathausplatz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria 

Telephone; 43 50 

Established January 1967 to promote industrial development by encouraging the mobilization of national and 
international resources, and to assist in, promote and accelerate the industrialization of the developing countries, 

with particular emphasis on the manufacturing sector. 


ORGANIZATION 


INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

Composed of 45 members elected by the UN General 
Assembly from among the members of the UN or its 
related agencies for a term of three years. Both developed 
and developing countries are equitably represented. The 
principle functions and powers of the Board are to formu- 
late principles and policies to achieve the purpose of the 
Organization, to consider and approve the programme of 
its activities and also to review and facilitate the co- 
ordination of activities within the United Nations system 
in the field of industrial development. The Board normally 
holds one session a year. 

President (1970): Zdenek Sf.divv (Czechoslovakia). 
Secretary: Almamy Sylla. 


SECRETARIAT 

Has overall responsibility for administration and re- 
search programmes and is in charge of operational pro- 
grammes, including activities executed by UNIDO as a 
participating organization of the UNDP. The Secretariat 
consists of the Office of the Executive Director, the 
Technical Co-operation Division, three Divisions of Indus- 
trial Technology, Industrial Policies and Programming and 
Industrial Services and Institutions, and a Diwsion of 
Administration, Conference and General Services. 

Executive Director: Ibrahisi Helmi Abdel-Rahman 
(U.A.R.). 


FUNCTIONS 


Operational Activities 

Carrying out surveys of industrial development possi- 
bilities, formulation of industrial development plans and 
programmes, pre-investment and feasibility studies; 

Advising at the various stages of implementation and 
follow-up of industrial projects; 

Assistance in achieving the efficient utilization of new 
and existing industrial capacitj', including the solution of 
technical and technological problems, and the improve- 
ment and control of quality, management and per- 
formance; 

-Assistance in developing and improving marketing and 
distribution techniques and the development of export- 
orientated industry; 

Assistance in the training of technical and other appro- 
priate categories of personnel, including such forms of 
training as management workshops and in-plant training; 

-Assistance in the dissemination of information on tech- 
nological innovations and know-how, the development of 
systems of patents and industrial property, and tlie 
adaptation and application of existing technology to the 
needs of developing countries; 


Assistance in promoting domestic financing and in 
obtaining external financing for specific industrial projects; 

Assistance in establishing or strengthening institutions 
to deal with various aspects of industrial development, 
including planning and programming, project formulation 
and evaluation, engineering and design, training and 
management, applied research, standardization and quality 
control, marketing, small-scale industry, investment pro- 
motion and pilot plants. 

Seminars, workshops and in-plant training: These are 
organized by UNIDO in various sectors of industry and 
mostly in industrialized countries for the training of 
personnel and the acceleration of the flow of technical 
know-how and skills from industrialized countries to 
developing countries. Participation in this activity is on a 
regional or interregional level and is open to all interested 
governments. 

Studies and Research 

Include, in particular, the compilation, analj-sis, publica- 
tion and dissemination of data concerning various aspects 
of industrialization, such as industrial technology, invest- 
ment, financing, production, management and planning. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

First Avenue, Now York City, Now York, U.S.A. 

Founded in 1945 to maintain international peace and security and to develop international 
co-operation in economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 


THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER 
PREAMBLE 


We the peoples of the United Nations determined 

TO SAVE succeeding generations from the scourge of war. which twice in our 
lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and 

TO REAFFIRM faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of 
the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large 
and small, and 

TO ESTABLISH conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations 
arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, 
and 

TO PROMOTE social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. 


And for these ends 

TO PRACTICE tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good 
neighbours, and 

TO UNITE our strength to maintain international peace and security, and 
TO ENSURE, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that 
armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and 
TO EMPLOY international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social 
advancement of all peoples. 


Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims 

Accordingly, our respective governments, through representatives assembled 
in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in 
good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and 
do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. 


1 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


ORIGIN 


The United Nations was a name devised by President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was first used in the Declaration 
by United Nations of January ist, 1942, when representa- 
tives of twenty-six nations pledged their governments to 
continue fighting together against the Axis powers. 

The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the 
representatives of fifty countries at the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization, which met at 
San Francisco from April 25th to June 26th, 1945. The 
representatives deliberated on the basis of proposals 
worked out by representatives of China, the U.S.S.R., the 


United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton 
Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 
June 26th, 1945. Poland, not represented at the Confer- 
ence, signed it later but nevertheless became one of the 
original fifty-one members. 

The United Nations officially came into existence on 
October 24th, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by 
China, France, the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and the 
United States, and by a majority of other signatories. 
October 24th is now universally celebrated as United 
Nations Day. 


PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES 


The purposes of the United Nations are: 

To maintain international peace and security; 

To develop friendly relations among nations; 

To co-operate internationally in solving international 
economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems 
and in promoting respect for human rights and 
fundamental freedoms; 

To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in 
attaining these common ends. 

The United Nations acts in accordance wth these principles: 

It is based on the sovereign equality of aU its members. 

All members are to fulfil in good faith their Charter 
obligations. 

They are to settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means and without endangering peace, 
security and justice. 

They are to refrain in their international relations from 
the threat or use of force against other states. 

They are to give the United Nations every assistance in 
action it takes in accordcmce with the Charter, and 
not to assist states against which preventive or 
enforcement action is being taken. 

The United Nations is to ensure that states which are 
not members act in accordance with these principles 
in so far as it is necessary to maintain international 
peace and security. 


Nothing in the Charter is to authorize the United 
Nations to intervene in matters which are purely the 
national concern of any state. 

The official languages of the United Nations are Chinese, 
English, French, Russian and Spanish. Its working 
languages are English and French. Spanish is also a 
working language of the General Assembly and of 
the Economic and Social Council. 

Membership of the United Nations is open to all peace- 
loving nations which accept the obligations of the 
United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the 
Organization, are able and willing to carry out these 
obligations. 

The original members of the United Nations are those 
countries which signed the Declaration by United 
Nations of January rst, 1942, or took part in the 
San Francisco Conference, and which signed and 
ratified the Charter. 

Other countries can be admitted by the General 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. A two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly 
is required. 

Members may be suspended or expelled by the General 
Assembly on recommendation of the Security 
Council. They may be suspended if the Security 
Council is taking enforcement action against them 
or expelled if they persistently violate the principles 
of the Charter. The Security Council can restore its 
rights to a suspended member. 


MEMBERS, CONTRIBUTIONS, YEAR OF ADMISSION 

(% contribution to UN Budget for igji) 


Afghanistan . 




0.04 

1946 

Brazil ..... 

0.89 

1945 

Albania 




0.04 

1955 

Bulgaria .... 

0.18 

1955 

Algeria 




O.IO 

1962 

Burma .... 

0.06 

1948 

Argentina . 




0-93 

1945 

Burundi .... 

0.04 

1962 

Australia 




1.52 

1955 

Byelorussian S.S.R. 

0.51 

1945 

Austria 




0.57 

1945 

Cambodia (Khmer Republic) , 

0.04 

1955 

Barbados 




0.04 

1966 

Cameroon .... 

0.04 

i960 

Belgium 




1. 10 

1945 

Canada .... 

3-02 

1945 

Bolivia 




0.04 

1945 

Central African Republic 

0.04 

i960 

Botswana 




0.04 

1966 

Ceylon .... 

0.06 

1955 


2 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Chad . 

. 


0.04 

i960 

Malta .... 


0.04 

1964 

Chile . 

. 


0.23 

1945 

Mauritania . 


0.04 

1961 

China (Taiwan) 



4.00 

1945 

Mauritius 


0.04 

1968 

Colombia 

. 


0.20 

1945 

Mexico 


0.87 

1945 

1961 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

. 


0.04 

i960 

Mongolia 


0.04 

Congo (Democratic Republic of) 

0.05 

i960 

Morocco 


O.IO 

1956 

Costa Rica . 



0.04 

1945 

Nepal .... 


0.04 

1955 

Cuba . 



0. ig 

1945 

Netherlands . 


1 .16 

1945 

Cyprus 



0.04 

i960 

New Zealand 


0.36 

1945 

Czechoslovakia 



o.g2 

1945 

Nicaragua . 


0.04 

1945 

Dahomey 



0.04 

i960 

Niger .... 


0.04 

1960 

Denmark 



0.62 

1945 

Nigeria 


0.14 

i960 

Dominican Republic 



0.04 

1945 

Norway 


0*43 

1945 

Ecuador 



0.04 

1945 

Pakistan 


0.37 

1947 

El Salvador . 



0.04 

1945 

Panama 


0.04 

1945 

Equatorial Guinea 



0.04 

1968 

Paraguay 


0.04 

1945 

Ethiopia 



0.04 

1945 

Peru .... 


0.10 

1945 

Fiji 



0.04 

1970 

Philippines . 


0-34 

1945 

Finland 



0.49 

1955 

Poland 


1.47 

1945 

France 



6.00 

1945 

Portugal 


0.16 

1955 

Gabon 



0.04 

i960 

Romania 


0.36 

1955 

Gambia 



0.04 

1965 

Rwanda 


0.04 

1962 

Ghana 



0,08 

1957 

Saudi Arabia 


0.05 

1945 

Greece 



0.29 

194s 

Senegal 


0.04 

1960 

Guatemala . 



0.05 

1945 

Sierra Leone 


0.04 

1961 

Guinea 



0,04 

1958 

SingaporeJ . 


0.05 

1965 

Guyana 



0.04 

1966 

Somalia 


0.04 

i960 

Haiti . 



0.04 

1945 

South Africa 


0.52 

1945 

Honduras . 



0.04 

1945 

Spain .... 


0.92 

1955 

Hungary 



0.52 

1955 

Sudan .... 


0.05 

1956 

Iceland 



0.04 

1946 

Swaziland . 


0.04 

1968 

India . 



1.74 

1945 

Sweden 


1*25 

1946 

Indonesia*’- . 



0.34 

1950 

SyriaJ .... 


0.04 

1945 

Iran . 



0.22 

1945 

Tanzania (United Republic of)§ 

0.04 

1961 

Iraq . 



0,07 

1945 

Thailand 


0.13 

1946 

Ireland 



0.17 

1955 

Togo .... 


0.04 

i960 

Israel . 



0.20 

1949 

Trinidad and Tobago 


0.04 

1962 

Italy . 



3-24 

1955 

Tunisia 


0.04 

1956 

Ivory Coast . 



0.04 

i960 

Turkey 


0.35 

1945 

Jamaica 



0.05 

1962 

Uganda 


0.04 

1962 

Japan . 



3 - 7 ^ 

1956 

Ukrainian S.S.R. . . . 


1-93 

1945 

Jordan 



0,04 

1955 

U.S.S.R. 


14.61 

1945 

Kenya 



0.04 

1963 

United Arab Republic^ 


0.20 

1945 

Kuwait 



0.07 

1963 

, United Kingdom . 


6.62 

1945 

Laos . 



0.04 

1955 

United States 


31*57 

1945 

Lebanon 



0.05 

1945 

Upper 'Volta 


0.04 

1960 

Lesotho 



0.04 

1966 

Uruguay 


0.09 

1945 

Liberia 



0.04 

1945 

Venezuela . 


0.45 

1945 

Libya ... 
Luxembourg 



0.04 

0.05 

1955 

1945 

Yemen (Arab Republic) . 

Yemen (People's Democratic 

0.04 

1947 

Madagascar . 



0.04 

i960 

Republic) . 


0.04 

1967 

Malawi 



0.04 

1964 

Yugoslaida . 


0.40 

1945 

Malaysiaf 

Maldives 



O.II 

0.04 

1957 

i960 

Zambia 


0.04 

1964 

Mali . 



0.04 

i960 

Total Membership 127 (January 1971) • 


* Indonesia withdrew frona the United Nations in January 1965 but resumed membership in September 1966. 

, t The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations in September 1957. In September 1963 its name changed to 
Malaysia, foUowing the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Smgapore 
became an independent state on August 9th, 1965, and a member of the United Nations in September 1965. ^ , 

„ t Egypt and Syria were original members of the United Nations from October 1945. In February 1958 the United Arab 
Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. In October ig6i, Syria, having 
resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership of the United Nations. 

§ Tanganyika was a member of the United Nations from December 1961 and Zanzibar was a member from December 1963. 
From April 1964, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar continued as a single member, changing its name to 
United Republic of Tanzania in November 1964. 


3 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


PERMANENT MISSIONS TO THE UNITED NATIONS 

(mth Permanent Representatives) 


Afghanistan: 866 United Nations Plaza, 4th Floor, New 
York, N.Y. 1001 7; Abdur-Rahman Pazhwak. 
Albania: 446 East 86tli St., loth Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10028; Sami Baholli. 

Algeria: 750 Third Ave., 14th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; .\bdui. Latil Rakal. 

Argentina: 300 East 42nd St., i8th Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017; Carlos Ortiz de Rozas. 

Australia: 750 Third Ave., 22nd Floor, New York, N.Y. 

1001 7; Sir Laurence McIntyre. 

Austria: 14 East 68th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Kurt 
Waldheim. 

Barbados: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 527, New York, 
N.Y. 10017: Oliver H. Jackman. 

Belgium: 809 United Nations Plaza, 2nd Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Edouard Longerstaey. 

Bolivia: 211 East 43rd St., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017; Walter Guevara Arze. 

Botswana: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 511, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; T. J. Molefhe. 

Brazil: 605 Third Ave., i6th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10016; 

JOAO Augusto de Araujo Castro. 

Bulgaria: n East 84th St., New York, N.Y. 10028; Charge 
d’ Affaires (a.i.): Elena Gavrilova. 

Burma: 10 East 77th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Chargd 
d’ Affaires [a.i.): U Tkaung Lsvin. 

Burundi: 485 Fifth Ave., 5th Floor (between 41st and 
42nd St.), New York, N.Y. 10017; NsANzfi Terence. 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic: 136 East 67th St., 
New York, N.Y. loozi: Vitaly S. Smirnov. 

Cambodia (Khmer Republic): 845 Third Ave., 20th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10022; Khim Tit. 

Cameroon: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 650, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Michel Njine. 

Canada: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 250, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Yvon Beaulne. 

Central African Republic: 386 Park Ave. South, Room 
1614, New York, N.Y. 10016; Michel Adama- 
Tamboux. 

Ceylon: 630 Third Ave., 20th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017; 

Hamilton Shirely Amerasinghe. 

Chad: 150 East 52nd St., Apartment 5C, New York, N.Y. 
10022; Bruno Bohiadi. 

Chile: 809 United Nations Plaza, 4th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Umberto DIaz Casanueva. 

China, Republic of (Taiwan): 801 Second Ave., 9th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10017: Liu Chieh. 

Colombia: 140 East 57th St., 5th Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10022: Augusto Espinosa Valderrama. 

Congo (Brazzaville) : 444 Madison Ave., Room 1604, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Nicolas JIondjo. 

Congo (Democratic Republic) : 400-402 East 51st St., New 
York, N.Y. 10022; THioDORE Idzumbuir 


Costa Rica: 211 East 43rd St. Room 2002, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Jos6 Luis Molina. 

Cuba: 6 East 67th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Ricardo 
Alarcon Quesada. 

Cyprus: 165 East 72nd St., Apartment 19 J, New York, 
N.Y. 10021; Zenon Rossides. 

Czechoslovakia: 1109-1111 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 
10028; Zdenek CernIk. 

Dahomey: 4 East 73rd St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Wilfrid de Souza. 

Denmark: 235 East 42nd St., 32nd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Otto R. Borch. 

Dominican Republic: 144 East 44th St., 4th Floor, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Fernando A. Amiama-Tio. 
Ecuador: 820 Second Ave., 15th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Leopoldo Benites. 

El Salvador: 211 East 43rd St., 19th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Reynaldo Galindo Pohl. 

Equatorial Guinea: 440 East 62nd St., Apt. 6D, New York, 
N.Y. 1002; (vacant). 

Ethiopia: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 560, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Yohannes Tseghe. 

Fiji: 845 Third Ave., 19th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10022; 
Semesa K. SlKIVOU. 

Finland: 866 United Nations Plaza, 2nd Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Max Jakobson. 

France: 4 East 79th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Jacques 
Kosciusko-Morizbt. 

Gabon: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 536, New York, 
N.Y. 1 00 1 7; Jean Bavin. 

Gambia: (not yet established, December 1970). 

Ghana: 144 East 44th St., New York, N.Y. 10017: Richard 
Maximilian Akwei. 

Greece: 69 East 79th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Dimitri 
S. Bitsios. 

Guatemala: Chrysler Bldg., Suite 3220, 405 Lexington 
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017; Rafael E. .Castillo- 
Vald£s. 

Guinea: 295 Madison Ave., 24th Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017; El Had] Abdoulaye Touiti. 

Guyana: 355 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y, P. A. 
Thompson. 

Haiti: 801 Second Ave., Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Marcel Antoine. 

Honduras: 415 Lexington Ave., Room 802, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; (vacant). 

Hungary: 10 East 75tb St., New York, N.Y. loozr; 
ICAroly Szarka. 

Iceland: 420 Lexington Ave., New York, N,Y., 10017; 

HASS.4N KjARTANSSON. 

India: 3 East 64th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Samar 
Sen. 

Indonesia: 305 East 45th St., i8th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Hadji Roeslan Abdulgani. 


4 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Iran: 777 Third Avc., 26th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Mehdi Vakil. 

Iraq: 14 East 79th St.. New York, N.Y. 10021: Talib 
El-Shibib. 

Ireland: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 520-1, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Cornelius C. Cremin. 

Israel: ii East 70th St.. New York, N.Y. 10021; Yosef 
Tekoah. 

Italy: 809 United Nations Plaza, 3rd Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017: Piero Vinci. 

Ivory Coast: 46 East 74th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Simeon Ake. 

Jamaica: 235 East 42nd St., New York. N.Y. 10017; Keith 
Johnson. 

Japan: 866 United Nations Plaza, and Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Senjin Tsuruoka. 

Jordan: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 550-552, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Muhammad H. El-Farra. 

Kenya: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 486, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Joseph Odero-Jowi. 

Kuwait: 235 East 42nd St., 27th Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017; Muhalhel Mohamad Al-Mudhaf. 

Laos: 321 East 45th St., Apartment 7G, New York, N.Y. 
10017; (vacant). 

Lebanon: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 533-535, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Edouard Ghorra. 

Lesotho: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 580, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; M. T. Mashologu. 

Liberia: 235 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 1001 7; Nathan 
Barnes. 

Libya: 866 United Nations Plaza, Now York, N.Y. 10017; 
(vacant). 

Luxembourg: 200 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Andr6 Philippe. 

Madagascar: 301 East 47th St., Apartment 2H, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Joseph Blaise Rabetafika. 

Malawi: 777 Third Ave., 24th Floor, New York, N.Y 
10017; Nyemba Wales Mbekeani. 

Malaysia: 845 Third Ave., i6th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10022; H. M. A. Zakaria. 

Maldives: c/o Embassy ot Maldives, 2013 Q St., N.W. 

Washin^on, D.C.; Abdul Sattar. 

Mali: m East 69th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Seydou 
Traore. 

Malta: 249th East 35th St., 22nd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10016; Arvid Pardo. 

Mauritania: 8 West 40th St., 18th Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10018; Sid’ahmed Ould Taya. 

Mauritius: 301 East 47th St., Suite 3C, New York, N.Y. 

10017; Radha Krishna Ramphul. 

Mexico; 8 East 41st St., New York, N.Y. 10017: Alfonso 
Garcia Robles, 

Mongolia: 6 East 77th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Mangalyn Dugersuren. 

Morocco: 757 Third Ave., 23rd Floor, New York, N.Y. 

Tool 7; Ahmed Taibi Benhima. 

Nepal: Envoy Towers, 300 East 46th St., Suite 18D, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Mai. Gen. Padma Bahadur 
Khatri. 


Netherlands: 711 Third Ave., 18th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Robbert Fack. 

New Zealand: 733 Third Ave., 22nd Floor, New York, 
N.Y 10017; John Vivian Scott. 

Nicaragua: Rockefeller Center, 1270 Ave. of the Americas, 
Suite 1818, New York, N.Y. 10020; Guillermo 
Sevilla-Sacasa. 

Niger: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 570, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7; (vacant). 

Nigeria: 757 Third Ave., 20th Floor, New York, 10017; 
Edwin Ogebe Ogbu. 

Norway: 825 Third Ave., i8th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
1 001 7; (vacant). 

Pakistan: Pakistan House, 8 East 65tli St., New York, 
N.Y. 10021; Agha Shahi. 

Panama: 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 544-545, New 
York, N.Y. 10017; Aquilino E. Boyd. 

Paraguay: 211 East 43rd St., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017; Miguel Solano Lopez. 

Peru: 301 East 47th St., Room r6A, New York, N.Y. 
10017; (vacant). 

Philippines: 13 East 66th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Narcisco G. Reyes. 

Poland: 9 East 66th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Eugeniusz Kulaga. 

Portugal: Rockefeller Center, 630 Fiftli Ave., Suite 2170, 
Now York, N.Y. 10020; Chargd d'A ffaircs (a.i.) Antonio 
A. DE Medeiros Patricio. 

Romania: 60 East 93rd St., New York, N.Y. 10028; 
Gheorghe Diaconescu. 

Rwanda: 120 East 56th St., Room 630, New York, N.Y. 

10022: FiDhLE Nkundabagenzi. 

Saudi Arabia: 6 East 43rd St., 26tli Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10017: (vacant). 

Senegal: 51 East 42nd St., i7tli Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Ibrahima Boye. 

Sierra Leone: 30 East 42nd St., Room 608, New York, 
N.Y. 1001 7: Davidson S. H. W. Nicol. 

Singapore: 711 Third Ave., nth Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; T. T. B. Koh. 

Somalia: 236 East 46th St., 3rd Floor, New York, N.Y. 

10017: Abdulrahim Abby Farah. 

South Africa: 300 East 42nd St., 17th Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 1 001 7; C. F. G. VON Hirschberg. 

Spain: 820 Second Ave., 17th Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Jaime De Pinies. 

Sudan: 757 Third Ave., 12th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Mohamed Fakhreddine. 

Swaziland: 860 United Nations Plaza. Suite 420, New 
York, N.Y. 1001 7: Mboni Naph Dlamini. 

Sweden: 825 Third Ave., 38th Floor, New York, R.Y. 
10022: Olof Rydbeck. 

Syrian Arab Republic: 150 East 58th St., Room 1500, New 
York, N.Y. 10022; George J. Tomeh. 

Tanzania: 800 Second Ave., 3rd Floor, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Salim Ahmed Salim. 

Thailand: 20 East 82nd St., New York, N.Y. 10028; Anand 
Panyarachun (a.i.). 


5 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Togo : 8oi Second Ave., New York, N. Y. 10017; Alexandre 
J. Ohin. 

Trinidad and Tobago: 801 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 
10017; P. V. J. Solomon. 

Tunisia: 40 East 71st St., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Kachid Driss. 

Turkey: 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 525, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Umit Haluk Bayulken. 

Uganda: 801 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017; E. 
Otema Allimadi. 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: 136 East 67th St., 
New York, N.Y. 10021; Mikhail Deonisovich 

POLYANICHKO. 

U.S.S.R.: 136 East 67th St., New York, N.Y. 10021; Yakov 
Aleksandrovich Malik. 

United Arab Republic: 36 East 67th. St., New York, N.Y. 
10021; Mohammed Hassan El-Zayy.at. 


United Kingdom: 845 Third Ave., loth Floor, New York, 
N.Y. 10022; Sir Colin Crowe. 

U.S.A.: 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10017; 
George Bush. 

Upper Volta: 236 East 46th St., New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Paul T. Rouamba. 

Uruguay: 301 East 47th St., Room 19A, New York, N.Y. 
10017; Augusto Legnani. 

Venezuela: 231 East 46th St., New York, N.Y. 10017; 

Andres Aguilar Mawdsley. 

Yemen (Arab Republic): 211 East 43rd St., 19th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10017; Mohamed Said Al-Attar. 
Yemen (People’s Democratic Republic) : 866 United Nations 
Plaza, Room 427, New York, N.Y. 10017; Abdul 
Malek Ismail. 

Yugoslavia: 854 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10021; 
Lazar Mojsov. 

Zambia: 150 East 58th St., New York, N.Y. 10022; 
Vernon Johnson Mwaanga. 


OBSERVERS 

(ivith Permanent Observers) 


Federal Republic of Germany: 405 Lexington Ave., 56th 
Floor, Chrysler Bldg., New York, N.Y. 10017; 
Alexander Boker. 

Holy See: 323 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017; The 
Rt. Rev. Mgr. Alberto Giovanetti. 

Republic of Korea: 866 United Nations Plaza, 5th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10016; Ha Koo Yeon (a.i.). 


Monaco: 610 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020; (vacant). 

Switzerland: 757 Third Ave., Room 2120, New York, 
N.Y. 10017; Bernard Turrettini. 

Republic of Viet-Nam : 866 United Nations Plaza, 5th Floor, 
New York, N.Y. 10017; Nguyen Huu-Chi. 


U.N. INFORMATION CENTRES 


Afghanistan: Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Watt, Kabul; P.O. 
Box 5. 

Algeria: 19 Avenue Claude Debussy, Algiers; P.O. Box 803. 
Argentina: Charcas 684, 3er piso, Buenos Aires (also 
covers Uruguay). 

Australia: London Assurance Bldg., 20 Bridge St., Sydney; 
P.O.B. R.226, G.P.O., Sydney 2000 (also covers New 
Zealand) . 

Bolivia: Avenida Arce No. 2419, La Paz; P.O.B. 686. 
Brazil: Apt. 201, Cruz Lima St. No. 19, Rio de Janeiro; 
P.O.B. 1750. 

Burma: 132 University Ave., Rangoon. 

Burundi : Avenue de la Poste et Place J ungers, Buj umbura; 

P.O.B. 1490 (also covers Rwanda). 

Cameroon: Yaounde, P.O. Box 836. 

Ceylon: 204 Buller’s Road, Colombo 7; P.O. Box 1505. 
Chile: Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammer- 
skjold, Santiago. 

Colombia: Calle 19, No. 7-30, Septimo Piso, Bogota; 

P.O.B. 6567 (also cover Ecuador and Venezuela). 
Congo (Democratic Republic of): Le Royal, Blvd. du 
30 Juin, lUnshasa; P.O.B. 7248. 

Czechoslovakia: Panska 5, Prague 1. 

Denmark: 37 H. C. Andersen's Blvd., Copenhagen V (also 
covers Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). 

El Salvador: Avenida Roosevelt 2818, San Salvador; 
P.O.B. 1114 (also covers British Honduras, Costa Rica, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). 


Ethiopia: Africa Hall, Addis Ababa; P.O.B. 3001. 

France: 1 rue Mollis, Paris, 150 (also covers Belgium and 
Luxembourg). 

Ghana: Maxwell Rd. and Liberia Rd., Accra; P.O.B. 2339 
(also covers Guinea and Sierra Leone). 

Greece: 36 Amalia Ave., Athens 119 (also covers Cyprus, 
Israel and Turkey). 

India: 21 Curzon Road, New Delhi. 

Iran: Off. Takhte Jamshid, 12 Kh. Bandar Pahlavi, 
Teheran; P.O.B. 1555. 

Iraq: zyjz/i Abu Nouwas St., Bataween, Baghdad; P.O.B. 
2048, Almyah. 

Italy: Palazzetto Venezia, Piazza San Marco 50, Rome 
(also covers Malta). 

Ivory Coast: Abidjan (to be established). 

Japan: New Ohtemachi Building, Room 411/412, 4, 
2-chome, Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 

Lebanon: P.O.B. 4656, Bir Hassan, Beirut (also covers 
Jordan, Kuwait and Syria). 

Liberia: ULRC Building, Monrovia; P.O.B. 274. 

Madagascar: 26 rue de Lifege, Tananarive; P.O.B. 1348. 

Mexico: Hamburgo No. 63, 3er Piso, Mexico City 6, D.F., 
(also covers Cuba and Dominican Republic). 

Morocco: Angle avenue Urbain Blanc et rue do Nimes, 
Rabat; P.O.B. 524. 

Nepal: Lainchaur, Lazimpat, Kathmandu; P.O.B. 107. 

Nigeria: 17 Kingsway Rd., Ikoyi, Lagos; P.O.B, 1068. 


6 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


U.N. Information Centres — continued.] 

Pakistan: Havelock Road, Karachi; P.O. Box 349, 
G.P.O. 

Paptia and New Guinea: Hunter St,, Port Moresby {also 
covers British Solomon Islands). 

Paraguay: Calle Coronel Bogado 871, Asuncidn; P.O.B. 
1107. 

Peru: Avenida Arequipa 3330, San Isidro, Lima; P.O.B. 
4480. 

Philippines: WHO Bldg., corner United Nations Av'c. at 
Taft Ave., Manila; P.O.B. 2149. 

Romania: Bucharest. 

Senegal: 2 Avenue Roume, Dakar; P.O.B. 154 (also covers 
Gambia). 

Sudan: House No. 9, Block 6.5.D.E., Nejumi St., IGiar- 
toum; P.O.B. 1992. 

Switzerland: Palais des Nations 1211, Geneva 10 (also 
covers Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Holy Sec, Hungary, 
Poland, Portugal and Spain). 

Tanzania: Matasalamat Gldg., Dar es Salaam; P.O.B. 
9224 (also covers Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia). 


Thailand: Sala Santitham, Bangkok (also covers Cam- 
bodia, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore and Viet-Nam). 

Togo: Rue Albert Sarraut Coin, Ave. de Gaulle, Lome; 
P.O.B. gii. 

Trinidad and Tobago: 19 Keate St., Port of Spain; P.O.B. 
S12 (also covers Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica and 
Caribbean Area). 

Tunisia: 61 Boulevard Bab Bcnat, Tunis; P.O.B. 863 
(also covers Libya). 

U.S.S.R.: No. 4/16 UHtsa Lunacharskogo i, Moscow (also 
covers Byelorussian S.S.R. and Ukrainian S.S.R.). 

United Arab Republic: Sh. Osiris, Immeuble Tagher, 
Garden City, Cairo; P.O.B. 262 (also covers Saudi 
Arabia and Yemen). 

United Kingdom: 14-15 Stratford Place, London, Wi 
N9AF (also covers Ireland and Netherlands). 

United States: Suite 714, 1028 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20006. 

Yugoslavia: Svetozara Markovica 58, Belgrade; P.O. Box 
157 (also covers Albania). 


UNITED NATIONS BUDGET FOR 1971 


(U.S. dollars) 

Sessions, Special Meetings and Conferences: 

Travel and other expenses .... 
Special meetings and conferences 

Staff Costs: 

Salaries and wages 

Common staff costs ..... 

Travel of staff ...... 

Other payments ..... 

Premises, Equipment, Supplies and Services: 
Buildings and improvements 
Permanent equipment . . • ■ 

Maintenance, operation and rental of premises 
General expenses ..... 

Printing ....... 


1,499,000 

2,713.500 

4.212,500 


83.618.000 

19.128.000 
2,635,200 

159,000 

105,540,200 


5,040,900 

1.021.700 

6.241.000 

5.968.000 

3.082.700 

21.354.300 


Special Expenses . 


9,670,800 9,670,800 


Technical Programmes: 

Economic development, social development and public 
administration; human rights advisory services; nar- 
cotic drugs control ...••• 
Industrial development ....•• 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
United Nations Industrial Development Organization • . 

Special missions .....•• 

Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees . 
International Court of Justice . . . • • 


5.408.000 

1.500.000 

10.686,200 

11,898,000 

7,631,900 

4.596.300 

1,476,600 


6,908,000 

10.686,200 

11,898,000 

7.631,900 

4,596,300 

1,476,600 


Totaz 


183,974.800 


7 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS 


THE MAIN ORGANS 


General Assembly. 

Security Council. 

Economic and Social Council — ECOSOC. 


Trusteeship Council. 
International Court of Justice. 
Secretariat. 


REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMISSIONS 


Economic Commission for Europe — ECE. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East — ECAFE. 


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development — 
IBRD (World Bank). 

International Development Association — IDA. 
International Finance Corporation — IFC. 

International Monetary Fund — IMF. 

Food and Agriculture Organization — ^FAO. 

General Agreement on TariSs and Trade — GATT. 
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization — 
IMCO. 


Economic Commission for Latin America — ECLA. 
Economic Commission for Africa — ECA. 

AGENCIES 

International Civil Aviation Organization — ICAO. 
International Labour Organisation — ILO. 

International Telecommunication Union — ITU. 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization — UNESCO. 

Universal Postal Union — UPU. 

World Health Organization— WHO. 

World Meteorological Organization — 'WMO. 


SPECIALIZED 


OTHER BODIES 

(in order of establishment) 


United Nations Children's Fund — UNICEF (established 
1946). 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East — UNWRA [established 1948). 

United Nations Military Observer Group for India and 
Pakistan — ^UNMOGIP (established 1949). 

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization — UNTSO 
(established 1949). 

United Nations Commission for the Unification and Re- 
habilitation of Korea — ^UNCURK (established 1950). 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees — 
UNHCR (established 1930). 

International Atomic Energy Agency — ^lAEA (established 
1957 )- 

World Food Programme — WFP (established 1963). 


United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus — 
UNFICYP (established 1964). 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development — 
UNCTAD (established 1964). 

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 
— UNRISD [established 1964). 

United Nations Institute for Training and Research — 
UNITAR (established 1965). 

United Nations Development Programme — UNDP (estab- 
lished 

United Nations Industrial Development Organization — 
UNIDO (established 1967). 

United Nations Middle East Mission — UNMEM (established 

1967) . 

United Nations Capital Development Fund (established 

1968) . 


8 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 

THE MAIN ORGANS 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

The General Assembly was established as a principal organ under the United Nations Charter; first met 
January loth, 1946. It is the main deliberative organ of the United Nations. 


MEMBERS 

All members of the UN. Each delegation consists of not I many advisers, technical advisers and experts as may be 
more than five representatives and five alternates with as I required. 


ORGANIZATION 


President tor 25th Session (Scptcmber-Deccmbcr 1970): 
Edward Hasibro (Norway). 

Vice-Presidents: Chairman of the delegations of Brazil, 
Chad, China, Ecuador, France, Iraq, Jamaica. Kenya, 
Malta, Mauritius, Nepal, Philippines, Senegal, Ukrain- 
ian S.S.R., U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, and U.S.A. 

The Assembly meets regularly once a year, but special 
sessions may also be held. It has the power to adopt 
recommendations only, not binding decisions. Important 
quMtions are decided by a two-thirds majority. Each 
nation has one vote and each vote is equal. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY COMMITTEES AND 
COMMISSIONS 

MAIN COMMITTEES 

There are seven IMain Committees, on wliich all mcmber.s 
have a right to be represented. The First to Sixtli were 
appointed on January nth, 1946. An ad hoc Political 
Committee was first established in November 1948 and 
re-established annually until November 195O, when it was 
made permanent and renamed Special Political Committee. 
First Committee; Political and Security. 

Special Political Committee. 

Second Committee: Economic and Financial. 

Third Committee: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural. 
Fourth Committee: Trust and Non-Sclf-Governing Terri- 
tories. 

Fi/l/i Committee: Administrative and Budgetary. 

Sixth Committee: Legal. 

OTHER SESSIONAL COMMITTEES 
General Committee: f. 1946; composed of trventy-five 
members, including the Assembly President, the 
seventeen Vice-Presidents and the Chairmen, of the 
seven Main Committees. 

Credentials Committee: f. 1946; composed of nine members 
elected at each Assembly session. 

POLITICAL AND SECURITY QUESTIONS 
Special Committee on Peace-Keeping Operations: i. 1965; 
thirty-three members, appointed by the Assembly 

President. 


Disarmament Commission: f. 1952, to replace the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Commission for Conven- 
tional Armaments; composed of all UN Members. 

Conference of the Committee on Disarmament {CCD): 
originally established in 1961 as the Eighteen-Nation 
Committee on Disarmament, following an agreement 
between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. Original members: 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, Czechoslovakia, 
Ethiopia, France (not participating), India, Italy, 
Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Sweden, U.S.S.R., 
U.A.R., U.K., U.S.A. In 1969 membership was en- 
larged by the addition of eight members. 

Peace Observation Commission: f. 1950; fourteen members, 
including the five permanent members of the Security 
Council; other members arc appointed by the Assembly 
for a two-year term; can be used by the General Assem- 
bly or by the Security Council to observe and report 
on areas of international tension. 

UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: 
f. 1955; fifteen members. 

UN Scientific Advisory Committee: f. 1954 as Advisory 
Committee on the International Conference on the 
Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, which in 1955 became 
the Advisory Committee on the Peaceful Uses of 
Atomic Energy, then extended under its present name 
in 1958; seven members. 

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: f. 1959; 
twenty-eight members; has a Legal Sub-Committee, a 
Scientific and Technical Sub-Committee and a Working 
Group on Direct Broadcast Satellites. 

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and the 
Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of Natural Jurisdiction: 
f. 1968; forty-two members, agreedtoby the Assembly’s 
First Committee; has a ILegal Sub-Committee and an 
Economic and Technical Sub-Committee. 

UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine: f. 1948; three 
members; France, Turkey, U.S.A. 

Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid on the Govern- 
ment of South Africa: f. 1962; seventeen members 
(enlarged from eleven in 1965). 

Committee of Trustees of the UN Trust Fund for South 
Africa: f. 1965; five members. 


9 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


Committee on Sanctions for Southern Rhodesia: i. 1968; in 
October 1970 is was enlarged from seven members to 
include all the members of the Security Council. 

TRUST TERRITORIES AND COLONIAL 
QUESTIONS 

XJN Council for Namibia: f. 1967 as UN Council for South 
West Africa; changed name in 1968; eleven members: 
Chile, Colombia, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, 
Pakistan, Turkey, U.A.R., Yugoslavia, Zambia. 

Special Committee on the Ending of Colonialism: f. 1961; 
twenty-four members. 

Advisory Committee on the UN Educational and Training 
Programme for Southern Africa: f. 1968; composed of 
an unspecified number of States to be selected by the 
Secretarjf'General . 

LEGAL QUESTIONS 

International Law Commission: f. 1947; twenty-five mem- 
bers elected for a five-year term; originally established 
in 1946 as the Committee on the Progressive Develop- 
ment of International Law and its Codification; 
twenty-five members elected for a five-year term: 
Roberto Ago (Italy), Fernando Albonico (Chile), 
Gonzalo Alcivar (Eduador), Milan Bartos (Yugo- 
slavia), Mohammed Bedjaoui (Algeria), Josfi Sette 
Camara (Brazil), Jorge CastatSeda (Mexico), Erik 
CastrSn (Finland), Abdullah El Erian (U.A.R.), 
Taslim O. Elias (Nigeria), Constantine Th. Eusta- 
THIADES (Greece), Richard D. Kearney (U.S.A.), 
Nagendra Singh (India), Alfred Ramangasoavina 
(Madagascar), Paul Reuter (France), Shabtai 
Rosenne (Israel), Jos6 Maria Ruda (Argentina), 
Abdul Hakim Tabibi (Afghanistan), Arnold J. P. 


Tammes (Netherlands), Doudou Thiam (Senegal), 
Senjin Tsuruoka (Japan), Nikolai A. Ushakov 
(U.S.S.R.), Endre Ustor (Hungary), Sir Humphrey 
Waldock (U.K.), Mustafa Kamil Yasseen (Iraq). 

Special Committee on Principles of International Law 
Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among 
States: f. 1963; thirty-one members. 

Advisory Committee on the UN Programme of Assistance 
in Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider Appre- 
ciation of International Law: f. 1965: ten members. 
Special Committee on the Question of Defining Aggression: 
1 . 1967; thirty-five members; (the first committee 
under this name was formed in 1952). 

UN Commission on International Trade Law {UNCITRAL): 
f. 1966; taventy-nine members. 

ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL 
QUESTIONS 

Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions [ACABQ) : f. 1946; twelve members appointed 
for three-year terms. 

Committee on Contributions: f. 1946; twelve members 
appointed for three-year terms. 

Committee on Conferences: f. 1966; fifteen members ap- 
pointed for three-year terms. 

International Civil Service Advisory Board (ICSAB): f. 
1948; eleven members. 

There is also a Board of Auditors, Investments Com- 
mittee, UN Administrative Tribunal, Committee on 
Applications for Review of Administrative Tribunal 
Judgments, UN Joint Staff Pension Board and UN Staff 
Pension Committee. 


SECURITY COUNCIL 

Established as a principal organ under the United Nations Charter; first met January 17th, 1946. The task of the 
Security Council is to promote international peace and security in all parts of the world. 


MEMBERS 

Permanent members: 

China (Taiwan) U.S.S.R. United Kingdom 

France U.S.A. 

The remaining ten members are normally elected by the 
General Assembly for two-year periods: 

Until December 1971: Burundi, Nicaragua, Poland, 
Sierra Leone, Syria. 

Until December 1972: Agentina, Italy, Belgium, Somalia, 
Japan. 

ORGANIZATION 

The Security Council has the right to investigate any 
dispute or situation which might lead to friction between 
two or more countries, and such disputes or situations may 
be brought to the Council’s attention either by one of its 
members, by any member state, by the General Assembly, 
by the Secretary-General or even, under certain conditions, 
by a state which is not a member of the United Nations. 


The Council has the right to recommend ways and 
means of peaceful settlement and, in certain circumstances, 
the actual terms of settlement. 

In the event of a threat to or breach of international 
peace or an act of aggression, the Council has powers to 
take "enforcement” measures in order to restore inter- 
national peace and security. These include severance of 
communications and of economic and diplomatic relations 
and, if required, action by air, land and sea forces. 

All members of the United Nations are pledged by the 
Charter to make available to the Security Council, on its 
call and in accordance with special agreements, the armed 
forces, assistance and facilities necessary to maintain 
international peace and security. These agreements, how- 
ever, have not yet been concluded. 

The Council is organized to be able to function con- 
tinuously. The Presidency of the Council is held monthly 
in turn by the member states in English alphaboticM 
order. 


10 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


Each member of the Council has one vote. On procedural 
matters decisions are made by the affirmative vote of any 
nine members. For decisions on other matters the required 
nine affirmative votes must include the votes of the five 
permanent members. This is the rule of "great power 
unanimity” popularly known as the "veto” privilege. 
This right has so far been exercised ti6 times, as follows; 
China (i). France {4), U.S.S.R. (105), United Kingdom (5). 
U.S.A. (i) (as at February, 1971)- 
In practice, an abstention by one of the permanent 


members is not regarded as a veto. Any member, whether 
permanent or non-permanent, must abstain from voting in 
any decision concerning the pacific settlement of a dispute 
to which it is a party. 

SUBSIDIARY BODY 

Military Staff Committee: Consists of the Chiefs of Staff 
(or their representatives) of the five permanent members 
of the Security Council and assists the Council on all 
military questions. 


ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL— ECOSOC 

Promotes world co-operation on economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 


MEMBERS 


Twenty-seven members are elected by the General 
Assembly for three-year terms: nine are elected each year. 
Current membership: 

Until December 1971: Indonesia, Jamaica, Norrvay, 
Pakistan, Sudan, U.S.S.R., U.K., Uruguay, Yugoslavia. 


Until December 1972; Brazil, Ceylon, France, Ghana, 
Greece, Italy, Kenya, Peru, Tunisia. 

Until December 1973: Congo (Democratic Republic), 
Haiti, Hungary, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, New 
Zealand, Niger, U.S.A. 


ORGANIZATION 


The Council, normally meeting twice a year in New York 
and Geneva, is mainly a central policy-maldng and co- 
ordinating organ. It has a co-ordinating function between 
UN and the specialized agencies, and also makes consulta- 
tive arrangements wth approved voluntary or non- 
governmental organizations which work rvithin the sphere 
of its activities. The Council has functional and regional 
commissions to carry out much of its detailed work. 
President (1971): Rachid Driss (Tunisia). 

Vice-Presidents (1971): Joao Augusto oe Araujo Castro 
(Brazil), Karoly Szarka (Hungary), Costa P. Carani- 
CAS (Greece), 

FUNCTIONAL COMMISSIONS 
Statistical Commission: Standardizes terminology and 
procedure in statistics. 

Population Commission: Tries to raise the standard and 
broaden the scope of national censuses. 

Commission for Social Development: Plans Social 
Development Programmes. 

Commission on Human Rights: Seeks greater respect for 
the basic rights of man, the prevention of discnmmation 
and the protection of minorities. [Siib-commis^ion. on 
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.) 

Commission on the Status of Women: Aims at equality 
of political, economic and social rights for women. 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs: Mainly concerned in 
combating illicit traffic. 

COMMITTEES AND SUBSIDIARY BODIES 
Committee for Drogramme and Co-ordination (CPU). L 19^2* 
Enlarged Committee for Programme and Co-ordinalton 
(ECPC): f. 1966. . _ 

Council Committee on Non-Governmental Orgameations . 
■Administrative Committee on Co-ordination (ACC). I- i94 


ntcr-Agcncy Consultative Board {lACB); f. 19^5- 
Preparatory Committee for the Second UN Development 
Decade: i. 1968; established jointly by ECOSOC and 
the General Assembly. 

'ommittee for Development Planning: f. I9fi5- 
td Hoc Committee on the Survey Programme for the De- 
velopment of Natural Resources: f. i9fi7- 
Committee for Natural Resources: f. 197®* 

Idvisory Committee on the Application of Science and 
Technology to Development: f. 1963- 
Vd Hoc Working Group on the Question of a Declaration on 
International Economic Co-operation: f. 1982- 
:ommittec on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: f. 1957- 
’ommittee on Housing, Building and Planning. 

Advisory Committee of Experts on the Prevention of Crime 
and the Treatment of Offenders: f. 195° as an ad hoe 
body by the General Assembly; established as a 
permanent body by ECOSOC in 1985- 

REGIONAL COMMISSIONS 

Economic Commission for Europe ECE. a nr: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far Eiul EC A EE. 
Economic Commission for Latin America EC LA. 
Economic Commission for Africa ECA. 

RELATED BODIES 

UNICEF Executive Board: members are elected by 

ECOSOC. , X j u 

UNHCR Executive Committee: members are elected by 

ECOSOC. , j T, , 

UNDP Governing Council: members are elected by 

ECOSOC. 

UNIFAO Intergovernmental Committee of the WFP. one- 
half of members elected by ECOSOC, one-half by FAO. 
International Narcotics Control Board: members are 
n,, Trr.nqno 


II 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

Ncv/ York City 

One of the six main organs of the UN, the Trusteeship Council supervises United Nations’ Trust Territories through 
the administering authorities to promote the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the 

inhabitants towards self-government or independence. 


TERRITORIES UNDER TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM 

New Guinea (Australia). 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (U.S.A.). 


MEMBERS OF TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

The Council consists of member states administering 
Trust Territories, permanent members of the Security 
Council which do not administer Trust Territories, and 
enough other non-administering countries elected by the 
Assembly for three-year terms to ensure that the member- 
ship is equally divided between administering and non- 
administering members. 

A dministering Countries ; Other Countries : 

Australia China (Taiwan) 

United States France 

United Kingdom 
U.S.S.R. 

Liberia 


ORGANIZATION 

The Council meets once a year, generally in June. Each 
member has one vote, and decisions are made by a simple 
majority of the members present and voting. A new 
President is elected at the beginning of the Council's 
regular session each year. 

The Council is under the authority of the General 
Assembly for all its territories except the Trust Territory 
of the Pacific Islands. This has been designated a strategic 
area, and the supervisory functions of the United Nations 
are, in its case, exercised by the Trusteeship Council under 
the authority of the Security Council. 


INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 

Peace Palace, The Hague 2012, Nelherlanils 

Set up in 1945, tlie Court is the principal judicial organ of the UN. All members of the UN are parties to the 
Statute of the Court, and also Switzerland, Liechtenstein and San Marino. In addition, the Court is open to the 
Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Viet-Nam. States parties to the Statute: 130. 


COMPOSITION OF THE COURT 


The Judges. The Court is composed of fifteen independent 
judges of different nationalities, elected from among 
persons of high moral character who possess high judicial 
or legal qualifications. Representation of the main forms 
of civilization and legal systems of the world is required to 
be borne in mind in their election. Candidates are nomi- 
nated by national groups appointed by governments 
under special conditions, and for election require an 
absolute majority in both the General Assembly and the 
Security Council sitting independently. Judges, loiown as 
Members of the Court, are elected for nine years and may 
be re-elected; elections for five seats are held every three 
years. The Court elects its President and Vice-President 


for each three-year period. Members may not have anj’ 
political, administrative, or other professional occupation, 
and may not sit in any case with which they have been 
otherwise connected than as a judge of the Court. They 
undertake to exercise their powers impartially and con- 
scientiously. For the purposes of a case, each side — 
consisting of one or more states — may, unless the Bench 
already includes a judge mth a corresponding nationality, 
choose a person from outside the Court to sit as a judge 
on terms of equality with the jMembers. Judicial decisions 
arc taken by a majority of the judges present, subject to 
a quorum of nine Members. The President has a casting 
vote. 


12 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 

THE tIUDCES 


Term Ends* 

President: Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan 

(Pakistan) ...... 

1973 

Vice-President: Fouad Ammoun (Lebanon) 

Sir Gerald Fitzmaurice (United 

1976 

Kingdom) ...... 

1973 

Luis Padilla Nervo (Mexico) 

1973 

Isaac Forster (Senegal) 

1973 

AndriI Gros (France) .... 

1973 

Cesar Bengzon (Philippines) . 

1976 

Sture Petr^n (Sweden) 

1976 

• Each term ends 

on February 


Term Ends 


Manfred Lacks (Poland) . . . 1976 

Charles D. Onyeama (Nigeria) . . 1976 

Hardy S. Dillard (U.S.A.) . . . 1979 

Louis Ignacio-Pinto (Dahomey) . . 1979 

Federico de Castro (Spain) . . . 1979 

Platon D. Morozov (U.S.S.R.) . . 1979 

Eduardo Jimenez de AriIchaga 

(Uruguay) 1979 

Registrar: Stanislas Aquarone. 

5th of the year in question. 


JURISDICTION AND POWERS OF DECISION 


The International Court of Justice operates in accord- 
ance with a Statute which is an integral part of the UN 
Charter, and is based on the Statute of the former Per- 
manent Court of International Justice, established in 1920 
under the League of Nations and dissolved in 1946. Refer- 
ences conferring jurisdiction on the Permanent Court in 
treaties or conventions still in force are deemed to be 
references to the present Court. Only States may be parties 
in cases before the Court; those not parties to the Statute 
may have access in certain circumstances and under con- 
ditions laid down by the Security Council. 

The Jurisdiction of the Court comprises: 

1. All cases which the parties refer to it jointly by 
special agreement (there have been five such). 

2. All matters concerning which a treaty or convention 
in force provides for reference to the Court. Nearly 200 
bilateral or multilateral agreements make such provision. 
Among the more noteworthy: General Act for Pacific 
Settlement of International Disputes (i 9 ‘} 9 )i Treaty of 
Peace with Japan (1951), European Convention for Peaceful 
Settlement of Disputes (1957), Sittgle Convention on Narcotic 
Drugs (1961), Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees 

(1967). 

3 - Legal disputes between States which have recognized 
the jurisdiction of the Court as compulsory for specified 


PAST 

Thirty-nine cases have been referred to the Court by 
States. Some were removed from the list as a result of 
settlement or discontinuance, or on the ground of a lack 
of basis for jurisdiction. Cases which have been the subject 
of a Judgment by the Court include: 

Corfu Channel (United Kingdom v. Albania), Fisheries 
(United Kingdom v. Norway), Asylum (Colombia/Peru), 
Maya de la Torre (Colombia v. Peru), Rights of Nationals 
of the United States of America in Morocco (France v. 
United States), Ambatielos (Greece v. United Kingdom), 
Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. (United Kingdom v. Iran), Min- 
guiers and Ecrehos (France/ United Kingdom), Nottebohm 
(Liechtenstein v. Guatemala), Monetary Gold Removed 


classes of disputes. Fortj'-six States have made declara- 
tions thus accepting the compulsory jurisdiction of the 
Court: Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Cambodia, Canada, 
China, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El 
Salvador, Finland, France, Gambia, Haiti, Honduras, 
India, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Lebanon, Liberia, Liechten- 
stein, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, 
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, 
Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab 
Republic, United Kingdom, United States of America, 
and Uruguay. 

Disputes as to whether the Court has jurisdiction are 
settled by the Court. 

Judgments are without appeal, but are binding only for 
the particular case and between the parties. 

Compliance with Judgments. States appearing before 
the Court undertake to comply with its Judgment. If a 
party to a case fails to do so. tlie other party may apply to 
the Security Council which may make recommendations 
or decide upon measures to give eSect to the Judgment. 

Advisory opinions on legal questions may be requested 
by the General Assembly, the Security Council or, if so 
authorized by the Assembly, other United Nations organs 
or specialized agencies. 


CASES 

from Rome in 1943 (Italy v. France, United Kingdom and 
United States), Certain Norwegian Loans (France v. 
Nonvay), Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal 
V. India), Application of the Convention of igos Governing 
the Guardianship of Infants (Netherlands v. Sweden), 
Inter Jiandel (Switzerland v. United States), Sovereignty over 
Certain Frontier Land (Belgium/Netherlands), Arbitral 
Award made by the King of Spain on 23 December igo6 
(Honduras v. Nicaragua), Temple of Preah Viliear (Cam- 
bodia ,v. Thailand), South West Africa (Ethiopia and 
Liberia v. South Africa), Northern Cameroons (Cameroon 
V. United Kingdom), Barcelona Traction, Light and Power 
Co., Ltd. {New Application: rpfe) (Belgium v. Spain), 


13 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (The Main Organs) 


North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany/ 
Denmark and Netherlands). 

Advisory Opinions on the following matters have been 
given by the Court at the request of the United Nations 
General Assembly: 

Condition of Admission to a State to Membership in the 
United Nations; Competence of the General Assembly for 
the Admission of a State to the United Nations; Reparation 
for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, 
Interpretation of the Peace Treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary 
and Romania; International Status of South West Africa; 
Voting Procedure on Questions relating to Reports and 
Petitions concerning the Territory of South West Africa; 


Admissibility of Hearings of Petitioners by the Committee of 
South West Africa; Reservations to the Convention on the 
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; 
Effect of Awards of Compensation Made by the United 
Nations Administrative Tribunal; Certain Expenses of the 
United Nations. 

The Court has also, at the request of Unesco, given an 
Advisorj^ Opinion on fudgments of the Administrative 
Tribunal of the ILO upon Complaints made against Unesco 
and, at the request of IMCO, on the Constitution of the 
Maritime Safety Committee of the Inter-Governmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization. 


RECENT JUDICIAL ACTIVITY OF THE COURT 


(Year Ending July 31st 1970) 

In the period from September 30th, 1969, to February 
26th, 1970, the Court held 2 public sittings and 33 private 
meetings. On Februarj’’ 5th, 1970, it gave judgment in the 
case concerning the: 

Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited 
(New Application: igSs) (Belgium v. Spain). This case 
arose out of the adjudication in bankruptcy in Spain of a 
company incorporated in Canada. The object of the claim 
was to seek reparation for damage alleged to have been 
sustained by Belgian nationals, shareholders in the com- 
pany, as a result of acts said to be contrary to international 
law committed towards the company by organs of the 
Spanish State. 

The Spanish Government having raised four preliminary 
objections, the Court, by a Judgment of July 24th, 1964, 
had rejected two of these and joined the remaining two 
to the merits. One of these latter objections was to the 
effect that the Belgian Government lacked capacity to 
submit any claim in respect of wrongs done to a Canadian 


company, even if the shareholders were Belgian; the 
other was to effect that local remedies available in Spain 
had not been exhausted. 

The Judgment of February 5th, 1970 (I.C.J. Reports 
1970, page 3), rejected Belgium’s claim by fifteen votes to 
one, finding that the Belgian Government lacked the legal 
capacity to exercise diplomatic protection of Belgian 
shareholders in a Canadian company %vith respect to 
measures taken against that company in Spain. 

Namibia (South West Afriea). By a resolution of July 
29th, 1970, the Security Council sought an advisory opinion 
on the following question: “What are the legal conse- 
quences for States of the continued presence of South 
Africa in Namibia, notvvithstanding Security Council 
resolution 276 (1970)?” 

This is the first request for an advisory opinion that the 
Security Council has addressed to the Court, and the 
fourth submitted on a matter concerning the Territory in 
question. 


INCOME 

From the United Nations . 


Totai, 


BUDGET 


(1970 — ^U.S. dollars) 


1.470,000 


1,470,000 


EXPENDITURE 

Salaries and Expenses of Members of 
the Court ..... 

Salaries, Wages and Expenses of the 
Registry ..... 

Common Services of the Court 
Permanent Equipment 

Totai. .... 


793.000 

563.000 

102.000 
12,000 


1,470,000 


PUBLICATIONS 


Reports (Judgments, Opinions and Orders): series. 
Pleadings (Written Pleadings and Statements, Oral Pro- 
ceedings, Correspondence): series. 

Yearbook (annual). 


Bibliography (armual). 

Catalogue (irregular). 

Acts and Documents, No. r (contains Statutes and Rules 
of the Court) 2nd. edn. 1947. 


14 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


UNITED NATIONS SECRETARIAT 

New York City 

Telephone: 754-1234 

Performs the administrative functions of the United Nations. 


SECRETARY-GENERAL 


Secrctary-Generai: U Thaut (Burma) (November 3rd, 
igdi-November 2nd, 1966; re-appointed December 2nd, 
1966-December 31st, 1971). 

The Secretary-General is UN’s chief administrative 
officer, appointed by the General Assembly on the recom- 
mendation of the Security Council. He acts in that capacity 


at all meetings of the General Assembly, the Security 
Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the 
Trusteeship Council, and performs such other functions as 
are entrusted to iiim by those organs. He is required to 
submit an aimual report to the General Assembly and may 
bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter 
■which in his opinion may threaten international peace. 


SECRETARIAT 


Executive Office of the Secretary-Geueral: C. V. Narasimhan 
(India), Under-Sec.-Gcn., Chef de Cabinet. 

General Assembly Affairs: C. A. STAVROPOtmos (Greece), 
Under-Sec.-Gcn. 

Protocol and Liaison Section; Sin an A. Korle, Chef de 
Protocol. 

Offices of the Vnder-Secretaries-General for Special Political 
Affairs: Ralph J. Bunche (U.S.A.), Undcr-Scc.-Gen.; 
Josfi Rolz-Bennett (Guatemala). Under-Sec.-Gen.; 
JIarc Schreiber (Belgium), Dir. Division of Human 
Rights. 

Office of Legal Affairs; C. A. Stavropoulos (Greece), 
Under-Sec.-Gen., The Legal Counsel. 

Office of the Vnder-Secrelary-Gencral for Administration 
and Management: Andrew Stark (U.K.), Under-Sec.- 
Gen. 

Office of the Controller: Bruce Turner (New Zealand), 
Assistant Sec.-Gen., The Controller. 

Office of Personnel: Mohamed Habib Gherab (Tunisia), 
Assistant Sec.-Gen., Dir. of Personnel. 

Office for Inter-Agency Affairs: Ismat T. Kittani (Iraq), 
Assistant Sec.-Gen. 

Department of Political and Security Council Affairs: 
Leonid N. Kutakov (U.S.S.R.), Under-Sec.-Gen. 

Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Philippe de 
Seynes (France), Under-Sec.-Gen.j Victor Hoo 
(Chinese Republic), Assistant Sec.-Gen., Commissioner 
for Technical Co-operation; Jean Mussard, Dir. 


Secretariat for the 1971 Conference on the Environ- 
ment. 

Department of Trusteeship and Non-Self-Governing Terri- 
tories: IssouFOU S. Djermakoye (Niger), Under-Sec.- 
Gen. 

Office of Public Information: Agha Abd'ul Hamid (Pakis- 
tan), Assistant Sec.-Gen. 

Office of Conference Services: Jiftt Nosek (Czechoslovakia), 
Under-Sec.-Gen. 

Office of General Services: David B. Vaughan (U.S.A.), 
Assistant Sec.-Gen. 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
[UNCTAD): Manuel PErez G'uerrero (Venezuela), 
Sec.-Gen. of the Conference. 

United Nations Development Programme [UNDP): Paul 
Hoffman (U.S.A.), Administrator. 

United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF): Henry R. 
Labouisse (U.S.A.), Exec. Dir. 

United Nations Institute for Training and Research 
[UNITAR): Chief S. O. Adebo, c.m.g. (Nigeria), Exec. 
Dir. 

STAFF 

Members do not represent any country but form an 

independent international civil service, with responsi- 
bilities exclusively international in character. 

As of May 1970, 4,122 people were employed in the 

United Nations Secretariat in New York. 


15 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (The Main Organs) 


UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT GENEVA 
Palais des Nations, Geneva 

Telephone: 34 60 11; 33 10 00; 33 20 00; 33 40 00 

The Office of the UN at Geneva is responsible, through its Directors, to the Secretary-General in New York. 


SECRETARIAT 

Director'General: Under-Sec.-Gen. Vittorio Winspeare 
Gotcciardi (Italy). 

Assistant Director-General: Georges Palthey (France). 

Special Representative in Europe for Co-ordination and 
ACC Affairs: A. Bollinger. 

Chief, Office of the Director-General: Granville Fletcher. 
Senior Legal Officer: Pierre Raton. 

Director, Administrative and Financial Services: T. B. 

Kirkbride. 

Director, Conference and General Services: E. P. Tou- 

mantsev. 

Director, Division of Narcotic Drugs: Vladimir Kusevic. 


Secretary, international Narcotics Control Board: J. 

Dittert. 

Chief, Division of Social Affairs: Jean Iliovici. > 

STAFF 

As of May 1970, 978 people were employed in the 
United Nations Office at Geneva (not including ECE). 

Principal Functions 

1. General United Nations work. 

2. Collaboration with Specialized Agencies based in Geneva 

3. Servicing UN meetings held in Geneva. 

4. Servicing intergovernmental meetings held in Geneva. 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMISSIONS 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE— ECE 

Palais des Nations, Geneva 

ECE was established in 1947. Representatives of all European countries and of the United States study European 
economic and technological problems and recommend courses of action. 


Albania 

MEMBERS 

Greece 

Romania 

Austria 

Hungary 

Spain 

Belgium 

Iceland 

Sweden 

Bulgaria 

Ireland 

Turkey 

Byelorussian S.S.R. 

Italy 

Ukrainian S.S.R. 

C3q)rus 

Luxembourg 

U.S.S.R. 

Czechoslovakia 

Malta 

U.K. 

Denmark 

Netherlands 

U.S.A. 

Finland 

Norway 

"Yugoslavia 

France 

Poland 


Federal Republic of Germany 

Portugal 



Swtzerland takes part in a consultative capacity. 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 

ECE is one of the four regional economic commissions 
set np by the UN Economic and Social Council. The 
Commission holds an annual plenary session and brief 
meetings of subsidiary bodies are convened throughout 
the year. Specialists seek agreements for later government 
approval, collect statistics and exchange technical informa- 
tion, both at meetings and through distribution of reports 
and special papers. ECE itself takes no action affecting 
governments. 


SECRETARIAT 

Executive Secretary; Janez Stanovnik (Yugoslavia). 

The Secretariat services the meetings of the Commission 
and its subsidiary bodies and publishes periodic surveys 
and reviews, including a number of specialized statistical 
bulletins on coal, timber, steel, housing and building, 
electric power, gas and transport. 


COMMITTEES 


Committee on Agricultural Problems. Keeps under 
review the market conditions, follows developments under 
the Protocol on the Standardization of Fruit and Vege- 
tables, examines problems arising from mechanization of 
agriculture, and drafts standard clauses for the inter- 
uational sale of certain agricultural products (cereals and 
citrus fruits). Chair. G. Vorobyev (U.S.S.R.). 

Timber Committee. Regularly reviews the market in 
sawn softwood, smali-sized roundwood and hardwood, 
studies forest working techniques, compiles statistics, 
■watches trends in the use of wood and its products and of 
wood waste, and drafts standard clauses for the inter- 
national sale of certain categories of timber. Chair. K. 
Ronge (Sweden). 

Coal Committee. Concentrates on problems of production 


and trade, makes recommendations on the use of solid fuel. 
■With agreements reached on the international classification 
of brown coals and lignites, ECE has completed the classi- 
fication by ■type of all existing coals. Drafts general condi- 
tions of sale for solid fuels. Chair. B. Krupinski (Poland). 

Committee on Electric Power. Studies hydro-electric 
resources, thermal power plants, legal questions, rural 
electrification and 'the cost of financing new projects. ECE’s 
relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency 
is close. Chair. A. Georgescu (Romania). 

Committee on Gas. Deals with the economic and tech- 
nical aspects of the production, transport and utilization of 
gas, natural and manufactured as well as liquefied 
petroleum gases, and forecasts demand. Chair. L. 
Castellano (Spain). 


17 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


Committee on Housing, Building and Planning. Periodic- 
ally reviews trends and progress, with special reference to 
industrialization of construction and building costs. Studies 
land use and prices, urban renewal and physical planning. 
Housing prohlems of less industrialized countries receive 
special consideration. Chair. O. Lindblom (Finland). 

Inland Transport Committee. Covers road, rail and in- 
land water transport, customs, contracts, transport of 
dangerous and perishable goods, equipment, statistics, 
tariffs, river law, road transport rdgime and road traffic 
accidents, construction of vehicles and passenger transport 
services by road. A number of international agreements are 
in force following their adoption through ECE. Chair. 
I. Rezabek (Czechoslovakia). 

Steel Committee. Annually reviews trends in the Euro- 
pean and world markets, changes in price policy, growth of 
capacity supply factors and future prospects. Also studies 
long-term economic and technological problems. Chair. 
G. Andrejevic (Yugoslavia). 

Committee on the Development of Trade. Examines intra- 
European trade, especially east/west trade. Organizes 
facilities in arbitration, trade fairs and technical shows, 
standardization of general conditions of sale of goods, 
insurance, simplification and standardization of export 
documents, payments arrangements, including multi- 
lateral compensation procedures, and consultations. Chair. 
M. Reed (Norway). 

Conference of European Statisticians. Promotes improve- 


ment of national statistics and their international com- 
parability in economic, social and demographic fields; 
facilitates exchange of information between European 
countries. Chair. J. ICazimour (Czechoslovakia). 

Senior Economic Advisers to ECE Governments. Brings 
together high-calibre governmental experts for an exchange 
of views and experience on selected problems of govern- 
mental economic policy. Also, organizes — ^underits auspices 
— groups of experts, joint research projects and seminars 
on methodological problems relating to medium- and 
long-term planning and projections. Permanent Sec. of the 
Sessions F. Tabah (France). 

Committee on Water Problems. Reviews annually major 
trends and policies with regard to water resources use and 
developments. Studies problems relating to the methodo- 
logy of surveying water resources and needs including the 
establishment of relevant balances and statistics. Also 
studies selected problems of water pollution control and 
of governmental policy related to the formulation and 
administration of water management plans. Chair. I. 
Cheret (France). 

Chemical Industry Committee. Regularly reviews the 
market of chemical products and their raw materials in 
Europe, U.S.A. and Japan. Compiles annual statistics on 
production of and trade in chemical products. Carries out 
studies on special problems arising in connection with the 
development of the chemical industry. Chair. M. Moldovan 
(Romania). 


BUDGET 

ECE’s budget is included in the budget of the United 
Nations. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Economic Survey of Europe (annual); Economic Bulletin 
for Europe', frequent statistical and technical studies and 
bulletins, ECE NewsjNouvelles (monthly, in English and 
French). 


18 



THE UNITED NATIONS— {Regional Economic Commissions) 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE FAR EAST— ECAFE 

Sala Santitham, Bangkok, Thailand 


Telephone; 813544 

Founded in 1947 to encourage the economic and social development tte ^ar °°° 

the four regional Commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). 


Afghanistan 

Australia 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Ceylon 

Republic of China 
Fiji 


France 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Japan 

Republic of Korea 
Laos 


MEMBERS 

Malaysia 
Mongolia 
Nepal 

Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Pakistan 
Philippines 


Singapore 

Thailand 

U.S.S.R. 

United Kingdom 

U.S.A. 

Republic of Viet-Nam 
Western Samoa 


Brunei 


Associate Members 
Territory of Papua and New Guinea 


Hong Kong 


ORBANIZATION 


The Commission meets yearly in different member 
countries (first session, Shanghai, 1947; tiventy-scventh 
session scheduled for Manila, April 1971)* 

The work of the Commission is conducted through its 
annual sessions; meetings of its main committees and sub- 
committees, working parties, ad hoc conferences, trade 
promotion meetings and seminars: year-round work of a 
secretariat with headquarters in Bangkok; and technical 
assistance to governments. Fields of work include: 

Development Research and Planning 


Trade 

Industry and Natural Resources 
Water Resources 
Agricultural Development ■ 

Transport and Communications 

Statistics 

Population 

Social Development 

Public Administration 

Executive Secretary: U Nyun (Burma). 


activities 


ECAFE seeks to promote regional co-operation in all 
possible areas, from, river basin development, transport an 
telecommunications, for example, to joint- venture in- 
dustries and trade. At the same time, it helps individum 
members in the planning and carrying out of balanced 
national development programmes. 

In recent years ECAFE's work has been increasingl^y 
focused on action-oriented programmes to stimulate 
tangible growth. To provide a sound basis for regiona an 
national development, ECAFE compiles and analyses 
statistics; prepares economic surveys and studies; organizes 
seminars, working parties and study tours; and ^ 

advisory services to governments at their request. Altnoug 
ECAFE does not itself distribute capital aid, it has helped 
set up and attract funds for regional projects ttat in 
turn, provide development assistance. The Asian Deve p 
ment Bank, for example, grew out of an ECAFE 
on the need for a source of additional capital ; since 19 ^ 

has operated as an independent institution in Mam a [see 
separate chapter below). 


ECAFE initiatives have resulted in the establishment of 
the Commiltee for the Co-ordination of Investigations of the 
Lower Mekong Basin, composed of Cambodia, Laos, tte 
Republic of Viet-Nam and Thailand, in 19571 the Mian 
Highway Co-ordinating Committee, which is serv^ hy a 
Transport Technical Bureau operating at ECAFE head- 
quarters; and the Asian Institute for Economic Development 
and Planning, set up in 1964- ^Eree are 
in Bangkok, with links to ECAFE and with aid from the 
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 

ECAFE efforts to stimulate regional economic co- 
operation have also led to the estabUshment of the 
Industrial Development Council, in 1966; the Committee fem 
Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in 
A^ian Offshore Areas» in the same year; ECAFE Trade 
Promotion Centre, in 1968: the Asian Coconut Comniunity, 
formally inaugurated in 1969: the ECAFE (World Meteoro- 
loeical Organization (WMO) Joint Unit on Typhoons.inigeS; 
and the Asian Statistical Institute, which began training 
of senior government statisticians in Tokyo in June 1970. 


19 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


MINISTERIAL CONFERENCES 

To speed up economic co-operation, ECAFE has con- 
vened tliree ministerial conferences — in Manila in 1963 and 
1965 and in Bangkok in 1968. The Third Ministerial 
Conference on Asian Economic Co-operation, which 
decided that it would henceforth serve as the Council of 
Ministers for Asian Economic Co-operation, called for "a 
strategy of integrated regional co-operation" and a series 
of specific steps. In follow-up action, "national units” 
appointed by member governments and a special task force 
set up in the ECAFE secretariat are working together to 
carry the programme forward. 

In its current work, ECAFE is also giving special 
attention to ways of achieving regional growth during the 
coming United Nations Second Development Decade 
(1971-1980), following guide-lines adopted at the Com- 
mission’s annual sessions in Singapore in 1969, and 
Bangkok 1970. Some current and recent activities in major 
fields are outlined below. 

FIELDS OF ECAFE WORK 

Development Research and Planning: As a foundation 
for action programmes, the ECAFE secretariat carries out 
an annual Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East; 
studies specific problems involved in development plan- 
ning, plan harmonization and regional co-operation: has 
assisted with world-rvide preparations for the Second 
Development Decade; and aids with national planning 
problems. 

An example of regional co-operation and plan har- 
monization is the establishment of the Asian Coconut 
Community — the first association of Asian producers 
organized on a commodity basis — which %vas formally 
inaugurated under ECAFE auspices in September 1969 
and temporarily began work at ECAFE headquarters. It 
dates back to an ECAFE study in 1967-68 analysing 
problems of the coconut industry and recommending 
action. In response, major coconut-producing countries of 
the region formed the Community to promote, co-ordinate 
and harmonize all activities of the coconut industrj'. 

Follo\ving the success of the study on coconut, the 
ECAFE secretariat is engaged in studies on other com- 
modities such as rice, seeking concrete solutions to prob- 
lems of exporting and importing countries. 

International Trade: ECAFE is seeking to help members 
in the region expand trade among themselves and -with 
the rest of the world — for example, through liberalization, 
easing of customs formalities, promotional efforts, and 
improved regional payments arrangements. In August to 
September 1970, ECAFE despatched two high-level 
missions headed by two international experts. Professor 
Pierre Uri and Professor Robert Triffin, which discussed 
proposals for regional trade expansion and monetary 
co-operation with seventeen countries in the ECAFE 
region. ECAFE'S Trade Promotion Centre, established in 
1968, organizes training courses, offers advisory services 
to governments, and aids in national and international 
exhibitions designed to stimulate commerce. The First and 
Second Asian International Trade Fairs (Bangkok, 
Thailand, 1966, and Teheran, Iran, 1969) were held with 
ECAFE support: in conjunction with the two Fairs, 
ECAFE arranged for Trade Promotion Talks to be held 


by governments. A third Asian International Trade Fair is 
scheduled to be held in New Delhi in early 1972. ECAFE’s 
Centre for Shipping Information and Advisory Services, set 
up in 1967, aids governments with problems such as freight 
rates, establishment of shippers’ councils, development of 
merchant marines, and other steps designed to reduce 
export costs. The Centre for Commercial Arbitration has 
drawn up standards in this field and carries out research 
intended to improve arbitral facilities and practices in the 
ECAFE region. 

Industry and Natural Resources: Ways of speeding 
industrial development in the region are sought by ECAFE 
through field missions, studies, advisory services, and expert 
meetings dealing, for example, wth iron and steel, joint ven- 
tures in the petrochemical industry, manufacture of im- 
proved farm machinery, better rice-processing equipment, 
prospects for expanding production of edible oil from rice 
bran, application of advanced technology in coconut-pro- 
cessing, low-cost automation for small-scale industries, and 
handicrafts. The establishment of a South East Asia iron 
and steel institute is scheduled for early 1971, in Singapore, 
as one outgrowth of ECAFE activities in this field. Guid- 
ance is provided by the A sian Industrial Development Coun- 
cil [AIDC) and ECAFE’s Committee on Industry and Natural 
Resources, which also has a work programme in mineral 
and energy resources development and housing. The 
Second Asian Industrialization Conference held in Tokyo 
in September 1970 charted policy guidelines for developing 
Asian countries in their efforts to reach a target of "a 
minimum rate of industrial gro^vth of 12 per cent per 
annum” in the Second Development Decade (1971-80). It 
was sponsored by ECAFE in co-operation with the United 
Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). 

Offshore Resources: The ECAFE-fostered Committee for 
Co-ordinatio 7 i of foint Prospectmg for Mineral Resources 
in Asian Offshore Areas {CCOP), set up in 1966, seeks to 
promote and co-ordinate exploration, using advanced 
technology, to locate undersea resources of mineral wealth 
adjoining land areas of countries in the Western Pacific 
region. Specially equipped vessels, aircraft and other 
facilities have been provided by industrialized countries 
to aid in this effort. A geophysical survey conducted in the 
East China Sea and Yellow Sea has indicated that the 
shallow sea floor between Japan and the Republic of 
China may contain one of the most prolific oil reservoirs 
in the world. Plans for a similar co-ordinating body for 
offshore prospecting in the Indian Ocean area are under 
consideration. 

Water Resources: ECAFE is working on problems of 
river-basin development, improved use of delta land, 
conservation and development of national water resources, 
and typhoon forecasting services. A fouit Uniton Typhoons 
was set up by ECAFE and the World Meteorological 
Organization (WhlO) in 1968 to help in the task of mini- 
mizing the damage caused by typhoons and associated 
floods in the region, which cost an estimated U.S. S500 
million a year. Possibilities for launching a similar ECAFE/ 
WMO project designed to lessen damage caused by 
cyclones in the Bay of Bengal area are being investigated. 
Under the auspices of ECAFE's Water Resources Consulting 
Group, organized in 1967, groups of experts from donor 
countries have provided advisory services relating to 
water conserv'ation and development. 


20 



THE UNITED NATIONS~(Regional Economic Commissions) 


Agriculture; Economic problems of agriculture, and 
igricultural aspects of economic programmes that are of 
nterest to botli ECAFE and the Food and Agriculture 
Drganization, arc dealt with by a Joint ECAFE! FAO 
Agricullure Division. Activities include studies in these 
fields, meetings of expert groups, and advisory aid to 
governments. 

Transport and Communications: As part of its efforts to 
help member countries expand and modernize travel and 
transport facilities, ECAFE is seeking a Trans-Asian Rail 
Network to provide greater uniformity of services in Asia 
and permit links vdth Europe and Africa. The nerivork 
proposed, from Istanbul to Singapore, would total about 
14,000 km. In addition, ECAFE is working on highway 
transport problems and co-operates with the Highway 

Transport Technical Bureau (see below) ; water transport; 
and ways of expanding tourism. ECAFE's Port Informa- 
tion and Advisory Centre offers technical assistance -vrith 
port-facilities problems. A joint unit of ECAFE and the 
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is stressing 
efforts to improve telecommunication services in the region, 
upgrade technological training, and lay the groundwork 
for the introduction of satellite communication in the area. 
With the support of UNDP an ITU team is now working 
with twelve ECAFE countries in surveys of existing 
systems, routes and operating methods for the promotion 
of an Asian regional telecommunications network. 

Statistics: As a basic activity, tlie ECAFE secretariat 
publishes the Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Far 
East. Other activities include compilation of statistics 
in specific fields, aid to governments with statistical 
problems, and servicing of the Conference of Asian 
StalisHcians. As an outgrowth of an ECAFE resolution 
adopted in 1967, the Asian Statistical Institute for training 
and research was opened in Tokyo in 1969 as an under- 
taking of governments in the region and the United 
Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 

Population: A new Population Division was established 
in the ECAFE secretariat in 1969 and is now carrying out 
an expanded Asian Population Programme designed to in- 
crease regional assistance to national efforts in this field. 
High priority is being given to improving the effectiveness 
of evaluation and training procedures in national family 
planning programmes. Advisory services are available to 
meet government requests. 

Social Development: ECAFE is expanding its social 
programmes in the belief that development is an inte- 
grated and balanced process in which economic and social 
factors interact. The Commission in 1969 set up a Working 
Party on Social Development for the ECAFE Eegion which 
wall meet once every two years. A review of social trends 
and developments in the ECAFE region is being made as 
part of a world survey to be issued by the United Nations 
m 197X. Advisory missions in social development planning, 
social work, and community development training have 
J^een provided during the year. The role of young people 
m national development was explored at an ECAFE- 
sponsored seminar in Bangkok in September to October 

1970. 

Public Administration: This relatively new field in 
ECAPE activities includes surveys and seminar-type 


meetings on subjects such as national personnel systems, 
administrative reforms, and civil service training needs. 
Plans have been laid for the establishment of a regional 
centre for development administration to help improve 
administrative systems of the member countries. 

Technical Assistance; in many of the individual subject 
fields cited abov'e, technical assistance activities are under- 
taken by ECAFE with funds from the regular United 
Nations budget and from the United Nations Development 
Programme (UNDP), which is financed with voluntary 
contributions. Those activities include seminars, advisory 
services, and training aid. Three larger-scale projects 
initiated under ECAFE auspices and now receiving 
UNDP aid are the Mekong project. Asian Highway project, 
and Asian Institute for Economic Development and 
Planning, described below. 


REGIONAL PROJECTS 

MEKONG DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 

The Mekong Project seeks to develop the water resources 
of the Lower Mekong Basin, including mainstream and 
tributaries, in terms of hydroelectric power, irrigation, 
flood control, drainage, navigation improvement, ^vatcr- 
shed management, w’ator supply and related problems. 
The project is directed by the Committee for the Co- 
ordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin 
consisting of Cambodia, Laos, the Republic of Viet-Nam 
and Thailand, which operates under the auspices of 
ECAFE and the UNDP. Its work has been supported by 
26 governments outside the region, a total of rfi United 
Nations agencies or bodies, and a number of foundations 
and business firms. (Further information on the Mekong 
Project appears in a separate chapter below.) 

ASIAN HIGHWAY 

The Asian Highway Project, approved by ECAFE in 
1959, calls for a network of 60,000 km. in 14 countries. 
During the first United Nations Development Decade, 
ending in 1970, efforts have been concentrated on estab- 
lishing at least one through route from west to east, 
■with connections to aU other countries not served by that 
route. Route A-i. from Iran to the Republic of Viet-Nam 
(ro,8oo km.), considered one of the most important routes, 
is now 93 per cent complete. As for the entire network, 
more than four-fifths is now motorable in all weather. 

To demonstrate the availability of the various sections 
of the Asian Highway to trade and tourist traflne, the first 
Asian Highway motor rally, from Vientiane to Singapore, 
was organized in April 1969. A second rally for the western 
section of the highway beriveen Teheran (Iran) and Dacca 
(Pakistan), was held in November 1970. 

Work on the project is guided by the Asian Highway 
Co-ordinating Committee, composed of representatives at 
ministerial level from member countries, which held its 
first meeting in April 1965. An Asian Highway Transport 
Technical Bureau, set up within ECAFE and aided by the 
UNDP, seeks to assist member countries in the project and 
to carry out recommendations of the Co-ordinating 
Committee. 


21 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


ASIAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC 
DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING 

The Asian Institute for Economic Development and 
Planning, established in 1964, provides training, on a 
regional basis, for personnel engaged in economic and 
social development programmes in Asia. It also serves as 
a development staff college for senior executives of govern- 
ments and private industry in the ECAFE region. 

By October 1970, the Institute had trained more than 
1,200 fellows from 25 countries in the ECAFE region, 
either in Bangkok or in "country courses” in Ceylon, 
China (Taiwan), Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal, Philip- 
pines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Thailand. A 
research wing carries out studies of the problems, possi- 
bilities and techniques of economic and social development 
in the region. 

The Institute works as an autonomous institution under 
the aegis of ECAFE with support from the UNDP and 
participating governments, and with the co-operation of 
several United Nations specialized agencies, other inter- 


national organizations and foundations. The management 
is vested in a Governing Council of which the Executive 
Secretary of ECAFE is Chairman ex-officio. 

Director: Masayoshi Kakitsubo. 

BUDGET AND STAFF 

For 1970 ECAFE’s regular annual budget totalled about 
U.S. $4.9 million. This sum (which forms part of the regular 
budget of the United Nations in the economic and social 
field) was supplemented by technical assistance funds, as 
well as certain funds from governments and institutions. 

In 1970 the work of ECAFE proper was carried out by 
a staff of some 150 professionals and 270 general-service 
employees whose posts were financed from the regular 
budget, plus 33 regional advisers and supporting staff 
members paid from technical assistance sources. Other 
staff members serve in the Mekong OfiSce, the Asian 
Institute for Economic Development and Planning, and 
the Asian Highway Transport Technical Bureau (which 
have separate budgets). Overall, the staff members came 
from 32 countries in 1970. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East. 
Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East. 
Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Far East. 
Development Programming Techniques Series. 
Mineral Resources Development Series. 

Small Industry Bulletin for Asia and the Far East. 
Asian Industrial Development News. 

Water Resources Series. 


Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the 
Far East. 

Electric Power in Asia and the Far East. 

Regional Economic Co-operation Series. 

Foreign Trade Statistics of Asia and the Far East. 

Asian Population Studies Series. 

Regional Plan Harmonisation and Integration Studies Series. 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA— ECLA 


Santiago, Chile 

Founded 1948 to co-ordinate policies for the promotion of economic development in the Latin American region. 


Argentina 

Barbados 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 


members 

Ecuador 

El Salvador 

France 

Guatemala 

Guyana 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

The Netherlands 


Nicaragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Trinidad and Tobago 
United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 


Associate Members 


British Honduras 


West Indies Associated States 


22 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 

organization 


The Commission normally meets every two years in one 
of the Latin American capitals. The Commission has 
established two permanent bodies wth various sub- 
committees: 

Central American Economic Co-operation Committee: 

Central American Trade Sub-Committee. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Statistical Co- 
ordination. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Transport. 
Central American Sub-Committee on Housing. Building 
and Planning. 

Central American Sub-Committee on Electric Power. 
Central American Commission for Industrial Initiatives. 
Central American Sub-Committee on Agricultural 
Development. 


Trade Committee: 

Working Group on the Regional Market. 

Working Group on Customs Questions. 

Executive Secretary: Carlos Quintana (Mexico). 

Secretariat: Santiago de Chile; branch offices at Mexico 
City, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Washington, D.C., 


In the early years the Commission focused its activities 
on preparing studies and reports, but now concentrates 
more on the questions of a regional market, Latin American 
economic integration and the United Nations Second 
Development Decade. 


Port-of-Spain and Bogota. The Secretariat is organized 
into divisions of economic development and research, trade 
policy, social affairs, agriculture Q'ointly with FAO), 
statistics and administration, programmes on integration 
of industrial development, natural resources and energy 
and transport and Latin-American Center for Economic 
Projections. 


REGIONAL MARKET 

Proposals for the setting up of a Latin American Com- 
mon Market, drawn up by the Market Group, were dis- 
cussed in detail at the 8 th Session of ECLA at Panama in 
X959. The Latin American Free Trade Association 
was set up in February i960. First negotiations on tariffs 
between government members of the Association were 


LATIN AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC 
AND SOCIAL PLANNING 
Santiago, Chile 

The Institute was founded by ECLA in June 1962, with 
financial assistance from the United Nations Special Fund, 
the Inter-American Development Bank and sixteen Latin 
American governments, and with the co-operation of^ 
OAS, ILO, UNICEF, Resources for the Future, andjOtKef— 
international bodies. It operates as an autonomotis^body 
under tlie aegis of ECLA to provide training an'd' adyisdiy 
services on request to member countries andf^o'undbrtake 
research in planning techniques. 

Dircctor-Gencral: RaiJl Prebisch (Arge^^ha).-< 

h ; ■ 

ACTIVITIES m , . 

held between September and Dccei(il4r,’,i96i. The first 
stage came into operation January 1(1962 . (see Chapter on 
LAFTA). /•;] ' 

RELATIONS WITH i^.AFTA 
The relations of ECLA with the Latin American Free 
Trade Association (LAFTA) are defined by the Montevideo 
Treaty. ECLA assists the organizations of the Association 
in an advisory capacity and attends meetings of the 
Executive Committee. 


RELATIONS WITH OAS 
ECLA has co-ordination arrangements with OAS. 


ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION IN LATIN AMERICA 


Central American Common Market: Guatemala; estab- 
lished i960 under the aegis of the Organization of Central 
American States (ODECA); mems. Costa Rica, Guatemala. 
El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua (see Chapter). 

Latin American Free Trade Association: Montevideo, 
Uruguay; established i960; mems. Argentina, Brazil, 
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, 
Uruguay, Venezuela \sec Chapter). 

LAFTA-CACM Co-ordinating Commission: (see Chapter 
on LAFTA). 

Andean Development Corporation: Lima, Peru; estab- 
lished 1967; mems. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Vene- 
zuela (see Chapter on LAFTA). 

Cartagena Agreement: (see Chapter on LAFTA). 


River Plate Basin Treaty: (see Chapter on LAFTA). 
Comitd Especial Coordinador Latinoamericano — CECLA 

(Special Co-ordination Commission of Latin America): 
established by the Latin American countries which signed 
the Alta Gracia Charta in Lima in December 1964 with the 
aim of establishing a permanent organization to deal with 
questions related to international trade and to economic 
development. CECLA holds regular annual meetings and 
extraordinary meetings at the request of a State member; 
at every meeting the place and date of the next regular 
meeting is decided. The country where the last meeting 
was held performs the duties of Secretariat and Office of 
Co-ordination until the next ministerial meeting. 

CECLA adopted in 1967 the Consensus of Viiia de Mar, 
which contains the joint views of its members as to the 


23 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regional Economic Commissions) 


region’s trade relations wth the United States. This 
document is the basis for negotiations now taking place 
between Latin America and the United States Government. 
It also adopted a document entitled Relations between 
Latin America and the European Economic Community, 
which is intended to serve similar purposes. 

Members: Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Colom- 
bia, Costa Rica, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El 
Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, 
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Uruguay, and Venezuela. 


Asistencia Reclproca Petrolera Esiatal Latinoamericana 

— ARPEL: promotes reciprocal assistance among Latin 
American State oilfields. Sixth assembly held in Buenos 
Aires, November 1970. Represented at the assembly were 
Petroleos Brasileiros (Brazil), Empresa Nacional de 
Petroleo (Chile), Administracidn Nacional de Combustible, 
Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay), Corporacidn Venezolana 
dc Petroleo (Venezuela) and Petroleros del Peril (Peru). 
Paraguay, Ecuador and a number of international bodies 
sent observers. 

Secretary-General: Gen. Thorio de Souza Lima (Brazil). 


PUBLICATIONS 

Economic Survey of Latin America, annually. 
Economic Bulletin for Latin America, tivice 3'early. 
Statistical Bulletin for Latin America, twice yearlj^ 


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA— ECA 

Africa Hall, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 

Telephone: 47200. 

Initiates and takes part in measures for facilitating Africa's economic development. Member countries must be 
independent, be members of the UN and within the geographical scope of the African continent and the islands 
bordering it. ECA was founded in 1958 by a resolution of ECOSOC, as the fourth UN regional economic commission. 


MEMBERS 


Algeria 

Guinea 

Senegal 

Botswana 

Ivory Coast 

Sierra Leone 

Burundi 

Kenya 

Somalia 

Cameroon 

Lesotho 

South Africa* 

Central African Republic 

Liberia 

Sudan 

Chad 

Libya 

Swaziland 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Madagascar 

Tanzania 

Congo (Kinshasa) 

Malawi 

Togo 

Dahomey 

Mali 

Tunisia 

Equatorial Guinea 

Mauritania 

Uganda 

Ethiopia 

Morocco 

United Arab Republic 

Gabon 

Niger 

Upper Volta 

The Gambia 

Nigeria 

Zambia 

Ghana 

Rwanda 



• Suspended by ECOSOC since 1963. 


Associate Members 

(а) Non-Self-Goveming Territories situated within the 
geographical scope of the Commission. 

(б) Powers other than Portugal responsible for the inter- 
national relations of those territories (France, Spain 
and the United Kingdom). 

Associate Members may take part in the Commission’s activities but may not vote. 


24 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Regional Economic Commissions) 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 


Executive Secretary: Robert K. A. Gardiner (Ghana). 
The Commission has held nine sessions since its in- 


ception; 

1958 

i960 

rg6i 

1962 


December 

January 

February 

February 


Addis Ababa 
Addis Ababa 
Tangier 
Addis Ababa 


1963 

February 

Ldopoldville 

1964 

February 

Addis Ababa 

1965 

February 

Nairobi 

1967 

February 

Lagos 

1969 

February 

Addis Ababa 


Sub-Regional Offices: Lusaka, Niamey. Tangier, Kinshasa. 


ACTIVITIES 


Objectives: The work of the Commission is determined 
by decisions of its plenary sessions. The Commission is 
charged rvith the responsibility for promoting and facilitat- 
ing concerted action for the economic and social develop- 
ment of Africa; for maintaining and strengthening the 
economic relations of African countries, both among 
themselves and witli other countries of the world; for 
undcrtaldng or sponsoring investigations, research and 
studies of economic and technological problems and 
developments; for collecting, evaluating and disseminating 
economic, technological and statistical information; and 
for assisting in the formulation and development of co- 
ordinated policies promoting economic and technological 
development in the region. 

Areas of Activity; The EGA carries out its activities 
under the divisions of: 

Trade, Fiscal and Monelary Affairs 
Natural Resources and Transport 
Industry and Housing 
Research and Statistics 
Human Resources Development 
ECAjFAO Joint Agriculture 

Economic Co-operation and Multinational Programming 

There is also a Technical Assistance and Programme 
Co-ordination Section, a Population Programme Centre, 
dealing with population programmes and policies, together 
with general demography, and the Africa Trade Centre. 

At the request of member states in the region the 
Commission also performs advisory services in various 
economic and social fields. The EGA is the only regional 
Commission whose terms of reference contain specific 
mention of the social aspects of economic development. 

Institutional Machinery: During 1969 ECA’s ninth 
session recommended the setting up of new institutiona 
machinery on the following pattern: 

(o) Regular biennial sessions to be held at ministeri^ 
level and called ECA Conference of Ministers. This wouW 
consist of ministers of member states responsible or 
economic affairs and it would, among other things, review 
the programme of the preceding two years; 

(i>) Technical Committee of Experts to meet once a year. 
It is composed of senior officials of member states imn 
cemed with economic affairs, and it examines ^n les 
prepared by the ECA Secretariat and assists in the for- 
mulation of the work programme aimed at ensuring 
co-operation between the Secretariat and member govern- 


ments. The Committee met for the first time during 
February 1970. 

(c) Executive Committee to meet twice a year. This 
includes officers of the Conference of Ministers, plus two 
representatives from each sub-region, two African mem- 
bers of the Economic and Social Council, and two African 
members of the Governing Council of the United Nations 
Development Programme, representing English- and 
French-speaking countries. The Committee provides a link 
between the ECA Secretariat, member states and sub- 
regions. It also fosters co-operation betiveen the Com- 
mission, UN bodies, and international agencies concerned 
rvith development in Africa. It met tivice during 1969 and 
twice during 1970 (May and October). 

Subsidiary Bodies: The Commission is empowered, under 
its terms of reference, to establish subsidiary bodies. Those 
now in existence and actively functioning are the Con- 
ference of African Statisticians and the Conference of 
African Planners, both of which meet once every two years; 
and the Working Party on Intra-African Trade and the 
Working Party on Manpower and Training. The latter two 
were constituted by the ECA at its seventh session in 1965.. 
Other working parties established at the same time have 
since been superseded by alternative arrangements which 
have been found by experience to be more effective. 

Relations with Other Organizations; WHO maintains a 
liaison office at ECA. In co-operation with ITU work has 
begun on a pan-African telecommunications system. ECA 
also runs a Joint Agricultural Division in conjunction ivith 
FAO. 

Co-operation between ECA and the Organization of 
African Unity started with the signing of a UN/OAU 
a-weement by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, 
if Thant, and the Secretary-General of the OAU, Diallo 
Telli, on November 15th, 1965. 

In 1969 co-operation between the two organiza.tions 
continued with the holding of five meetings jointly, 
namely: tlie meeting to establish an African Civil Aviation 
Commission (January), the Third and Fourth Jomt 
Meetings of the ECA Working Party on Intra-African 
Trade and the OAU Expert Committee on Trade and 
Development (January and August); Joint ECA/OAU 
Meeting of African countries who are members of IBRD/ 
IMF (September) and ECA/IDEP/OAU/Dag Hammar- 
skjold Foundation Afriean Regional Conference on the 
Integrated Approach to Rural Development (Moshi, 
Tanzania, October). During 1970, the follorving joint 
meetings took place: Fifth Joint Meeting of the ECA 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Regiokal Economic Commissions) 


Working Party on Intra-African Trade and the OAU 
Expert Committee on Trade and Development (Geneva, 
August); Joint ECA/OAU Meeting of African Members of 
IBRD/IMF (Copenhagen, September). 

Economic Go-operation in Africa: The Commission is a 
forum and an instrument for encouraging international 
economic co-operation in Africa. Its chief objective is the 
modernization of Africa, with equal emphasis on rural 
development and industrialization. One of the ways in 
which this objective is implemented is to encourage co- 
operation at the four sub-regional levels: north, west 
central and east. 

Some of the main organizations for economic co-operation 
among ECA countries are: Organization of African Unity — 
OAU (which has an Economic and Social Department; it 
has the same membership as ECA); Maghreb Permanent 
Consultative Committee; African Development Bank 
(originally created by ECA but now independent) ; Union 
douanifere 4 conomique de TAfrique centrale — UDEAC; 
Union douanifere des etats de I’Afrique de Touest — 
UDEAO; Union des dtats de TAfrique centrale — UEAC; 
Organisation commune africaine, malgache et mauricienne 
— OCAM; East African Community. 

Economic Community of Eastern Africa; The ECA con- 
vened the sub-regional meeting on Economic Co-operation 
in Eastern Africa in Lusaka in October-November 1965. 
It was agreed at this meeting to set up, at an early date, 
at the sub-regional level, inter-govemmental machinery 
responsible for the harmonization of economic and social 
development in the sub-region, taking into account the 
experience of similar institutional arrangements inside and 
outside Africa. 

The meeting was attended by Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, 
Blalawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The 
sub-region consists of eleven countries, i.e. those mentioned 
above and also Somalia, Madagasear and Mauritius. Other 
countries interested in associating ■with the sub-region are 
Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. 

Following the Lusaka Conference, a meeting of the 
Interim Council of Ministers of the sub-region was held 
in Addis Ababa in May 1966, at which the Terms of 


Association of the Eastern African Community to govern 
the interim arrangements pending the signing of a formal 
treaty were considered. The following countries signed or 
initialled the Terms of Association: Burundi, Ethiopia, 
Kenya, Madagascar, Mala-\vi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Somalia, 
Tanzania and Zambia. Uganda has not yet signed the 
Terms of Association. An interim Economic Committee 
was set up and its first meeting was held in November 
1967. 

West African Economic Community: Accra, Ghana. 
Articles of Association were signed at Accra in May 1967 by 
Dahomey, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, 
Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Upper Volta. 
An interim Council of Ministers was set up to negotiate 
a common market treaty, which was drafted by ECA 
experts. A provisional secretariat, an interim economic 
committee and committees on transport, energy and 
industry were also established. The Industry Committee 
is at present specifically concerned with the proposed 
setting up of an iron and steel industry for west Africa. 

Aims: -the establishment of a common market to further 
the maximum exchange of goods and services between 
members and the elimination of customs and trade barriers 
between them; to promote -through the economic co- 
operation of 'the member states a co-ordinated and 
equitable development of their economies, especially in 
industry, agriculture, transport and communications, trade 
and payments, manpower, energy and resources; to con- 
tribute to the orderly expansion of trade between members 
and the rest of the world; to contribute to 'the economic 
development of Africa as a whole. 

A meeting of the interim Council of Ministers -was held 
in Monro-via, Liberia, in December 1968. 

West African Regional Group: In April 1968 a summit 
meeting was held in Monro-via. The Gambia, Ghana, 
Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal and 
Upper Volta signed a Protocol which incorporates the 
Accra Articles of Association (see West African Economic 
Community) and which aims to develop economic, social 
and cultural co-operation between members, wth the 
ultimate goal of economic integration of the region. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Economic Bulletin for Africa (twice yearly). 

The Statistical Newsletter (quarterly). 

Foreign Trade Newsletter (quarterly). 

Agricultural Economic Bulletin (rivice yearly). 

Social Welfare Services in Africa (thrice yearly). 

Natural Resources, Science and Technology Newsletter 
(quarterly). 

Foreign Trade Statistics for Africa, Series A: Direction of 
Trade (quarterly). 


Foreign Trade Statistics for Africa, Series B: Trade by 
Commodities (thrice yearly). 

African Target (quarterly). 

Planning Newsletter (bi-monthly). 

Quarterly Statistical Bulletin. 

Social Work Training Newsletter (quarterly). 

Training Information Notice (quarterly). 


AFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING 

Dakar, Senegal 


An autonomous organ of the ECA opened in 1963 -with 
Special Fund assistance to -train senior African officials in 
techniques of development plaiming and to serve as a 


clearing house and documentation centre on all African 
development questions. 

Director: David Carney (Sierra Leone). 


26 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 


INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND 
DEVELOPMENT— IBRD (WORLD BANK) 

1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone; Executive 3-63600. 


Aims to assist the economic development of member nations by making loans, in ca^s direct to ^wrn- 

not available on reasonable terms, to finance producbve mvcstmente. Loans are ® ^ ® 

ments, or to private enterprise with the guarantee of their governments. Members. 115. 


ORGANIZATION 


President and Chairman of Executive Directors: Robert 
S. McNamara. 

Board of Governors 

All powers of the Bank are vested in a Board of Gover- 
nors, consisting of one Governor appointed by each 
member nation. This Board normally meets once a year. 


Executive Directors 

The Board of Governors has delegated most of its powers 
to twenty Executive Directors, who meet as often as 
required and approve all loans. The Executive Directors 
are responsible for matters of policy. 


S. Osman Ali 
Virgilio Barco 
Angel R. Caram 
Reignson C. Chen 

ANDRfi VAN CAMPENHOUT 

■Wilhelm Hanemann 
Seitaro IIattori 
Christopher Kahangi 
Erik L. Karlsson 
Mohamed Nassim Kochman 
Pieter Lieftinck 


Luis Machado 
Derek J. Mitchell 
George Plescoff 
Patrick M. Reid 
Giorgio Rota 
S. R. Sen 
John O. Stone 

Abderrahman Taei 
Robert E. 

Wieczorowski 


Officers 

Vice-President and Chairman, Loan Committee: J. Burke 
Knapp. 

Vice-President Finance and Director of Projects: S. 

Aldewereld. 

General Counsel: A. Broches. 

Director, Development Services: Richard H. Demuth. 
Economic Adviser to the President: Hollis B. Chenery. 
Vice-President: Sir Denis Rickett. 

Vice-President: Mohamed Shoaib. 

Treasurer: Eugene H. Rotberg. 

Controller: Georg Gabriel. 

Secretary: M. M. Mendels. 


Department Directors and Other Senior Staff 

Deputy Chairman, Loan Committee: S. R. Cope. 

Director, South America Department: Gerald Alter. 
Director, South Asia Department: I. P- M. Cargill. 
Director, Western Africa Department: Roger A, Chau- 
fournier. 

Director, Eastern Africa Department: Michael L.Lbjeune. 


Director, East Asia and Pacific Department: Raymond J. 
Goodman. 

Director, Europe, Middle East and North Africa Depart- 
ment: Munir P. Benjenk. 

Director, Central America and Caribbean Department: 

Edgar GuthIrrez. 

Director, European Office: Arthur Karasz. 

Director, Resident Staff in Indonesia: Bernard R. Bell. 
Deputy Director of Projects; Bernard Chadenet. 
Associato Director of Projects: Warren C. Baoti. 

Director, Education Projects Department; Duncan S. 
Ballantine. 

Director, Agriculture Projects Department; Lionel J. C- 
Evans. 

Director, Transportation Projects Department; A. David 
lOiox. 

Director, Special Projects Department; Robert Sadove. 
Director, Tourism Projects Department: Alfred Koch. 
Director, Population Projects Department: Kandiah 
ICanagaratnam. 

Director, Industrial Projects Department: Hans Fuchs. 
Director, Public Utilities Projects Department: Mervyn 
Weiner. 

Director, Programming and Budgeting Department: John 
H. Adler. 

Director of Information and Public Affairs: William 
Clark. 

Director, Development Finance Companies Department: 

William Diamond. 

Associate Director, Development Services Department: 

Michael L. Hoffman. 

Director, Economics Department: Andrew M. Kamarck. 
Director, Economic Development Institute: K. S. Krishna- 

SWAMY. 

Director of Administration: Hugh B. Ripman. 

Special Adviser: Abdel G. El Emary. 

Special Representative for UN Organizations: Federico 

CONSOLO. 

Associate General Counsel: Lester Nurick. 

OFFICES 

New York Office; 20 Exchange Place, New York, N.Y. 
10005, U.S.A. {Telephone; WHItehall 305400 )- 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


European Office; 66 ave. d’Idna, Paris i6e, France [Tele- 
phone: 535-2510), 

London Office; New Zealand House, Haymarket, London, 
S.W.i, England {Telephone: 930-3886). 

AID CO-ORDINATING GROUPS 
The World Bank supports consortia and consultative 
groups for the co-ordination of development assistance to 
a number of countries. It is currently sponsor of two 


FINANCIAL 

The Bank’s capital is derived from members’ subscrip- 
tions to capital shares, and the amount of each subscrip- 
tion is based on relative economic resources. On June 
30th, 1970, the total subscribed capital of the Bank was 
$23,159 million. Of this amount, however, only the sum of 
about $2,316 million had been paid in, partly in gold or 
dollars and partly in local currencies. The remainder is 


Consortia (for India and Pakistan), eleven Consultative 
Groups (for Colombia, East Africa, Korea, Malaysia, 
Morocco, Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines, Sudan, Thailand 
and Tunisia), and two Aid Groups (for Ceylon and Ghana). 
In addition, the Bank provides staff support for the Inter- 
Govemmental Group for Indonesia (IGGI) and the 
co-ordination groups convened by the governments of 
Guyana and Honduras. It is also a member of the OECD- 
sponsored Consortium for Turkey. 


STRUCTURE 

subject to call if required to meet the Bank’s obligations. 
Most of the Bank’s lendable funds come from its borrowing 
in world capital markets. As of June 30th, 1970, the 
Bank’s outstanding debt was $4,568 million. The Bank also 
replenishes its funds through the sale of portions of its 
loans. These sales, the most part without the Bank 
guarantee, totalled $2,350 million by June 30th, 1970. 


WORLD BANK STATISTICS 


IMPORTANT LOANS* 

($ million — 1947-June 1970) 


Year 

Country 

Purpose 

Original 

Principal 

Amount 

May 1947 .... 

France 

Post-war Reconstruction 

250 

Aug. 1947 .... 

Netherlands 

Post-war Reconstruction 

191 

Jan. 1949 .... 

Brazil 

Power, Communications 

75 

Aug. 1950 .... 

Australia 

Equipment for Development 

JOO 

June 1956 .... 

India 

Steel Industry 

75 

June 1956 .... 

The 




Rhodesias 

Power 

So 

Oct. 1956 .... 

Italy 

Power, Agriculture and Industry 

75 

Jan. 1957 .... 

Iran 

Equipment for Development 

75 

Feb. 1958 .... 

Italy 

Power, Agriculture and Industry 

75 

Sept. 1958 .... 

India 

Railways 

85 

Sept, i960 .... 

Pakistan 

Indus Basin Development Project 

90 

May 1961 .... 

Japan 

Express Railway 

80 

Jan. 1962 .... 

Argentina 

Power 

95 

Jan. 1962 .... 

Australia 

Power 

100 

June 1962 .... 

Mexico 

Power 

130 

Sept. 1963 .... 

Venezuela 

Power 

85 

Sept. 1963 .... 

Japan 

Highwaj^ 

75 

July 1964 .... 

Nigeria 

Kainji Dam Project 

82 

May 1965 .... 

Japan 

Roads 

' 75 

June 1965 .... 

Italy 

Industry 

100 

Dec. 1965 .... 

Mexico 

Electric Power 

no 

July 1966 .... 

Japan 

Tokyo-Kobe Expressway 

100 

Oct. 1966 .... 


IFC Development Finance 

100 

June 1968 .... 

Mexico 

Power 

90 

Dec. 1968 .... 

Argentina 

Power 

82 

Feb. 1970 .... 

Mexico 

Power 

125 

May 1970 .... 

Brazil 

Roads 

100 

May 1970 .... 

Brazil 

Power 

So 


* Loans exceeding $75 million. 


28 








THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


TOTAL LOANS 
($ million — 1947-70) 


Purpose 

Amount 

Post-war Reconstruction 

496.8 

Electric Power ..... 

4,642 .0 

Transportation ..... 

4,405.6 

Telecommunications .... 

243.8 

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 

1,294 .0 

Industry ...... 

2,165.7 

General Development and Industrial 


Imports ...... 

552-3 

Water Supply ..... 

127.1 

Education Projects .... 

I 4 - 1-5 

Project Preparation .... 

0.9 

International Finance Corporation 

200.0 

Total .... 

1-4.274 -7 


TOTAL LOANS BY AREA 
(S million — 1947-70) 


Area 

Number 

OF Loans 

Amount 

Africa .... 

127 

2,014.4 

Asia .... 

2 II 

4,628.8 

Australasia 

II 

514-7 

Europe .... 

109 

2,5651 - 

Western Hemisphere . 
International Finance Cor- 

246 

4.352-3 

poration 

1 

200.0 

Total 

636 

14.274-7 


WORLD BANK LOANS 1969-70 


(U.S.S million — July-June) 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Africa: 

Cameroon .... 

Ivory Coast .... 
Kenya ..... 
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda . 
Liberia ..... 
Morocco ..... 
Nigeria ..... 
Tunisia ..... 
Zambia ..... 

Roads, Railways 

Education, Agriculture 

Roads, Agriculture 

Railways, Ports, Telecommunications 

Power 

Roads, Agriculture, Industry 

Roads, Transport Rehabilitation 

Industry 

Education, Agriculture 

17.20 

18.50 

26. 10 

87.80 
7.40 

68.30 

35-60 

10.00 

10.80 

Asia: 

Ceylon ..... 
China (Taiwan) 

India ..... 
Iran ..... 
Israel ..... 
Korea ..... 
Malaysia ..... 
Paldstan ..... 
Papua and New Guinea 

Philippines .... 

Singapore .... 

Thailand ..... 

Agriculture and Power, Industry, Power 

Education, Industry, Power 

Industry 

Roads, Agriculture 

Industry 

Railways 

Agriculture (trvo loans) 

Gas Pipelines 

Roads 

Agriculture, Industry 

Telecommunications, Industry 

Power 

281.70 

43-50 

71-50 

40.00 

48.50 

25.00 

40.00 

21.50 
19.20 

4-50 

59.00 

16.00 

46.50 

435-20 

Europe: 

Cyprus ..... 
Greece ..... 
Spain ..... 
Yugoslavia .... 

Power 

Industry 

Afiriculture, Education 

Rdads, Industry, Telecommunications 

5.00 

20,00 

37.00 

98-50 

160.50 


\coniin%ied on next page 


29 













THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


World Bank Loans — continued] 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Latin America and Caribbean: 
Argentina .... 

Power 

60.00 

Bolivia ..... 

Gas Pipeline 

23-25 

Brazil ..... 

Roads, Power, Industry 

205.00 

Chile ..... 

Education, Roads, Education 

19.30 

Colombia ..... 

Agriculture, Education, Roads, Power, Water Supply and Sewerage 

127.60 

Costa Rica .... 

Roads, Power, Telecommunications 

34.20 

Dominican Republic . 

Industry 

25.00 

Honduras .... 

Power 

5 - 5 ° 

Jamaica ..... 

Family Planning 

2.00 

Mexico ..... 

Power, Roads 

146. So 

Panama ..... 

Power 

42.00 

Paraguay ..... 

Roads 

6.00 

Uruguay ..... 

Agriculture 

6.30 

International Finance Corporation . 


702.95 

100.00 

Total 


1,680.35 


INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 
(U.S. 5 — Fiscal Year ended June 30th, 1970) 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Income from Investments 
Income from Loans: 
Interest . 

Commitment Charges 
Commissions . 

Service Charges 

Other Income . 


• 

149.217,323 

326,619,819 

17,613,602 

382,299 

45.708 

10,788,907 

Administration (including IDA) . 
Interest on Borrowings 

Bond Issuance and other Financial Ex- 
penses ...... 

Discount on Sale of Loans . 

45.452,908 

242,372,738 

3.549,270 

41,168 

Deductions (equivalent to commissions 
appropriated to Special Reserve) 

504,667,658 

382,299 



Total 

• 


504,285,359 

Total .... 

291,416,084 


30 








THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION— IDA 

1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 

The International Development Association began operations in November i960. Afhliated to the World Bank, 
IDA advances capital on more flexible terms to underdeveloped countries. Members: 107. 

ORGANIZATION 

President and Chairman ot Executive Directors: Chairman 
of the World Bank (ex-officio). 

Officers and staff of the World Bank serve concurrently 
as officers and staff of IDA. 


FINANCE 


IDA’S initial resources were derived from members' 
subscriptions; the richer nations pay in gold or freely 
convertible currencies: the less-developed nations pay 
10 per cent in the above form and 90 per cent in their 
own currencies. By June 30th, 1970, IDA’s initial sub- 
scriptions totalled S1.014.3 million. 

IDA is authorized to accept supplementary contributions 
and is required to maintain a regular review of the adequacy 
of its resources. In 1964, formalities were completed for the 
first general replenishment of IDA's funds. The eighteen 
Part I countries — ^Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, 
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, 
Kuwait, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Nonvay, South 
Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United 
States — agreed to provide supplementary resources of 
almost $750 million. 

On July 23rd, 1969, the second general replenishment of 
IDA’s resources came into force. The second replenishment 
proposal provided for expanding IDA’s resources by 
$1,200 million equivalent, payable in three annual instal- 
ments of 5400 million each. 


Negotiations for a third general replenishment of IDA’s 
resources, for the fiscal years 1972, 1973 and 1974, were 
successfully concluded. In July, the Association's Execu- 
tive Directors recommended and transmitted to member 
governments for approval a proposal under which twenty- 
one member countries plus Switzerland would make 
available to IDA approximately ?8i3 million per year. 
The target date for the replenishment to become effective 
is June 30th, 1971, by which time at least twelve countries, 
pledging not less than $1,900 million, must formally notify 
IDA that they will make their specified contributions. It 
was also agreed that the voting power of high-income 
countries, kno\vn as Part I countries, should be adjusted 
so as to reflect more accurately the share of each of them 
in the total financial contributions of the Part I countries 
to the Association. It was further agreed that the Part II 
countries be given the opportunity to make additional 
subscriptions on easy terms to the Association in order 
to permit them to maintain the relative voting power of 
the Part II countries as a group. 


ACTIVITIES 


Principles similar to those of the Bank are followed by 
IDA in appraising projects, in negotiating its credits and 
in requirements for procurement, disbursement of funds 
and reports on the progress of constructions. However, the 
favourable terms upon which IDA lends make it possible 


to extend credits to countries which, for balance of pay- 
ments reasons, could not prudently assume the burden of 
repayment required for Bank loans. 

By June 30th, 1970, IDA had extended 221 credits 
totalling $2,773 million to 55 member countries. 


DEVELOPMENT CREDITS 
(I'ooo) 

(1960-June 1970) 


Country 


Purpose 


iMghanistan 
Bolivia 
Botswana . 

Burundi . i ] 

Cameroon 

^ntral African Republic 
Ceylon 

Chad . . ' ‘ 

Chile . . ’ ' 

China (Taiwan) 


Education, Roads, Agriculture 
Electric Power, Roads, Agriculture 
Roads, Project Preparation 

Water Supply. Coffee Production, Project Preparation 
Agriculture, Project Preparation. Education, Roads 
Roads 

Irrigation, Roads, Agriculture, Power 

Roads, Education 

Roads 

Harbours, Water Development. Industry 


Amount 


13,500 

25,800 

6,100 

3,280 

29,050 

8.500 

23.900 

5 .goo 

18,998 

13,074 

[continued on next page 


31 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


Developjient Credits continued ^ 


Country 

Purpose 

Amount 

Colombia ..... 

Roads 

19.500 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Roads Studies, Roads 

2,130 

Congo (Democratic Republic of) 

Roads, Industry 

11,000 

Costa Rica ..... 

Roads 

4.550 

Dahomey ..... 

Palm Oil 

4,600 

Ecuador ..... 

Highways, Education, Agriculture 

14,600 

El Salvador ..... 

Highways 

7.999 

Ethiopia ..... 

Roads, Education, Agriculture 

35.000 

Gambia ..... 

Port 

2,100 

Ghana ..... 

Electric Power, Water Supply and Sewerage, Fisheries, Agricul- 
ture, Project Preparation 

24,800 

Guyana ..... 

Education 

2,900 

Haiti ...... 

Highways 

350 

Honduras ..... 

Highways, Electric Power, Agriculture, Power 

24,028 

India ...... 

Highways, Irrigation, Flood Control, Electric Power, Ports, Tele- 
communications, Railwaj’s, Industrial Imports, Railways, 
Agriculture, Industrial Imports, Agriculture 

1,264,867 

Indonesia ..... 

Agricultural Estates, Roads, Technical Assistance, Power, In- 
dustry, Agriculture 

131.500 

Jordan ..... 

Water Supply, Agriculture 

10,016 

Kenya ..... 

Roads, Tea, Education, Agricultural Credit, Education 

48,700 

Korea ...... 

Railways, Education, Technical Assistance Studies, Railways 

58,293 

Lesotho ..... 

Roads 

4,100 

Madagascar ..... 

Roads, Port 

24,100 

Malawi ..... 

Education, Project Preparation, Power 

32.750 

Mali 

Railways, Roads 

16,800 

Mauritania ..... 

Roads 

9,700 

Morocco ..... 

Education, Roads 

18,300 

Nepal ...... 

Telecommunications 

1,700 

Nicaragua ...... 

Water Supply 

2,995 ■ 

Niger ...... 

Roads, Agriculture 

8,203 

Nigeria ..... 

Roads, Education 

35.500 

Pakistan ..... 

Irrigation, Ports, Industry, Flood Control, Highways, Railways, 
Mand Water Transport, Water Supply, Agriculture, Food- 
grain Storage, Education, Agricultural Credit, Telecommunica- 
tions, Technical Assistance, Project Preparation 

453.21S 

Papua and New Guinea 

Palm Oil, Agriculture, Roads 

11,000 

Paraguay ..... 

Highways, Livestock 

21,400 

Rwanda ..... 

Roads 

9.300 

Senegal ..... 

Railways, Roads 

17,100 

Sierra Leone .... 

Education 

3,000 

Somalia ..... 

Roads 

9.050 

Sudan ..... 

Irrigation, Education 

21,500 

Swaziland ..... 

Highways 

2,800 

Syria ...... 

Highways 

8,500 

Tanzania ..... 

Highways, Education, Agriculture, Roads 

48,400 

Togo 

Tunisia ..... 

Technical Assistance 

3.700 

Education, Co-operative Farming, Water Supply 

42.863 

Turkey 

Power, Industrj', Irrigation 

92.316 

Uganda ..... 

Education, Tea Production, Roads 

33.000 

United Arab Republic . 

Agriculture 

26,000 

Upper Volta .... 

Technical Assistance 

800 

Total 


2,773.129 


32 







THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 
Development Credits — continued] 


(U.S.$ million) 
(July 1969-June 1970) 


Africa: 


Country 


Purpose 


Amount 


Botswana 
Burundi . 
Cameroon 


Central African Republic 
Congo (Brazzaville) . 

Congo (Democratic Republic of) 
Ethiopia . 

Gambia . 

Ghana 


Kenya 
Madagascar 
Jlalawi . 

Mali . . ; 

Morocco . 

^'ger 
Rwanda . 

Senegal . . ] 

Sierra Leone 
Tanzania . 

Tunisia . 

Uganda . 

United Arab Republic 


Asia: 


Project Preparation 

Project Preparation 

Education, Roads 

Roads 

Roads 

Industry' 

Agriculture (two) 

Port 

Water Supply and Sewerage. Fisheries, Agriculture, Project 
Preparation 
Education 
Port 
Power 
Roads 
Roads 
Agriculture 
Roads 
Roads 
Education 
Roads 

Water Supply 

Roads 

Agriculture 


2.50 
0.3S 

17-50 

4.30 

1.50 

5.00 

6.60 
2.10 

14.80 
6. ro 

9.60 

5.25 

^.^o 

7-30 

0.5S 

9 - 3 ° 

2.10 

3.00 

7-50 

10.50 

11.60 

26.00 


161.CI 


Afghanistan 

Ceylon 

India 

Indonesia 

Korea . ’ 

Nepal . ’ ’ 

Pakistan . . ' 

Papua and New Guinea 


Agriculture 

. Agriculture, Agriculture and Power 

Railways, Agriculture (three), Industrial Imports 
. Power. Industry, Agriculture (two) 

Railways 

. Telecommunications 

Industry (two). Agriculture (two). Telecommunications, Educa- 
tion, Project Preparation (three) 

. Agriculture, Roads 


Latin America: 
Bolivia 
Ecuador . 
Honduras 


Agriculture 
Agriculture 
Agriculture, Power 


Total 


5.00 

17.00 

227,50 

80.50 

15-00 

r.70 

77.20 

9-50 


433 - 4 ° 

1 .40 
1.50 
8.10 


11.00 


605.61 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION— IFG 

1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 

Telephone: Executive 3-6360. 

Founded in 1956 as an affiliate of the World Bank to encourage the gfrovvth of productive private enterprise in its 
member countries, particularly in the less-developed areas. Members: 94. 


ORGANIZATION 


IFC is a separate legal entity in the World Bank Group. 
IFC’s share capital, subscribed by member countries, 
amounted to $106.5 million at June 30th, 1970. 

Executive Directors of the World Bank also serve as 
Directors of IFC. The President of the World Bank is 
ex-officio Chairman of the IFC Board of Directors, which 
has appointed him President of IFC. Subject to his overall 
supervision, the day-to-day operations of IFC are con- 
ducted by its staff under the direction of the Executive 
Vice-President. 

Principal Officers 
President: Robert S. McNamara.* 

Executive Vice-President: William S. Gaud. 
Vice-President: Ladislaus von Hoffman. 

General Counsel: R. B. J. Richards. 

Treasurer; Eugene H. Rotberg.* 

Controller: Francis R. Poore.* 

Secretary: M. M. Mendels.* 

Director, Programming and Budgeting Department: John 
H. Adler.* 


Director of Investments, Africa and Middle East: Albert 
Adomakoh. 

Director of Information and Public Affairs: William 
Clark.* 

Special Representative in Europe: Alfred E. Davidson. 
Director, Engineering Department: H. Geoffrey Hilton. 
Director of Investments, Asia: Ronald K. Jones. 
Director, European Office: Arthur ICarasz.* 

Director of Marketing: Henry Koch. 

Accounting Adviser: E. Waldo Mauritz. 

Special Representative in the Far East: Naokado Nishi- 

HARA. 

Director of Investments, Latin America, Europe and 
Australasia: Neil J. Paterson. 

Economic Adviser; Moeen A. Qureshi. 

Director of Administration; Hugh B. Ripman.* 

* These officers and department heads hold the same 
position in the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development. 


FUNCTIONS 


1. In association wth private investors, invests without 
government guarantee in productive private enterprises of 
economic priority in member countries where sufficient 
private capital is not available on reasonable terms. 

2. Stimulates the international flow of private capital 
to developing countries. 

3. Encourages the development of local capital markets. 

4. Invests in and gives technical help to development 


finance companies, and assists other institutions which also 
support economic development and follow policies generally 
consistent rvith those of IFC. 

5. Commits limited amounts of funds for promotional 
purposes, to help bring development enterprises into being. 

6. Revolves its portfolio by sales of its investments to 
other investors. 


FISCAL 1970 OPERATIONS 


The International Finance Corporation made 29 de- 
velopment investments in 19 countries during the twelve 
months ended June 30th, 1970. The IFC commitments 
helped to mobilize approximately $381 million for private 
business enterprises to assist the economic growth of 
developing member countries. 

The IFC’s orvn commitments to the projects amounted 
to $111.8 million. This compares rvith IFC commitments of 
approximately $92.9 million in 27 projects during the 
previous twelve-month period. 


IFC’s commitments in Fiscal 1970 were in Brazil, 
Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (Democratic 
Republic), Ethiopia, Greece, Honduras, India, Kenya, 
Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Tunisia, 
Turkey and Yugoslavia. 

IFC made its first commitment for economic develop- 
ment in Yugoslavia in Fiscal 1970 with a $2 million 
investment in the $12 million International Investment 
Corporation for Yugoslavia (IICY). This, plus first invest- 
ments in Ceylon, the Republic of China and the Democratic 


34 



THE UNITED NATIONS— 


Republic o! the Congo, widened IFC’s sphere of operations 
to 43 countries. 

IFC investment activities during the year provided 
support for the efforts of its developing member countries 
to expand the capacity of their private sector to produce 
goods and services, to create now employment oppor- 
tunities for their growing populations, to strengthen their 
foreign trade position and to build new financial institu- 
tions. 

Investments wth which IFC was associated helped in 
the follo\ving rvays; 

They are expected to provide over 19,000 new jobs in 
the enterprises financed. 

They are expected to add some S53 million in new 
export capacity and to reduce needs for imports by 
approximately $167 million. 

The Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines 
(PICOP), w'hich is in addition to an existing lumber 
operation, wll give Southeast Asia an integrated forest 
products industry, 

A project for expanding the output of Aluminium de 
Grfece, Socifitd Anonyme Industrielle ct Commerciale, 
mil also help lower unit production costs and make the 
company more competitive internationally, strengthen- 
ing its position as one of Europe's leading aluminium 
makers and an earner of foreign exchange for the Greek 
economy. 

Poliolefinas, S.A. Industria e Comercio will make 
polyethylene from raw materials manufactured by a 
Brazilian petrochemicals firm, Petroqufmica Uniao S.A., 
which IFC helped to finance last year. This is the first 
of several expected projects, downstream from Petro- 


-(Specialized Agencies) 

qufmica, intended to give Brazil a balanced petro- 
chemicals industry, making use of Brazilian products. 

One of IFC’s important objectives is to encourage 
private investment in developing member countries 
through the mobilization of local capital and the broaden- 
ing of local ownership of industrial enterprises. Several of 
the Corporation’s investments contributed to these 
objectives through public share offerings supported by 
local underwriting of projects in Colombia, India, Malaysia 
and the Philippines. 

Twenty-one of the 29 investments in Fiscal 1970 were 
for more than Sr million each. Nine were in Asia, five in 
Latin America, five in Europe, one in Africa, and one in a 
Latin American regional development finance institution. 
IFC commitments during the fiscal year were in the fields 
of aluminium, automobiles, cement, ceramics, copper 
mining, development finance institutions, fertilizers, glass, 
iron mining, polyethylene, pulp and paper, telephone 
service, textiles and fibres, and tourism. 

Foreign businesses, financial institutions and official 
agencies other than IFC provided §178 million in equity 
and loans to these 27 projects. The equivalent of $203 
million was supplied by sponsors and individual investors 
within the countries being assisted. 

The World Bank agreed in 1969 to lend an additional 
$100 million to IFC, bringing to $200 million the amount 
of funds the Bank has made available to the Corporation 
for use in its lending operations. 

Swaziland, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 
the Yemen Arab Republic joined IFC in Fiscal 1970, 
raising total membership in the Corporation at the end of 
the year to 94 and increasing paid-up share capital to 
$106,954,000. 


financial record 

(up to June 30th, 1970) 


Cumulative total of IFC’s funds available at June 30th, 
197°. amounted to $540 million, including $200 million 
loan from the World Bank. 


INVESTMENTS MADE 
(up to June 30th, 197°) 


Number of 
Investment 
Commitments 

Number 

OF 

Countries 

1 

Gross 

Amount 

210 

43 

$476,518,314 


SALES OF INVESTMENTS 
At June 30th, 1970, IFC had sold $142.5 million, or well 
over one-quarter of its cumulative gross commitments. A 
portion, or in some cases all, of 103 of IFC's commitments, 
m 39 countries, out of a total of 210 commitments in 43 
countries, had been sold to financial institutions or other 
investors. 


COMMITMENTS BY TYPE OF BUSINESS 


(u.s. $, 1957-70) 


Manufaclurmg 

54,618,502 

Iron and Steel .... 

Fertilizers 

56,626,748 

Cement and other Construction 


Materials 

49.659.623 

Paper and other Paper Products 

64,884,550 

Textiles and Fibres 

33.491.522 

Food and Food Processing 

24.156,300 

Machinery ..... 

25,406,488 

Chemicals and Petrochemical Products 

21,711.916 

Other Manufacturing 

25,026,725 

Non-Manufacturing 

18,214,310 

Tourism ..... 

Utilities, Printing and Publishing 

23,500,000 

Mining 

36,744,015 

Development Finance Institutions 

42,477,615 

Total .... 

476,518,314 

1 


35 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND— IMF 

19th and H Streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431 

Telephone: Executive 3-6362. 

Aims to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, to promote exchange stability, to 
maintain orderly exchange arrangements among members, to avoid competitive exchange depreciation, and to 
give confidence to members by making the Fund's resources available to them under adequate safeguards. 

Members: 117 (as at December 31st, 1970). 


ORGANIZATION 


Managing Director: Pierre-Paul Schweitzer (France). 

Board of Governors 

The highest authority of the Fund is exercised by a 
Board of Governors, one Governor and an alternate 
representing each member. The Board of Governors 
normally meets once a year; it delegates many of its 
powers to a twenty-member Board of Executive Directors. 


Board of Executive Directors 


Erik Brofoss 
William B. Dale 
Nazih Deif 
P. Y. Hsu 
Robert Johnstone 
Alexandre Kafka 
Byanti Kharmawan 
Pieter Lieftinck 
B. K. Madan 
Carlos Massad A. 
Derek Mitchell 


Maurice P. Omwony 
Francesco Palamenghi- 
Crispi 

Guenther Schleiminger 

J. O. Stone 

Hideo Suzuki 

Luis Ugueto 

AndrH van Campenhout 

Marc Vienot 

Antoine W. Yam^ogo 


Quotas: Each of the 116 members is assigned a quota 
which approximately determines its voting power and the 
amount of foreign exchange it may purchase from the 
Fund. Its subscription is equal to its quota and is payable 
partly in gold and partly in its own currency. On September 
30th, 1970, the Fund’s assets included $3,455.6 million in 
gold, $231.3 million in Special Drawing Rights, $225.7 
million in subscriptions receivable and $18,925.2 million in 
various national currencies. By September 30th, 1970, 


70 countries had drawn from the Fund’s resources the 
equivalent of $21,867 million in 23 currencies since trans- 
actions commenced in March 1947. 

The original quotas totalled some $9,000 million, but in 
1958 a general review of the adequacy of members’ quotas 
resulted in general and selective increases raising total 
quotas to some $15,000 million over the next two years. 
A further 25 per cent general increase of quotas, together 
with larger increases for 16 countries, was proposed in 1965. 
This increase brought an expansion of total quotas to over 
$21,000 million. Following another general review of 
quotas, the Governors of the Fund adopted a resolution in 
February 1970 which would increase total quotas to 
approximately $28,900 million if all members, consented to 
the maximum quotas offered to them. 

General Arrangements to Borrow; The IMF is authorized 
to supplement its resources by borrowing. Ah agreement 
was approved by the Fund in 1962, extended in 1965 until 
1970, and again extended until 1975, whereby ten industrial 
members undertook to lend the Fund up to $6,000 million 
in their own currencies, if this should be needed to forestall 
or cope with an impairment of the international monetary 
system. These arrangements were used to help finance the' 
dra-wings made by the United Kingdom in 1964, 1965, 1968 
and 1969, and by France in 1968, 1969 and 1970. The 
amount still available under the arrangements at Septem- 
ber 30th, 1970, was $5,416.2 million. (In 1966, the Fund 
borrowed from Italy the equivalent of $250 million in lire, 
outside the General Agreements to Borrow, and in June 
1970 Italy’s claim was transferred to Japan.) 


ACTIVITIES 


Creation of Reserves 

Studies by the Fund over recent years indicated that in 
future certain countries would take less of their reserve 
increases in the form of reserve currencies and that the 
U.S.A., whose reserves had fallen substantially over the 
post-war period, would seek to increase its reserve assets. 
After various considerations were examined, the Fund 
suggested that the rate of growth in reserves should be 
related to the long-term trend in payments imbalances 
taking into account the results of any improvements in the 
adjustment process. Studies made in the IMF show that 
the upward trend in payments imbalances over the recent 
past has been of the same order of magnitude as that in 
international trade. Although the same relationship may 
not prevail in the future, it is clear that, if gold accruals to 
official reserves do not increase, and there is a continuing 
reluctance to add to holdings over resen'e currencies. 


deliberate reserve creation would at an appropriate time 
be necessary in order to maintain an adequate rate of 
reserve growth. 

The creation of reserves should be determined by global 
need, rather than by way of providing credit to countries in 
balance of payments difficulties, or by development aid. 
Discussions on the form of any newly-created reserves 
have centred on the choice between additional dra%ving 
facilities in the IMF and the creation of a reserve unit 
through an expansion of claims between a reserve-creating 
institution and the countries to which newly-created 
reserves were initially distributed. 

Special Drawing Rights 

The purposes for which the Fund was created have 
necessarily meant that problems relating to the adequacy 
of liquidity in general and reserves in particular have 


30 



THE UNITED NATIONS- 

occupied the Fund during its whole history. Starting with 
the Annual Report for 1963, the Executive Directors have 
in each report dealt with international liquidity from the 
policy, analytical, statistical, and technical points of view. 

At the 1966 Annual Meeting of the IMF, the Board of 
Governors took the decision for a direct exchange of views 
on international liquidity between IMF Executive Directors 
and Deputies of the Group of Ten, the ten nations partici- 
pating in the General Arrangements to Borrow. Four such 
meetings took place between November 1966 and June 
1967. In September 1967, the Governors requested the 
Executive Directors to proceed -with work relating to the 
establishment in the Fund of a new facility based on 
Special Drawings Rights (SDRs), as -vvell as on improve- 
ments to the present rules and practices of the IMF in the 
light of the experience and developments of the last ao 
years. The Proposed Amendment to the Articles of 
Agreement was approved by the Governors in May 1968. 
Thereafter all members were asked whether they accepted 
the Proposed Amendment. It went into effect on J uly 28th, 
1969, after being accepted by the required majority of 
three-fifths of the membership representing four-fifths of 
the total voting power in the Fund. Members with 75 per 
cent of total quotas in the Fund deposited the required 
instruments of participation .by August 7th, 1969, and 
thereby enabled participants in the Special Drawing 
Account to take decisions ivith respect to the management 
of that Account, including any allocation of SDRs. At 
the subsequent Annual Meeting of the Fund a resolution 
was adopted on October 2nd, 1969, calling for allocations 
of SDRs totalling $9,500 million over a first basic period 
of three years commencing January ist, I 970 - The first 
allocation of SDRs equivalent to $3,414 was made on 
that date. 

The Special Drawing Rights facility is intended to 


-(Specialized Agencies) 

assure an appropriate level of international reserves in the 
light of the needs of the world economy, by supplementing 
existing reserve assets in the form of gold and reserve 
currencies. The new rights are allocated amongst members 
in proportion to their quotas in the Fund and will bo 
usable without policy conditions to meet payments or 
reserve needs. The decision to allocate SDRs shall 
take into account a collective judgement that there is a 
global need to supplement reserves, and the attainment of 
a better balance of payments equilibrium, as well as the 
likelihood of a better working of the international adjust- 
ment process. 

Stabilization of Prices on Primary Products 

, The Fund, in association with the World Bank, has 
prepared a study of the problem of the stabilization of 
prices of primary products. This is pmsuant to resolutions 
adopted at the 1967 Annual Meetings in Rio de Janeiro. 
A factual section of the study was noted at the Annual 
Meetings held in Washington in September 1968. The 
Governors of the Fund then in-vited the Managing Director 
to have this work completed with the inclusion of a 
consideration of specific financial measures and other ways 
in which the IMF might assist in finding feasible solutions 
to the problem. Under the terms of a decision announced 
in July 1969 drawings for the purpose of financing buffer 
stocks in connection with international commodity 
arrangements may be made up to amounts equivalent to 
50 per cent of quota, provided that drawings under the 
Fund's existing compensatory financing facility and the 
new buffer stock facility taken together do not exceed 
75 per cent of the quota. Repurchase is to be made within ‘ 
three to five years, or earlier in the event of the buffer 
stock distributing cash to its members. 


ACTIVITIES DURING 1970 


Special Drawing Rights 

The Fund made an initial allocation of SDRs equivalent 

$3,414.4 million on January 1st, 1970, to 104 participants 
in the Special Drawing Account. The allocation, made in 
accordance with a Resolution adopted by the Board of 
Governors at its 1969 Annual Meeting, for the first year of 
a first basic period of three years, was at a rate computed 
at 16.8 per cent of the quota, as of December 31st, 1969, of 
each participant receiving an allocation. It will be followed 
by annual allocations of about $3,000 million each on 
January ist, 1971, and January ist, 1972. 

Transactions in SDRs totalled the equivalent of $631.6 
million by September 30th, 1970. the end of the first nine 
months of ■ operation of the new facility. By that date, 
53 countries had made use of their SDR holdings. Thirteen 
countries had used almost the full amount at their disposal. 
Twenty-seven countries had accepted transfers of SDRs 
irom other participants through the Special Drawing 
Account, providing currency in return for SDRs received 
by them. The "Fund’s General Account holdings were 
SDR S231.3 million on September 30th, 1970. 

Purchases, Repurchases and Stand-by Arrangements 

During the first nine months of 1970, members made 


purchases for a total amount equivalent to $1,368.13 
million, repurchases reached $x,2To.g million, and 16 
stand-by arrangements were approved for $385.73 million. 

Gold: Changes of Par Value 

Fund purchases of gold from South Africa during the 
first three-quarters of 1970 reached a total of $342.25 
million (these purchases were made under an agreement 
with South Africa announced in December ig6g). 

During the same period, new par values were agreed 
upon for the currencies of Turkey and Ecuador, and initial 
par values established for the currencies of the Democratic 
Republic of the Congo and the Republic of China. Also 
agreed upon were a par value for the new monetary unit of 
Bermuda and a change in the par value of the Bahamian 
currency. 

New Members and Article VIII Status 

The Yemen Arab Republic joined the Fund in May 1970, 
and Barbados joined in December 1970. 

As from August 31st, 1970, Ecuador accepted the obliga- 
tions set forth in Article VIII of the Fund’s Articles of 
Agreement. Ecuador is the thirf y-fifth member of the Fund 
to move to convertibility. 


37 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


Miscellaneous 

On May 31st, 1970, the Fund announced the Canadian 
Government’s decision that for the time being Canada 
would not maintain the exchange rate of the Canadian 
dollar -within the previous margins. 

A resolution adopted by the Board of Governors at the 
1970 Annual Meeting provided that, out of 557-55 million 
net income earned by the Fund for tlie fiscal year ended 
April 30th, 1970, an amount equal to $17.53 million would 
be distributed to 34 members which had net creditor 
positions in the Fund. The remainder, equal to $40.02 
million, was placed in the General Reserve. 


In September 1970 the Fund replenished its holdings of 
the currencies of twelve members in a total amount 
equivalent to $325 million. The replenishment was made 
by the sale of gold, but three members, exercising an 
option provided by the Fund, received SDK’s in place of 
gold. 

AJso in September, the Fund decided to reduce by $400 
million the ?8oo million invested in short-term U.S. 
Treasury securities. The Fund re-acquired from the United 
States an amount of gold equivalent to $400 million. 


FUNCTIONS 


1. Makes its foreign exchange resources available, under 
proper safeguards, to its members to meet short-term 
or medium-term payments difficulties. 

2. Furnishes, on request, expert technicians to advise 
and assist members in their financial and monetary 
problems. 


3. Affords continuous and full consultation on monetary* 
and exchange matters, 

4. Supplements, as and when needed, the existing 
reserve assets of participants in the Special Drawing 
Account. 


STATISTICS 


TOTAL ASSETS 
(milh'on U.S. dollars) 


30th April, 1957 .... 

8,927.2 

30th April, 1958 .... 

9,099.6 

30th April, igsg .... 

9,268.0 

30th April, i960 .... 

14.391-7 

30th April, ig6i .... 

15,007.6 

30th April, 1962 .... 

15,247-8 

30th April, 1963 .... 

15.467.0 

30th April, 1964 .... 


30th April, 1965 .... 

16,692.3 

30th April, 1966 ..... 

20 , 734-5 

30th April, 1967 .... 

22,643.9 

30th April, 1968 .... 

22.474.1 

30th April, 1969 .... 

22,990.8 

30th April, 1970 .... 

23,165.9 


TOTAL EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS 
(Year ended April 30th, 1970) 
(million U.S. dollars) 


Currency 

Purchases 

Repurchases 

SDR . 




182.6 

Gold . 


— 

80.8 

Argentine pesos 


16.0 

10. 0 

Australian dollars . 


59-3 

58.0 

Austrian schillings . 


17.0 

0, 1 

Belgian francs 


71.9 

35-4 

Canadian dollars 


317-3 

79-5 

Deutsche mark 


311.0 

203.3 

Finnish markkaa 


10,0 


French francs 




0.2 

Irish pounds . 


X2.2 



Italian lire 


284.6 

207.4 

Japanese yen , 


393-1 

80.7 

Mexican pesos 


25-5 

40.1 

Netherlands guilders 


156.9 

136.4 

Norwegian kroner . 


23.0 


Pounds sterling 


61.8 

— 

South African rand 


106.0 

— 

Swedish kronor 


— 

40.4 

U.S. dollars . 


1,401,9 

515.8 

Venezuelan bolivares 


17-3 

— 

Totai, . 

• 

3,284.7 

1,670.7 


38 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 
(Year ended April 30th, 1970) 
{million U.S. dollars) 


Income 


Expenditure 


Operational Charges .... 

Charges on Balance in Excess of Quotas . 

13.0 

124.7 

Board of Governors .... 

Office of Executive Directors . 

0 . 66 

2.47 

19.66 

2.18 

3-67 

52.83 

Interest on Holdings of Special Drawing 

Stafi . . . . 

Rights ...... 

0.4 

Special Services ..... 
Other Administration .... 
Other Expenditure .... 

Total .... 

138.1 

Total .... 

81.47 


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION— FAO 

Viale delle Termo di Caracalla, Rome, Italy 

Telephone: 5797. 

FAO, the oldest postwar specialized agency in the UN family, was established at a conference in Quebec in October 
1945. "with 42 founding members. It exists to fight the poverty, malnutrition and hunger which afflict about half 
the people of the world. It carries out research, provides advice and technical assistance, and helps to mobilize 
world support and capital backing for development programmes. Members: 119 full, 2 associate. 

ORGANIZATION 


CONFERENCE 

The governing body of FAO is the FAO Conference. It 
usually meets every two years, and is attended by delegates 
from member nations. The Conference elects the Director- 
General, formulates policy, determines the Organization’s 
programme and budget on a biennial basis, and elects new 
members. The 15th Session of the Conference, in November 
1969, elected Michel CfiPEDE (France) as Independent 
Chairman of the FAO Council. 

COUNCIL 

The FAO Council is composed of representatives of 34 
member nations, elected by the Conference for three-year 
terms. It acts as the interim governing body of FAO 
between sessions of the Conference. The most important 
standing Committees of the Council are: the Finance and 
Programme Committees, the Committee on Commodity 
Problems and the Committee on Fisheries, both of which 
consist of 34 member nations. 

SECRETARIAT 

Director-General (1968-72): A. H. Boerma (Netherlands). 
Deputy Director-General: Oris V. Wells (U.S. A.). 

The Director-General is elected by the Conference. He 
appoints and directs a stafi of about 2,000 professional 
officers assigned to field projects in developed countries, 
and some 1,200 professional stafi at headquarters. 

regional representatives of the 

DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

^iional Representative of FAO for Africa: M. C. Mensah. 
Regional Representative of FAO for Asia and the Far East: 

Ahsah-Ud-Din. 


Assistant Director-Geiteral for Near Eastern Affairs and 
Regional Representative for the Near East: M. A. Nour. 

Regional Representative of FAO for Europe: Paul 
Lamartine Yates. 

Assistant Director-General for Latin American Affairs and 
Regional Representative for Latin America: Juan 
Felipe Yriart. 

Director, Liaison Office for North America: Howard R. 
CoTTAjr. 

Regional Economist [Director, EGA f FAO Joint Agricultural 
Division), Liaison Office with UN ECA: W. Habashi. 

Director, Liaison Office with the UN: Donald W. Wood- 
ward. 

REGIONAL AND OTHER OFFICES: 

Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for , 
Asia and the Far East: MaUwan Mansion, Phtra Atit 
Rd., Bangkok, Thailand. 

Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for 
Africa: UN Agency Building, North Maxwell Rd., 
P.O.B. 1628, Accra, Ghana. 

Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for 
Latin America: Oficina Regional de la FAO (Casilla 
10095), Avenida Providencia 871, Santiago, Chile. 

Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for the 
Near East: (Box 2223), Agricultural Credit Bank 
Building, 110 Kasr el Eini St., Garden City, Cairo, 
United Arab Republic. 

Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for 
North America, 1325 C St., S.W., Washington, D.C., 
20437, U.S.A. 

Food and Agriculture Organization Liaison Office with 
United Nations: United Nations, Room 2258, New York. 
N.Y. 10017, U.S.A. 


39 





THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


ACTIVITIES 


FAO serves as the organizing and co-ordinating agency i 
which brings together representatives of national govern- 
ments. scientific bodies, non-govemmental organizations, 
industry and banking, to plan and execute development 
programmes within the whole range of food and agricul- 
ture, including forestry and fisheries. 

FAO's specialized Committees enable governments to 
work out agreements on matters of common concern. The 
Committee on Commodit)’’ Problems, with its network of 
intergovernmental study groups and its widely-accepted 
principles of surplus disposal, is helping to co-ordinate 
international commodity policy. The Committee on 
Fisheries, the only global forum concerned vuth the 
development of fisheries, devises measures for more 
rational management of the world’s fishery resources. 
Because of FAO’s increasing responsibilities in the vital 
area of forestry development, a Forestry Department was 
set up in 1970. to replace the former Forestry and Forest 
Industries Division. 

An International Dairy Development Scheme was 
launched in 1970 under FAO sponsorship, to combat the 
malnutrition which threatens the health of two-thirds of 
the world’s pre-school children. During 1970, over 700 
FAO specialists were assigned to field projects designed to 
improve food and industrial crops as well as pastures. A 
Seed Production and Certification Unit was sot up at FAO 
Headquarters. The Organization co-operated with govern- 
ments and private institutions in research on high- 
yielding varieties of seed, on conservation of plant genetic 
resources and on safer and more efiective use of pesticides. 

In co-operation with the World Health Organization, FAO 
is testing a new vaccine against "East Coast fever", which 
kills off about half a million cattle in Africa every year. 

FAO’s Second World Food Congress was held at The 
Hague in June 1970 and was attended by 1,800 partici- 
pants, of whom 600 came from developing countries and 
300 were young people. Among the major problems 
discussed by the Congress were the need to ensure basic 
food supplies in developing countries, the relation between 
higher living standards and improved diets, trade patterns 
and policies, and the role of youth in development. The 
main themes emerging from the Congress were summed up 
in a Final Declaration. It stressed the importance of 
influencing political decisions as to national priorities and 
the use of national resources, and urged that the benefits of 
development reach all levels of society. 

Documentation. Over the past two decades, FAO has 
become an international centre of information on agri- 
culture in all its aspects, forestry, fisheries, livestock 
development and nutrition. In 1970, FAO's “Question and 
Answer’’ Service supplied over 18,000 bibliographic 
references to some 4,500 enquiries concerning FAO docu- 
ments. A further 55,000 references were provided on 
material from other sources. A series of sjxjcial Index 
volumes arranged by subject matter was started in 1970. 
They includfe ' "Fisheries” and "Food and Agricultural 
Industries”, which alone contain approximately 41,000 and 
21,000 items respectively. The establishment of an inter- 
national information retrieval system for agricultural 
sciences and technology is now in the planning stage. 


FAO specialists have helped to set up national documen- 
tation centres in several developing countries. 

UNDP Special Fund and Technical Assistance. In 1970 
FAO was responsible for 259 operational projects involving 
the expenditure of approximately §59 million in UNDP 
(Special Fund) monies, and for over 650 projects costing 
$12 million in UNDP (Technical Assistance) funds. These 
outlays of internationally pledged funds were more than 
matched by counterpart payments from aided govern- 
ments. 

Freedom from Hunger Campaign. The Campaign was 
launched by FAO in i960 to broaden public support for 
development efforts. The Campaign is conducted by 
national committees, of which there were 93 by the end 
of 1970. Their membership is drawn from the national 
administration, voluntary organizations such as trade 
unions, teachers’ associations and youth groups, and from 
the private sector. Over 130 FAO/FFHC projects were 
operational during 1970, financed in equal proportions by 
donors and by beneficiary governments and organizations. 
Linked with FFHC are the Young World Appeal and the 
Young World Programme. 

World Food Programme. Launched in 1963, the World 
Food Programme is a joint effort by the UN and FAO to 
use supplies of food as investment in programmes of 
economic and social development and also for relief 
purposes. Supplies of food, as well as cash and services 
such as shipping, are pledged to the Programme by member 
governments of FAO and UN. During 1970, some go 
development projects in 45 countries were approved for 
WFP backing for a total value of S270 million. Emergency 
relief operations involved 18 projects and five extensions 
for a total of $13 million. A S300 million target has been 
set for voluntary pledges to the World Food Programme 
for 1971 and 1972. 

Investment Centre. The International Bank for Kecon- 
struction and Development (IBRD) and the International 
Development Association (IDA) increased their commit- 
ment of loans and credits for agricultural development 
from 5369 million in fiscal year 1968-69 to S414 million in 
1969-70. Of the latter amount, S275 million went to 21 
projects in which the FAO/IBRD Co-operative Programme 
helped to identify investment possibilities and draw up 
investment proposals. National contributions bring the 
total of these projects up to more than double that 
amount. The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 
has approved loans totalling over $100 million for projects 
prepared with FAO assistance. FAO has serviced the Asian 
Development Bank (AsDB) in planning agricultural 
schemes for Ceylon, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Nepal, Indonesia 
and Korea. The nucleus of an FAO Co-operative Pro- 
gramme witli private banks was established in 1970. 

Industry Co-operative Programme. Through the Industry 
Co-operative Programme (ICP), financially supported by 
industry, FAO provides the machinery for exchanging 
information, establishing contacts and co-ordinating action 
between intergovernmental agencies and public and private 
sectors interested in agricultural, fisheries and forest 


40 



THE UNITED NATIONS— i 


development. ICP guidance is available to covmtr es m 

formulating projects that are likely to 

support, in identifying investors and *4?. 

with discussions at the drafting stage o proj 

Bv the end of 1970, 88 companies were memhers of lOP- 

tL ■■industri'-initiated project” scheme enables industry 

to bring forward proposals requiring multilateral assistan . 

Atomic Energy in Food ®"'»/erlcuUure FAO “d 

International Atomic Energy Agency 
a Joint Division of Atomic Energy in AgnnuHure to ms 
mLber nations in the application of nuclear m 

research and development of food and ngnculture^ 
Operational projects and training 

the use of isotopes and radiation for \ 

crop production factors, the use of induced 
the improvement of staple crops, and insc 
and pest control programmes. 


(Specialized Agencies) 

FAO BUDGET 


For two years (rg7°~7r)' 


Governing Bodies and Executive Direction . 

Development Department. - • 

Office of General Affairs and Information . 
Administration and Finance Department . 

Common Services 

Technical and Economic Programme . 

Regional and Country Services . 

Miscellaneous Expenditure 

Contingencies 

Reserve 

ToTAi. 


3.655.650 

4,388,600 

10,189,200 

4.634.650 

9,186,200 

27,194,4°° 

10,169,900 

303,400 

350.000 

496.000 

70,568,000 


PUBLICATIONS 


Publications issued in 197° included Uic follomng; 

Annuals: The State of Food and 

Review and Outlook 1969-70; S<««^iraf 

Agricultural Trade, Agricultural 

Catches and Landings, Fertilizers, , 

Health, Forest Products, World Gram Trade). 

Periodicals: Ceres (The FAO Monthly 

Agricultural Economics and Statistics, P 


nulleiin- Cocoa Statistics; Unasylva (Forestry Quar- 
tXv World Fisheries Abstracts: Food and Agnculturai 
S^iation; Current Food Additives Legislation. 

Economic Studios: 

iSiSstisSeTSprS^^^ 

Wodd Plan for Agricultural Development. 


THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE— GATT 

Villa le Bocage, Palais des Nations, Geneva 

Telephone: 34 60 ir, 33 40 00, 33 20 00, 33 10 00. 

GATT came into force in January 1948. It is an international agreement aiming to raise standards of living, to 
ensure full emplo5rment, to develop the world’s resources, to expand production and exchange of goods, and to 
promote economic development. Members: 78 full members (contracting parties), 14 other forms of membership. 


CONTRACTING PARTIES TO THE GATT 

(as at January 1971) 


Argentina 

Dominican Republic 

Korea 

Rhodesia 

Australia 

Finland 

Kuwait 

Rwanda 

Austria 

France 

Luxembourg 

Senegal 

Barbados 

Gabon 

Madagascar 

Sierra Leone 

Belgium 

Gambia 

Malawi 

South Africa 

Brazil 

Germany, Federal Republic 

Malaysia 

Spain 

Burma 

Ghana 

Malta 

Sweden 

Burundi 

Greece 

Mauritania 

Switzerland 

Cameroon 

Guyana 

Mauritius 

Tanzania 

Canada 

Haiti 

Netherlands 

Togo 

Central African Republic 

Iceland 

New Zealand 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Ceylon 

India 

Nicaragua 

Turkey 

Chad 

Indonesia 

Niger 

Uganda 

Chile 

Ireland 

Nigeria 

United Arab Republic 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Israel 

Norway 

United Kingdom 

Cuba 

Italy 

Pakistan 

U.S.A. 

Cyprus 

Ivory Coast 

Peru 

Upper Volta 

Czechoslovakia 

Jamaica 

Poland 

Uruguay 

Dahomey 

Japan 

Portugal 

Yugoslavia 

Denmark 

Kenya 




Country which has acceded, provisionally: Tunisia. 

Countries to whose territories the GA TT has been applied and which now, as independent states, maintain a de facto application 
of the GATT pending final decisions as to their future commercial policy: Algeria, Botswana, Cambodia, Congo (Kanshasa), 
Equatorial Guinea, Lesotho, Maldives, Mali, Singapore, Southern Yemen, Swaziland, Tonga, Zambia. 


ORGANIZATION 


TARIFF CONFERENCES 

Held so that members may negotiate to reduce and 
stabilize tariff levels. There have been six main Conferences: 


Geneva 

1947 

Geneva 

1956 

Annecy 

1949 

Geneva 

1960-61 

Torquay 

1951 

Geneva 

1964-67 


The Kennedy Round of Trade Negotiations (May 1964- 
June 1967) weis concerned with the reduction of tariffs and 
other barriers to trade. Some fifty countries accounting for 
eighty per cent of world trade participated. In the industrial 
field, across-the-board tariff cuts were agreed over a \vide 
area of trade. The estimated trade in the products on which 
concessions were agreed amounted to some $40,000 million. 
In many areas reductions of fifty per cent were agreed. In 
the agricultural sector, the basic elements for a world 
grains arrangement were agreed, including the provision for 
food aid to developing countries to an amount of 4.5 million 
tons of grain annually (these elements were subsequently 
transformed into an international grains arrangement). In 
the field of non-tariff barriers a code for the administration 
of national anti-dumping laws and regulations was agreed. 


SESSIONS 

The sessions of the Contracting Parties are held usuall}' 
once a year, in Geneva. 

Chairman (1970-71): C. Besa (Chile). 

Vice-Chairmen (1970-71): M. NAx-NcufiMA (Gabon), C. H. 
Archibald (Trinidad and Tobago), B. F. Meeee 
(Australia). 

COUNCIL OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Set up in September i960 to deal with urgent and 
routine work arising between the annual sessions, and to 
supervise the work of committees and working groups. 

SECRETARIAT 

Director-General: Olivier Long. 

The Secretariat consists of a number of experts in trade 
policy and trade intelligence, and an administrative staff. 
It prepares and runs the sessions, and services the work 
of the Council and the committees and working groups. It 
is also responsible for organizing the trade negotiating 
conferences. 


42 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


ORIGIN 

During the Second World War the United States, the 
United Kingdom and other important trading countries dis- 
cussed the establishment of international organizations to 
tackle the post-war problems of currency, investment and 
trade. The International Monetary Fund and the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development were 
established before the end of the war, but the Charter for 
the International Trade Organization (ITO) was not com- 
pleted until March 1948. The first tariS negotiating confer- 
ence was held at Geneva in 1947, resulting conces- 

sions were safeguarded under the terms of a multilateral ] 


OF GATT 

agreement called the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. It was signed on October 30th, 1947. at Geneva and 
came into force on January ist, 1948. Originally the GATT 
was accepted by twenty-three countries. 

The GATT was intended as a stop-gap arrangement, 
pending the creation of the International Trade Organiza- 
tion. But, because the ITO (Havana) Charter was never 
brought into force, GATT has stood alone since 1948 as the 
generally accepted international instrument which lays 
doivn rules of conduct for trade on a world-ivide basis. 


AIMS AND ACTIVITIES 


GATT is a legal treaty embodying reciprocal rights and 
obligations designed to achieve the objectives set out in 
the preamble to the Agreement where the Contracting 
Parties recognize that ". . . their relations in the field of 
trade and economic endeavour should bo conducted with a 
view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employ- 
ment and a large and steadily-growing volume of real 
income and effective demand, developing the full use of 
the resources of the world and expanding the production 
and exchange of goods, and promoting the progressive 
development of the economies of all the contracting 
parties.” 

The detailed undertakings set out in the GATT, together 
with a body of case law built up by the Contracting Parties, 
constitute a general code of conduct covering virtually the 
whole field of the commercial relations of member states. 

The Contracting Parties (i.e. the member governments 
acting jointly) deal with questions arising from the 
implementation of the Agreement — among other things 
acting as a negotiating forum, and as a forum where any 
difference between member countries can be dealt rvith 
and take such action as is necessary in the light of develop- 
ments in international trade to further the objectives o 
the Agreement. 

A major objective of GATT is, through the operation of 
the provisions of the Agreement and through tr^e 
negotiations, to bring about a lowering of barriers to trade. 

On the basis of a decision by member countries 
the end of the Kennedy Round (see above), GATT is 
currently engaged in a work programme designed to lay t e 
foundations for an attack on non-tariff barriers to trade. 


on problems of agricultural trade and for a further reduc- 
tion of industrial tariffs. 

The current work programme lays particular stress on 
possibilities of action to help the trade of developing 
countries. In recent years GATT has given increasing 
attention to the particular problems of these countries. In 
1965 ^ chapter on Trade and Development was added 
to the General Agreement; under one of its key provisions, 
it is recognized that developing countries should not be 
expected to offer reciprocity in negotiations with develop- 
ing countries. GATT members have also agreed in principle 
to relax the “most-favoured-nation” rule in two respects 
to help developing countries: to accommodate the general- 
ized scheme of preferences by developed for developing 
countries negotiated in UNCTAD and to allow an exchange 
of preferences in GATT, among the developing countries 
themselves. 


Long-Term Arrangement for Cotton Textiles 

The Long-Term Arrangement for Cotton Textiles 
entered into force in October 1962 for a period of five years: 
it was extended in 1967 and 197° ^or two further three-year 
periods. 

The purpose of the Arrangement is to ensure the orderly 
development of trade in cotton textile products, in order 
progressively to increase export possibilities, particutoly 
for less-developed countries, while at the same rime 
avoiding disruption of markets in importing countries. 
Each year the Cotton Textiles Committee reviews tte 
operation of the Arrangement. Twenty-eight countries 
currently accept the Arrangement. 


SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT 


Part I 

Article I. Most-Favoured-Nation obligation. Based on 
the League of Nations clause. 

Part II 

Article II. The basic tariff article incorporating tlm 
concessions (i.e. mainly reductions or bindings of import 
duties) set forth in the schedules annexed to the Agree- 
ment. 

Article III. Internal taxation and concessions; b^ed 
on the principle that internal taxes shall not be appbe 
^ to protect domestic industry. 


Articles IV-X. The technical articles, providing 
general rules and principles relating to transit trade to 
anti-dumping duties, to customs valuation, customs 
formalities, and marks of origin. 

Article XI. Contains the general prohibition of quanti- 
tative restrictions. 

Article XII. Lays down the conditions under which 
such restrictions can be used to safeguard the balance of 
payments. 

Articles XIII, XIV. Provision that quantitative re- 
strictions must be applied without discrimination, with 
certain exceptions. 


43 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


Article XV. Deals with relations between the Con- 
tracting Parties and the International Monetary Fund. 

Article XVI. Subsidies. 

Article XVII. Non-discriminatory treatment by state 
trading enterprises. 

Article XVIII. Recognizes that the less-developed 
countries need to maintain a degree of flexibility in their 
tariff structure in order to grant the tariff protection 
required for the establishment of particular industries and 
may need to apply quantitative restrictions in a manner 
which takes full account of the continued high level of 
demand for imports likely to be generated by their pro- 
grammes of economic development. 

Article XIX. Emergency action about imports of 
particular products. 

Articles XX, XXI. General and security exceptions. 

Articles XXII, XXIIII. Provisions for action by Con- 
tracting Parties to settle differences arising out of the 
application of the GATT. 

Part III 

Article XXIV. Territorial application; frontier traflSc; 
the rules relating to the establishment of customs unions 
and free-trade areas. 

Article XXV. Provides for joint action by the Con- 
tracting Parties. Each Party to have one vote. Decisions 
by majority. This article is the legal basis for the very 


broad role the Contracting Parties have come to play in 
working towards the expansion of international trade and 
in providing a forum for discussion of international trade 
problems. 

Article XXVI. Acceptance; entry into force; registra- 
tion. 

Article XXVII. Withholding or withdrawal of con- 
cessions. 

Article XXVIII. Deals TOth the general principle of 
tariff negotiation and with the arrangements under which 
Contracting Parties can, by negotiation, modify existing 
tariff concessions. 

Article XXIX. Relationship to the Havana Charter. 

Articles XXX-XXXIV. Defkutions and amendments, 
etc. 

Article XXXV. Non-application between particular 
parties. 

Part IV. 

Article XXXVI. Principles and Objectives. 

Article XXXVII. Commitments. 

Article XXXVIII. Joint Action. 

Adopted in February 1965, Part TV provides a con- 
tractual and legal basis for commitments by contracting 
parties aimed at ensuring that less-developed countries 
can raise standards of living and promote rapid economic 
development through raising their export earnings. 


BUDGET 

Payments are based on each member's share of the total trade between members. Contributions for totalled 1970 $3,478,000. 


PUBLICATIONS 

(available in English, French and Spanish editions). 


International Trade. Annual report on the main develop- 
ments in International Trade. 

GA TT Activities. Normally issued annually. 


Basic Instruments and Selected Documents series. Annual 
supplements record the formal decisions of the Members, 
important committee papers, etc. Volume IV gives the 
current text of the General .Agreement. 


INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE UNCTAD/GATT 
Villa Le Bocage, Palais de Nations, Geneva 


Established by GATT in May 1964 to assist the develop- 
ing countries in their export trade by providing information 
on export markets and marketing, and helping them both 
to develop their export promotion services and to train the 
personnel required for ttese services. 

The Centre has been jointly operated since January 
1968 by GATT and UNCTAD. 


The centre’s services at present comprise four main 
sectors: Market Information Service; Publications Pro- 
gramme; Trade Promotion Advisory Service; Training 
Programme. 

Director: H. L. Jacobson. 


44 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


INTER -GOVERNMENTAL MARITIME CONSULTATIVE 
ORGANIZATION— IMCO 


101-104 Piccadilly, London, W.1, England 

Telephone: 01-499-904° 




ORGANIZATION 


THE ASSEMBLY 

President (1968-); H. R. Bardarson (Iceland). 

The Assembly consists of delegates from all member 
countries, who each have one vote. Associate 
and observers from other governments, the United Na ons 
and UN agencies are also present. Sessions are heW 
regularly every two years. The first three took place in 
London in January 1959. April 1961 and October 19 ^ 
and the fourth in Paris in September 1965- The Assembly 
is responsible for the election of members to the unc 

and to the Maritime Safety Committee. It considers 

reports from all subsidiary bodies and decides the 
to bo taken on them. The Assembly votes the agency 
budget and determines the financial policy. An impo an 
part of its work is to recommend to members measure 
designed to promote maritime safety. 


THE COUNCIL 

Chairman: I. Averin (U.S.S.R). 

Members 

Australia Ghana 

Belgium Greece 

Brazil India 

Canada Italy 

Japan 
Madagascar 


Netherlands 

Nonvay 

Poland 

United Kingdom 
U.S.A. 

U.S.S.R. 


France 

German Federal 

Republic . 

The Council is the governing body of the 
between the biennial sessions of the Assembly, 
appoints the Secretary-General; transmits repo ^ 
Maritime Safety Committee to the Assembly an P 
on the work of the Organization generally: su im 
estimates and financial statements 'vith com ® ,, 

recommendations to the Assembly. The Council normally 
meets twice a year. 

Legal Committee ^ 'fSnilv 

Established by the Council in June 19^7 
ivith problems connected ivith the loss o 


Torrey Canyon, and subsequently ivith any legal problems 
laid before IMCO. Membership open to all IMCO Member 
States. 

THE MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE 
Chairman: Jan Metz (Netherlands). 

Members 

jSan Se'd Arab Republic 

France Netherlands United lUngdom 

German Federal Nonvay P/ff’ 

Republic Pakistan U.S.b.K. 

Greece Spain 

The Maritime Safety Committee consists of sixteen 
members elected by the Assembly for a term of four ywm. 
The Committee meets at least once a year and s^tmiits 
proposals to the Assembly on matters relating to safety at 

sea. 

Sub-Committees 

cargoes and Containers. Safety of Fishing Vessels. 

Carriage of Dangerous Goods. Safety of Navigation. 
Sfotection Ship Design and Eqmp- 

su«.. ... 

Kadiocommunications. 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Coun Goad (United Kingdom). 

The Secretariat consists of the Secretary-General, the 
j, L Secretary-General, the Secretary of the Maritime 
Safet^Committee, and a staff appointed by the Secret^ 
Genial and recruited on as wide a geographical basis as 
possibL. It comprises a Technical Division an Admmis- 
trative Division, a Technical Co-operation Division and a 
Legal Division. 


45 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


ACTIVITIES 


International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1348, 
and Collision Regulations, 1348. IMCO has taken over 
administration from the United Kingdom. 

International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1360, 
and Collision Regulations, 1360. A Conference held in 1960 
revised the 1948 Safety Convention and prepared a new 
one. The i960 Safety Convention, administered by IMCO, 
came into force on May 26th, 1965 and the i960 Collision 
Regulations became eSective on September ist, 1965. 

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution 
of the Sea by Oil, 1354. IMCO has taken over administration 
from the United lUngdom and an international conference 
in 1962 adopted certain amendments to the 1954 Conven- 
tion. The amendments came into force in May 1967. 

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime 
Traffic, 1363. Drawn up at a conference called by IMCO 
in 1965. The object of the convention is to reduce and 
simplify governmental procedures and documentation for 
ships. Came into force in March 1967. 

International Convention on Load Lines, 1366. Drawn up 
at a conference called by IMCO in 1966. It will eventually 
replace the current Load Line Convention of 1930. The 
Convention is to come into force in July 1968. 

International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of 
Ships, 1363. Drawn up at a Conference called by IMCO in 
1969, the Convention embodies a universal system for 
measuring ships’ tonnage. Will come into force two years 
after acceptance or accession by twenty-five governments 
of states, the combined fleets of which constitute not less 
than 65 per cent of gross toimage of world merchant 
shipping. 

International Convention relating to Intervention on the 
High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, 1363. Will 
enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on 
which fifteen countries have approved it. Drawn up at a 
conference called by IMCO in Brussels in 1969. 

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil 
Pollution Damage, 1563. Will come into force on the 
ninetieth day after the date on which eight countries, 
including five -^vith not less than i million gross tons of 
tanker tonnage, have approved it. Drami up at a confer- 
ence called by IMCO at Brussels in 1969. 

Sub-Committee on Cargoes and Containers. Has drawn up 
the Code of Safe Practice for Bulk Cargoes, which ivill be 
kept up to date. Has draivn up new Grain Regulations, 
adopted by 1969 Assembly as equivalent to Chapter VI of 
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 
i960. 


Sub-Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods. Has 
drawn up International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, 
which will be kept up to date. 

Sub-Committee on Fire Protection. Deals with fire pro- 
tection measures for ships, including tankers. 

Sub-Committee on Life-Saving Appliances. Deals with 
questions pertaining to life-saving equipment. 

Sub-Committee on Marine Pollution. Keeps the problem 
of pollution and its prevention under constant review. 

Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications. Deals with ques- 
tions pertaining to radiocommunications from the view- 
point of safety at sea. Responsible for periodic revision of 
the International Code of Signals. 

Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation. Deals with 
questions pertaining to safety of navigation, including 
those relevant to new types of craft, and with trafiSc 
separation schemes. 

Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment. Considws 
primarily the construction and equipment of ships carrying 
bulk cargoes of dangerous chemical substances other than 
petroleum and similar inflammable products normally 
carried in tankers; aims to recommend suitable design 
criteria, constructional standards and other safety 
measures. 

Sub-Committee on Safety of Fishing Vessels. Considers 
and makes recommendations on safety aspects of these 
vessels. 

Sub-Committee on Subdivision and Stability. Examines 
watertight subdivision of passenger ships, intact stability 
of passenger and cargo ships, subdivision and damage 
stability of cargo ships. 

BUDGET 

The establishment of IMCO was financed by a loan from 
the United Nations. Arrangements were made by the first 
Assembly to place the Organization on a sound financial 
basis wth contributions assessed from member states. The 
budget for operations during 1970 was established at 
§1,258,888 and during 1971 at §1,448,106. 

PUBLICATIONS 

IMCO — What it is. What it does (English, French, 
Russian, Spanish). 

Anmial Report (English, French, Russian, Spanish). 

Bulletin (English, French). 

Numerous specialized publications, including inter- 
national conventions of which IMCO is depositary 


CONVENTION 


Part I— PURPOSES 

Articlb I. (a) to provide machinery for co-operation 
among governments in the field of governmental regu- 
lation and practices relating to technical matters of all 
kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade, 
.and to encourage the general adoption of the highest 


practicable standards in matters concerning maritime 
safety and efficiency of navigation; 

(b) to encourage the removal of discriminatory action 
and unnecessary restrictions by governments affecting 
shipping engaged in international trade so as to promote 
the availability of shipping services to the commerce of the 


46 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


world without discrimination; assistance and encourage- 
ment given by a government for the development of its 
national shipping and for purposes of security does not in 
itself constitute discrimination, provided that such assist- 
ance and encouragement is not based on measures designed 
to restrict the freedom of shipping of all flags to take part 
in international trade; 

(c) to provide for the consideration by the Organization 
of matters concerning unfair restrictive practices by ship- 
ping concerns in accordance with Part II; 

(d) to provide for the consideration by the Organization 
of any matters concerning shipping that may be referred 
to it by any organ or Specialized Agency of the United 
Nations; 

(e) to provide for the exchange of information among 
governments on matters under consideration by the 
Organization. 

Part II— FUNCTIONS 

Article 2. The functions of the Organization shall be 
consultative and advisory. 

Articles 3 and 4. Description of functions. 

Part III— MEMBERSHIP 

Article 5. Membership in the Organization shall be 
open to all states. 

Articles 6-1 i. Conditions of membership. 

Part IV— ORGANS 

Article 12. The Organization shall consist of an 
Assembly, a Council, a Maritime Safety Committee, and 
such subsidiary organs as the Organization may at any 
time consider necessary; and a Secretariat. 

Part V— ASSEMBLY 

Article 13. The Assembly shall consist of all the 
members. 

Articles 14-16. Powers and duties of the Assembly. 

Part VI— COUNCIL 

Article 17. The Council shall be composed of eighteen 
members elected by the Assembly. 

Article 18. In electing the members of the Council, the 
Assembly shall observe the following principles; 

(a) six shall be governments of States with the largest 
interest in providing international shipping services; 

(b) six shall be governments of other States with the 
largest interest in international seaborne trade; 

(c) six shall be governments of States not elected under 

(a) or (b) above, which have special interests^ in 
maritime transport or navigation and whose election 
to the Council will ensure the representation of all 
major geographic areas of the world. 

Articles 19—27, Powers and duties of the Council. 

Part VH—MARITIME SAFETY COMMITTEE 

Article 28. The Maritime Safety Committee shall 
consist of sixteen members elected by the Assembly from 


members, governments of those States having an im- 
portant interest in maritime safety of which: 

(a) eight members shall be elected from among the ten 
largest shipoivning States; 

(b) four members shall be elected in such manner as to 
ensure that, under this sub-paragraph, a State in 
each of the following areas is represented: I: Africa; 
II. The Americas; III. Asia and Oceainia; IV. Europe; 

(c) the remaining four members shall be elected from 
among States not othenvise represented on the 
Committee. For the purpose of this Article, States 
having an important interest in maritime safety 
shall include, for example. States interested in the 
supply of large numbers of crews or in the carriage 
of berthed or unberthed passengers. Members of the 
Maritime Safety Committee shall be elected for a 
term of four years and shall be eligible for re-election. 

Article 29. (a) The Maritime Safety Committee shall 
have the duty of considering any matter within the scope 
of the Organization and concerned with aids to navigation, 
construction and equipment of vessels, manning from a 
safety standpoint, rules for the prevention of collisions, 
handling of dangerous cargoes, maritime safety procedures 
and requirements, hydrographic information, log-books 
and navigational records, marine casualty investigation, 
salvage and rescue, and any other matters directly 
affecting maritime safety. 

(b) The Maritime Safety Committee shall provide 
machinery for porforraing any duties assigned to it by the 
Convention, or by the Assembly, or any duty within the 
scope of this Article which may be assigned to it by any 
other intergovernmental instrument. 

(c) Having regard to the provisions of Part XII, the 
Maritime Safety Committee shall have the duty of main- 
taining such close relationship with other intergovern- 
mental bodies concerned with transport and communica- 
tions as may further the object of the Organization in 
promoting maritime safety and facilitate the co-ordination 
of activities in the fields of shipping, aviation, telecom- 
munications and meteorology with respect to safety and 
rescue. 

Articles 30—32. Powers and duties of the Maritime 
Safety Committee. 

Part VIII— SECRETARIAT 

Article 33. The Secretariat shall comprise the Secret- 
ary-General, a Secretary of the Maritime Safety Committee 
and such staff as the Organization may require. 

Articles 34—38. Powers and duties of the Secretariat. 

Parts 

Budget and Finance 
Voting 
Headquarters 
Relations with other 
Bodies 


IX-XVII 

Legal Capacity 
Amendments 
Interpretation 
Miscellaneous Provisions 
Entry into Force 


47 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION— ICAO 

International Aviation Building, Montreal, Canada 

Founded in 1947 to foster the development of international civil aviation for peaceful purposes. Members; 120. 


ORGANIZATION 


ASSEMBLY 

Composed of representatives of tlie member st.atcs, and 
is the organization’s legislative body; meets every three 
years. 

COUNCIL 

Comprises representatives of tvventy-seven states 
elected by the Assembly. It is the executive body, and 
establishes and supervises subsidiary technical commit- 
tees and makes recommendations to member governments; 
meets in virtually continuous session; elects the President, 
appoints the Secretary-General, and administers the 
finances of the organization. 

President of the Council : Walter Binaghi (Argentina). 
Secretary-General: Dr. Assad Kotaite (Lebanon). 

FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCIL 

1. Adopts international standards and recommended 
practices and incorporates them as annexes to the 
Convention on International Civil Aviation, 

2. Acts as arbiter between member states on matters 
concerning aviation and implementation of the 
Convention. 

3. Investigates any situation which prevents avoidable 
obstacles to development of international air naviga- 
tion. 

4. Takes whatever steps are necessary to maintain 
safety and regularity of operation of international 
air transport. 

5. Provides technical assistance to the developing 
countries under the UN Development Programme 
and other assistance programmes. 

ACTIVITIES DURING 1970 

Following an international Meeting held in November- 
December 1969 on “Aircraft Noise in the Vicinity of 
Airports”, much progress was made in establishing inter- 
nationally standardized procedures for describing and 
measuring aircraft noise and preparing a detailed aircraft 
noise certification scheme. 

The Technical Panel on Supersonic Transport Operations 
held its Second Meeting at Headquarters in January, and 
established operational requirements for SST's. 

In February, the ICAO Panel on "Application of Space 
Techniques Relating to Aviation (ASTRA)" held its Third 
^Meeting in Paris. 

The Fifth North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation 


Meeting was held in April and was attended by more than 
200 delegates from 23 ICAO Contracting States. Planning 
for the decade was studied against the background of 
long-term traffic forecasts, which anticipate a rapid 
increase, including supersonic operations after 1974. 

With a view to speeding up passenger handling at 
airports, a study on the possibility of introducing an inter- 
nationally acceptable Passport Card was carried out by a 
panel of experts. This Passport Card Panel, at its Meeting 
held in Paris in May, undertook the development of a 
sample card, which would be visually as well as machine 
readable. 

The Fifth Statistics Division Meeting (May-June) 
recommended the establishment of a programme of col- 
lecting statistics on non-scheduled commercial operations. 

The Extraordinary Assembly, held in Montreal in June, 
focused its attention on legal aspects of the problem of the 
increasing occurrence of unlarvful acts endangering tlie 
safety of civil aviation. A unanimous Resolution was 
passed condemning all acts of violence, urging states, 
pending the coming into force of appropriate international 
conventions, to implement various specifications and 
practices recommended in order to prevent such acts and 
to ensure the prosecution of those who commit them. The 
Legal Committee of ICAO met in February-March in 
Montreal and prepared a final Draft Convention on Un- 
lawful Seizure of Aircraft and draft Articles for the 
amendment of the Warsaw Convention of 1929 as amended 
by the Hague Protocol of 1955. It met again in London in 
October to consider legal measures to combat the menace 
of attacks against persons, aircraft or installations and 
facilities employed by civil aviation. It also considered 
sanctions which may be lawfully undertaken against a 
State which fails to perform its international obligations, 
particularly in cases of hijacking involving blaclcmail. 

Two diplomatic conferences are scheduled to discuss 
unlawful seizure of aircraft, and the revision of the 
Warsaw Convention, which relates to the liability of the 
air carrier in respect of its passengers. 

The Personnel Licensing/Training Practices/Mcdical 
Divisional Meeting was held at Headquarters in October- 
November 1970, to review licensing requirements for 
flight crew members, and for ground personnel in aviation, 
and medical requirements for flight crew members and 
ground personnel. It was agreed that there should be a 
general raising of requirements for all licences, in view of 
the more complex and crowded conditions under which 
civil aviation operates today. 

In November, ICAO’s membership increased to 120 with 
the adherence to tlie Chicago Convention on International 
Civil Aviation of the U.S.S.R. 


48 



THE UNITED NATIONS- 

REGIONAL OFFICES 

Europe: 3 bis. Villa Emile Bergerat, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 
France. 

Far East and Pacific: P.O. Box 614, Bangkok, Thailand. 
Middle East and Eastern African: 16 Hassan Sabri Zam- 
alek, Cairo, U.A.R. 

North American and Caribbean: 540 Ave. Chapultepec, 
Mexico, D.F. 

South America: Apartado 4127, Lima, Peru. 

Africa: P.O. Box 2356, Dakar, Senegal, 


(Specialized agencies^ 


ICAO BUDGET 

(U.S. $-1971) 


Meetings ...... 

293.550 

Secretariat ..... 

7.178,995 

General Services .... 

816,044 

Equipment ..... 

64,620 

Others ...... 

61,150 

Special Training Fund 

100,000 

Total .... 

8,514,359 

Miscellaneous Income .... 

1,493,359 

Net Total 

7 , 021,000 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION— ILO 

154 Rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland 


ILO was founded in 1919 to deal with social and labour problems. In 1946 it became UN s first Specialized Agency. 
The ILO was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1969. Members: 121. 


ORGANIZATION 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE 

President (Oct. 1970 ): Nagendra Singh (India). 
Vice-Presidents (Oct. 1970 ) : Natcho Simeonov (Bulgaria), 
Erling Broevig (Norway), Heinrich Wiemers 
(Federal Republic of Germany) . 

The supreme deliberative body of ILO. Normally meets 
annually in Geneva, wth a session devoted to maritime 
questions when necessary. Attended by more than 1,200 
delegates, advisers and observers. National delegations are 
composed of two government delegates, one employers 
delegate and one workers' delegate. Non-govemmental 
delegates can speak and vote independently of the -views of 
their government. Conference elects the Governing Body 
and adopts the Budget and International Labour Con- 
ventions and Recommendations. 

The President and Vice-Presidents hold oflace for the 
term of the Conference only. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE 

Director-General: C. W. Jenks (United Kingdom). 

Deputy Directors-General: A. M. Ammar (U.A.R.), F. 
Blanchard (France). 

Assistant Directors-General: Bertil Bolin (Sweden), 
Albert TEvokDjRlj (Dahomey), Xavier Caballero 
Tamayo (Bolivia), VujiRO Ohno (Japan), Pavel 
Astapenko (U.S.S.R.). 

The International Labour Office is the Organisation s 
secretariat, operational headquarters and publishing house. 
It is staffed in Geneva and in the field by more -than j,ooo 
people of some 100 nationalities. Operations are de- 
centralized to regional, area and branch offices in nearly 
40 countries. 


GOVERNING BODY 

Chairman (1970-71): Simeon Olujimi Koku (Nigeria). 

Employers’ Vice-Chairman (1970-71): Gullmar Bergen- 
STROM (Sweden). 

Workers’ Vice-Chairman (1970-71): Joseph Morris 
(Canada). 

jLO's executive council. Normally meets three or four 
times a year in Genova to decide policy and programmes. 
Composed of 24 government members, 12 employers' 
members and 12 workers' members. Ten of the govern- 
ment members represent "states of chief industrial 
importance"— Canada, Republic of China (Taiwan), 
France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, JapM, 
U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States. The remaining 
14 are elected from other countries every three years- 
Employers' and workers' members are elected as indivi- 
duals, not as national candidates. 


INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR 
LABOUR STUDIES 

Established by ILO in March i960. The Institute is an 
advanced educational and research institution dealing with 
social and labour policy, and brings together international 
experts representing employers, management, workers and 
government interests. Activities include international and 
regional study courses, and are financed hy grants and an 
Endo-wment Fund to which governments and other bodies 
contribute. 

Director: R. W. Cox (Canada). 


49 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR ADVANCED 
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

Established by ILO in Turin, Italy, the Centre became 
operational in October 1965. It marshals the latest tech- 
niques in management, technology and teaching method- 
ology and makes them available to key personnel from all 


over the world. It does this by giving advanced training 
courses to experienced managers, instructors, technicians 
and directors of training services. Programmes are geared 
primarily to the needs of developing countries. The ILO 
Director-General is Chairman of the Board of the Centre. 
Director: Philippe Blamont (France). 


ACTIVITIES 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS 

One of the ILO’s primary functions is the adoption by 
the International Labour Conference of Conventions and 
Recommendations setting minimum labour standards. 
Through ratification by member states. Conventions create 
binding obligations to put their provisions into effect. 
Recommendations provide guidance as to policy and 
practice. A total of 134 Conventions and 142 Recom- 
mendations have been adopted, ranging over a wide field 
of social and labour matters, including basic human rights 
such as freedom of association, abolition of forced labour 
and elimination of discrimination in employment. Together 
they form the International Labour Code. By November 
1970 almost 5,000 Conventions had been ratified by 
member states. 

TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 

In 1970, technical co-operation continued to be the 
ILO’s major activity in terms of expenditure. An estimated 
$58 million from all sources, including the United Nations 
Development Programme and government counterpart 
contributions, was spent on ILO projects in aid of social 
and economic development. About 1,000 ILO experts were 
at work in 100 countries. Regional distribution of such 
expenditure in 1969 was as follows: Africa, Sio million; 
Latin America and the Caribbean, 84.3 million; Asia, 


$4.8 million; Europe, $3.2 million; Near and Middle East, 
§1.3 million; inter-regional projects, $0.9 million. 

THE WORLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME 

In 1969, its 50th anniversary year, the ILO launched a 
World Employment Programme designed to help national 
and international efforts to provide productive employ- 
ment for the rapidly growing population, thus enabling the 
world's peoples to share in the fruits of economic progress 
through gainful work. Under this programme the ILO 
co-operated in 1970 with other international organizations 
and the government of Colombia in a pilot programme 
proposing measures designed to overcome unemployment 
in that country. A similar undertaking is scheduled for 
Ceylon in 1971, again at government request, and plans 
are being made for employment specialists to visit African 
countries. 

MEETINGS 

Among the important meetings scheduled for 1971. 
besides those of the International Labour Conference and 
the Governing Body, are the following: Asian Regional 
Conference; African Advisory Committee; International 
Conference of Labour Statisticians; Building, Civil 
Engineering and Public Works Committee; Inland Trans- 
port Committee; Advisory Committee on Rural Develop- 
ment; Petroleum Committee. 


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE 


The sjth session of the Iniernaiional Labour Conference 
(fune igyo) adopted a number of new international 
standards: a Convention and Recommendation on mini- 
mum wage-fixing, with special reference to developing 
countries: a Convention on annual holidays with pay; and 
a Recommendation on special youth employment and 
training schemes for development purposes. It approved 
the first draft of a proposed Recommendation concerning 
protection and facilities to be afforded to workers’ repre- 
sentatives in the undertaking. The Conference approved a 
resolution contemplating the adoption of new standards 
with a view to enlarging trade union rights, taking into 
account those civil liberties which are a prerequisite for 
their exercise. 

President V. V. Giri of India addressed the Conference, 
which was attended by 1,251 delegates, advisers and 
observers from in of the ILO’s 121 member states. 


The gyth {Maritime) session of the International Labour 
Conference (October 1970) adopted a Recommendation to 
promote the establishment of national merchant navy 
manpower plans; a Recommendation on training facilities; 
a Resolution on minimum pay for able seamen; a Conven- 
tion on standards for crew accommodation; a Recom- 
mendation on air conditioning of crew accommodation: 
a Recommendation on measures against harmful noise on 
board ship; a Convention and Recommendation on accident 
prevention; and a Recommendation on welfare measures. 

The g6th session of the International Labour Conference 
will take place in Geneva in June 1971 to consider new 
international standards concerning trade union rights and 
their relation to civil liberties (second discussion), protec- 
tion and facilities afforded to workers’ representatives in 
the undertaking (second discussion) and protection against 
hazards arising from benzene (single discussion). 


FINANCE 

Total Expenditure Budget 1969: U.S. ?26,6i2,739. 
Total Expenditure Budget 1970-71 : U.S. $60,960,000. 


oO 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


PUBLICATIONS 


International Labour Review (current developments and 
bibliography; monthly in English, French, Spanish). 

Official Bulletin (information and documents relating to 
ILO activities: quarterly in English, French, Spanish). 

Legislative Series (selected labour and social security laws 
and regulations; bi-monthly in English, French, 
Spanish). 

Bulletin of Labour Statistics (quarterly in English, French, 
Spanish). 

Year Booh of Ldboiir Statistics (trilingual). 

International studies, surveys, works of practical guidance or 
reference on questions of social policy, manpower, 
industrial relations, working conditions, social security, 
training, management development, etc. (in English, 
French, Spanish). 


Training for Progress (an international review on voca- 
tional training; in English, French). 

CIRF Abstracts (a service providing digests of articles, 
laws, reports). 

CIRF Monographs. 

Reports for the annual sessions of the International Labour 
Conference, etc. (in English, French, German, Russian, 
Spanish). 

ILO-Panorama (bi-monthly magazine in English, French, 
Spanish). 

ILO-Inforination (quarterly news-sheet issued in Arabic, 
Chinese, Danish, English, Finnish, French, German, 
Hindi, Japanese, Nor\vegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish 
and Urdu). 


INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION— ITU 

Place des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland 

ITU succeeded, in 1934. the International 

Members: 139. 


ORGANIZATION 


PLENIPOTENTIARY CONFERENCE 

The supreme organ of ITU; meets about every five years. 
Each member has one vote at the Conference, whose main 
tasks are to approve budget policy and accounts, to 
negotiate with other international organizations, and 
generally direct policy. Last Conference; Montreux, 
September 1965. Next Conference, Geneva 1973- 

WORLD ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCES 
The Administrative Telegraph and Telephone Conference: 

revises telegraph and telephone regulations. 

World Administrative Radio Conference: revises radio 
regulations, elects the members of the Internationm 
Frequency Registration Board, and reviews its activi- 
ties. 

World Administrative Conferences meet at irregular 
intervals according to technical needs, and there may a so 
he regional Administrative Conferences held ad hoc. 

A World Administrative Radio Conference for Space 
Telecommunications will meet in Geneva in June 197^ 
a duration of six weeks. 

ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL 

The Administrative Council meets annually in Geneva; 
fhe 25th session was held in May 1570. The CouncU is 
composed of 29 members elected by the Plenipoten ary 
Conference. 


The Council helps the implementation of the Convention’s 
provisions, and executes the decisions of the Plenipoten- 
tiary Conference and, where appropriate, the decisions ol 
the conferences and meetings of the Union. It conducts 
relations with other international organizations, and 
approves the annual budget. 


GENERAL SECRETARIAT 
Secrelary-General: Mohamed Mili (Tunisia). 

Deputy Secretary-General: Richard E. Butler (Aus- 
tralia). 

Director of External Affairs: Cutrord Stead (United 
Kingdom). 

Chief, Department of Common Services: Russell Cook 


(U.S.A.). , ^ 

The Secretary-General is elected by the Plenipotentiary 
Conference, and is responsible to it for the Ge^i^ Se^e- 
tariat’s work, and for the Unions admimstrative and 
financial services. The General Secretariat’sstafi totals 313: 
the workiue languages are English, French and Spamsh.. 


INTERNATIONAL FREQUENCY REGISTRATION 
BOARD (IFRB) 

Chairman: Vladimir Savantchuk (U.S.S.R.); 5 mems.; 
number of staff 107. 

IFRB records assignments of radio frequencies and 
provides technical advice to enable members of the Union 


51 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


to operate as many radio channels as possible in over- 
crowded parts of the radio spectrum. It also investigates 
cases of harmful interference and makes recommendations 
for their solution. 

INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE 
CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (CCITT) 

Director: Jean Rouviere (France); number of stafi 33. 

CCITT is currently organizing sixteen study groups and 
two special study groups covering transmission problems, 
operation and tariffs, maintenance, electromagnetic 
dangers, protection of equipment, definitions, vocabulary 
and symbols, apparatus, local connecting lines, facsimile- 
and photo-telegraphy, quality of transmission, specifica- 
tions, telegraph and telex swatching, telephone signalling 
and switching and planning the development of an inter- 
national network. It has its own telephony laboratory. 


INTERNATIONAL RADIO CONSULTATIVE 
COMMITTEE (CCIR) 

Director: Jack W. Herbstreit (U.S.A.); number of staff 
2S. 

CCIR is currently organizing twelve study groups 
covering spectrum utilization and monitoring; space 
research and radioastronomy services; fixed services below 
about 30 IVIHz; fixed services using satellites; propagation 
in non-ionized media; ionospheric propagation; standard 
frequency and time-signal services; mobile services; fixed 
services using radio-relay systems; sound broadcasting 
service; television broadcasting service; Interim Study 
Group on Vocabulary. The television study group is 
working on the following matters: television recording, 
television standards for both black and white and colour 
transmission, ratio of the wanted to unwanted signal in 
television, reduction of band width, conversion of a 
television signal from one standard to another, estimates of 
the quality of television pictures, etc. 


HISTORY OF ITU 


The General Assembly of the United Nations acknow- 
edged ITU as the specialized agency in the field of 
telecommunication on November 15th, 1947. ITU is the 
oldest of the specialized agencies. Its origin dates back to 
May 1865, when the International Telegraph Union was 
founded in Paris by the signing of the International 
Telegraph Convention. The Paris Convention was revised 
in Vienna in 1868, in Rome in 1872 and in St. Petersburg 
in 1875. At Vienna it wa; decided to create a permanent 
international bureau, which became the forerunner of the 
present General Secretariat of ITU. From 1869 to 1948 its 
headquarters were in Berne. 

In 1932 two plenipotentiary conferences were held in 
Madrid: a Telegraph and Telephone Conference and a 
Radio-telegraph Conference. The two existing Conventions 
were amalgamated in a single International Telecom- 
munication Convention, and the countries which signed or 
acceded to it formed the International Telecommunication 
Union, replacing the Telegraph Union. Four sets of 
regulations were annexed to the Convention: Telegraph, 
Telephone, Radio and the Additional Radio Regulations. 

A Plenipotentiary Conference met in Atlantic City in 
1947 to revise the Madrid Convention. It introduced radical 
changes in the organization of the Union: new organs were 
created; it became a UN specialized agency; and in 1948 its 
headquarters were transferred from Berne to Geneva. 

The Radio Conference, which met in 1947 at the same 
time as the Plenipotentiary Conference, prepared a new 
frequency allocation table for the various radio services. 
The new procedure provided for an engineering study to 
be made of each frequency notified to the International 
Frequency Registration Board. At the Radio Conference 


held in Geneva in 1959, the radio frequency spectrum was 
re-apportioned. (Within this, various bands are allocated 
to the Fixed, Broadcasting, Aeronautical Mobile, Land 
Mobile, Maritime Mobile, Radionavigation, Radiolocation, 
Space, Earth-Space, Radio Astronomy, Meteorological 
Aids, Amateur, Standard Frequency and Time Signal 
Services). Advances in knowledge, techniques and usage 
required allocations to be made beyond the previous limit 
of 10,500 MHz; allocations were therefore made up to 
40,000 MHz. Although the future radio requirements for 
the new services of space and earth-space and for radio 
astronomy could not be foreseen, care was taken to ensure 
that the research in this field would not be hampered by 
lack of frequency allocation. 

A Plenipotentiary Conference was held in Buenos Aires 
in 1952, in Geneva during 1959 and in Montreux in 1965. 
Telegraph and Telephone Conferences and Radio Con- 
ferences are normally held every five years. The last 
Telegraph and Telephone Conferences were held in Cairo 
in 1938, in Paris in 1949 and in Geneva in 1958; Radio 
Conferences were held in Cairo in 1938, in Atlantic City 
in 1947, and in Geneva in 1959. In October and November 
1963, ITU held a world Space Radiocommunications Con- 
ference in Geneva at which over 6,000 megahertz (about 
15 per cent of the entire radio frequency spectrum) were 
allocated for outer space purposes. 

Other recent ITU conferences were an Aeronautical 
Radiocommunications Conference held in Geneva in 
March-AprU 1966, an African Broadcasting Conference 
held in Geneva during January-February 1964 and 
September-October 1966, and a World Maritime Radio- 
communications Conference which took place in September 
1967. 


52 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


BUDGET 

1970-Swiss Francs 



CONVENTION AND REGULATIONS 


MONTREUX CONVENTION 

The International Telecommunications Convention 
(Montreux, 1965), which replaced the 1959 Geneva Conven- 
tion and lays down the organization and structure of ITU. 
came into force on January ist, 1967. It contains the 
fundamental provisions which bind the Member and 
Associate Member Governments of the Union wth the 
object of facilitating relations and co-operation between the 
peoples by means of efficient telecommunication services. 
These provisions deal rvith the composition, functions 
and structure of the Union, the application of the Con- 
vention and Regulations, relations rvith the United 
Nations and with International Organizations, and witli 
special rules for radio. 

telegraph and telephone regulations 

The Telegraph and Telephone Regulations were adopted 
during the 1958 Geneva Telegraph and Telephone Con- 
ference and are still in force. They deal rvith problems of 
telegraph and telephone rates and tariffs among ITU 
Member countries. These two Regulations lay down the 
rules to be observed in the international telephone service. 
Their provisions are applied to both wire and ivireless 
telegraph and telephone communications so far as the 
Radio Regulations and the Additional Radio Regulations 
<Jo not provide otherwise. 


RADIO REGULATIONS 

The Regulations are attached to the Geneva Convention, 
and bind all Members and Associate Members. They 
include general rules for the assignment and use of fre- 
quencies and — the most important part of the Regula- 
tions — a Table of Frequency Allocations between 10 kHz 
and 40 kHz to the various radio services: broadcasting, 
television, radio astronomy, navigation aid, point-to-point 
service, maritime mobile, amateur, etc. Chapter III deals 
with the duties of the International Frequency Registra- 
tion Board. The Regulations governing measures against 
interference follow. Subsequently, there are the adminis- 
strative provisions for stations (secrecy, licences, identifi- 
cation, service documents, inspection of mobile stations). 

Chapters VI and VII are concerned ivith personnel and 
working conditions in the mobile services, and Chapter 
VIII with radio assistance in life saving. The last two 
chapters deal with radiotelegrams and radiotelephone 
calls and miscellaneous stations and services. Partial 
revision of the Radio Regulations, Geneva 1959, entered 
into force on January ist, 1965 for space service and on 
July ist, 1967 for the Aeronautical Mobile Services. 


53 




THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL 

ORGANIZATION— UNESCO 

7 & 9 place de Fontenoy. Paris 7e, France 

Telephone: 566 57-57. 705 97-49, 705 99-48- 

UNESCO was established in 1945. The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by 
promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science, and culture in order to further universe 
respect for justice, for the rule of law, and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for 
the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations. 

Members: 125. 


organization 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Meets in ordinary session once in two years and is 
composed of representatives of the member states. 
Sixteenth Session: Oct.-Nov. 1970, Paris. 

President: Atilio Dell’oro Maini (Argentina). 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Consists of 34 members. Prepares the programme to be 
submitted to the Conference and supervises its execution. 
Meets twice or sometimes three times a year. 

Chairman: Prem Kirpal (India). 

SECRETARIAT 

Director-General: Ren6 Maheu (France). 

Deputy Director-General: Dr. Malcolm S. Adiseshiah 
(India). 

Assistant Directors-General: Vladimir Erofeev (U.S.S.R., 
Alberto Obligado (Argentina), Hanna Saba (U.A.R.), 
Adriano Buzzati-Tra verso (Italy), Richard Hoo- 
GART (U.K.). 

The Director-General has an international stafi of 3,500 
civil servants. 

CO-OPERATING BODIES 

National Commissions and Co-operating Bodies have 
been set up in most member states. These help to integrate 
work within the member states and the work of UNESCO. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

New York Office: Room 2201, UN Building, 42nd St. at 
First Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017, U.S.A. 

Regional Office for Latin America: Centro Regional de la 
UNESCO en el Hemisferio Occidental, Calzada 551, 
Apartado 4158, Havana, Cuba. 

UNESCO Science and Research Offices 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for Latin 
America: 1320 Bulevar Artigas, Apartado de Correos 
859, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for the Arab 
States: 8 Sh. el Salamlik, Garden City, Cairo, U.A.R. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for South Asia: 
No. I Ring Rd., N.D.S. Ext. i. New Delhi 3, India. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for South-East 
Asia: Djl. Imam Bondjol 30, Tromol Pos 273/DKT, 
Djakarta, Indonesia. 

Regional Centre for Science and Technology for Africa: 
P.O.B. 30592, Nairobi, Kenya. 

UNESCO Education Offices 

Regional Office for Education: Avenida Providencia 871, 
Casilla 10095, Santiago, Chile. 

Regional Office for Education in Asia: P.O.B. 1425, Sanam 
Sua Pa, Bangkok, Thailand. 


PRIMARY TASKS 


1. To eliminate illiteracy and encourage universal free 
and compulsory education. 

2. To obtain for each person an education conforming to 
his aptitudes and to the needs of society, including tech- 
nological training and higher education. 

3. To promote, through education, respect for Human 
Rights throughout all nations. 

4. To overcome the obstacles to the free flow of persons, 
ideas, and knowledge between the countries of the world. 

5. To promote the progress and utilisation of science for 
the benefit of all mankind. 

0 . To focus the social sciences on the study of particular 
social questions for the benefit both of the general public 
and of governments. 


7. To assure the preservation of the world’s inheritance 
of books, works of art and monuments of history and 
science, to make this cultural heritage known and available 
to all, and to promote mutual appreciation of differing 
cultural values. 

8. To advance through the media of mass communica- 
tion the causes of truth, freedom, and peace. 

9. To bring about better understanding among the 
peoples of the world and to convince them of the necessity 
of co-operating loyally with one another in the framework 
of the United Nations. 

10. To provide clearing-house and exchange service in 
all its fields of action, together with technical aid to nations 
and peoples in emergencies. 


54 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


REGULAR PROGRAMME 


Development of International Co-operation. Promotion 
of co-operation in natural science, social sciences, education 
and mass communication. Organization of seminars, 
discussions and conferences. 

Improving Documentation. Collection, analysis and 
difiusion of information, including statistics. Promotion of 
national Documentation Centres. 

School Education. Extension of free and compulsory 
education, improvement of school curricula, education for 
international understanding, vocational and technical 
education, higher education, and educational planning. 

Education Outside School. Fundamental education 
(community development), adult education and youth 
work. 

Aid to Scientific Research and Development. Creation of 
international bodies and promotion of research in a wide 
variety of natural sciences, with particular reference to 
their application to development. 


Applied Social Sciences. Use of social sciences to study 
and solve great contemporary social problems such as 
human rights, racial prejudice and social questions in the 
developing countries. 

Preservation of the Cultural Heritage of Mankind. 

Conservation and protection of books, works of art and 
historical and scientific monuments. 

Mutual Appreciation of Cultural Values. Encouragement 
of a better knowledge of the cultures of different peoples 
to further real understanding. 

Free Flow of Information. Sponsorship of international 
agreements, reduction of postal, transport and other 
obstacles, expansion and improvements of communications. 

International Training of Specialists. Awards for fellow- 
ships abroad, organization of special courses, improvement 
of planning and administration of international training 
programmes. 

Human Rights. Application of the UN Declaration of 
Human Rights. 


OTHER PROGRAMMES 


United Nations Devetopment Programme — UNDP 

Technical Assistance: aid to the developing countries 
by sending experts, equipment and supplies and by 
granting fellowships. 

Special Fund: teacher training, training of technicians 
and applied scientific research. 


Participation Programme. Development assistance in 
fields, such as social sciences, cultural activities. 

Other International Accounts. Co-operation with other 
international aid and educational programmes, notably 
with IDA. 


INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL PLANNING— IIEP 

9 rue Eugene Delacroix, Paris 16b 


Established by UNESCO in 1963 to serve as a world 
centre for advanced training and research in educational 
planning. Its purpose is to help all member states of 
UNESCO in their social and economic development 
efforts, by enlarging the fund of knowledge about educa- 
tional planning and the supph^ of competent experts in 
this field. 

Legally and administratively a part of UNESCO, the 


Institute enjoys intellectual autonomy, and its policies 
and programme are controlled by its own Governing 
Board, nnder special statutes voted by the General 
Conference of UNESCO. 

Chairman of Governing Board: Prof. Torsten Husen. 
Director: Raymond Poignant. 

Publications include Progress Report 1963-1967 and 
over 50 titles in English, French and Spanish. 


55 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION— UPU 

3000 Berne 15, Switzerland 

Telephone: (031) 43 22 ii. 

By the Treaty of Berne, 1874, the General Postal Union was founded, beginning operations in July 1875. Three 
years later its name was changed to the Universal Postal Union, In 1948 UPU became a Specialized Agency 

of UN. Members: 143. 


PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF THE UNION 


The essential principles of the Union, introduced by the 
Berne Convention (1874) and stiU appearing in the Con- 
stitution and the present Convention are the following; 

1 . Formation of one single postal territory. 

2. Unification of postal charges. 

3. Abolition of the sharing of charges between the 
sender country and the country of destination. 

4. Guarantee of freedom of transit. 


5. Settlement of disputes by arbitration. 

6. Establishment of a central office (secretariat) under 
the name of the International Bureau paid for by all 
members. 

7. Periodical meeting of Congresses. 

8. Promotion of the development of international postal 
services and postal technical assistance to Union members. 
(Vienna Congress, 1964.) 


ORGANIZATION 


CONGRESS 

The Supreme body of the Union is Congress which meets 


every five years. 

Its duties are legislative 

and 

consist 

mainly of revision 
been held: 

of the Acts. 

Sixteen Congresses have 

Berne 

1874 

London 


Xgzg 

Paris 

1878 

Cairo 


t 934 

Lisbon . 

1885 

Buenos Aires 


*939 

Vienna . 

X891 

Paris 


t 947 

Washington 

1897 

Brussels . 


X952 

Rome 

1906 

Ottawa 


*957 

Madrid . 

1920 

Vienna 


1964 

Stockholm 

1924 

Tokyo 


1969 


EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Beriveen Congresses, an Executive Council, created by 
the Paris Congress 1947, meets annually at Berne. It is 
composed of 31 member countries of the Union elected by 
Congress on the basis of an equitable geographical distri- 
bution. Its role is to ensure continuity of the Union’s work 


in the interval between Congresses, namely to study the 
problems submitted to it by Congress. 

CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL FOR POSTAL STUDIES 

At the Ottawa Congress 1957 ^ Consultative Committee 
for Postal Studies was established, the aim of which was 
to make recommendations on technical, operational and 
economic questions related to the postal service. At the 
Tokyo Congress 1969 this Committee became the Con- 
sultative Council for Postal Studies (CCPS), whose 30 
member countries meet annually, in principle at Berne. 

INTERNATIONAL BUREAU 

The day-to-day work of UPU is executed through a 
permanent organ called the International Bureau stationed 
at Berne. It serves as an instrument of liaison, information 
and consultation for the postal administration of the 
member countries. 

Director-General ot the International Bureau: Dr. hficHzi. 

Rari (U.A.R.). 


BUDGET 

The Tokyo Congress, 1969, fixed 7,878,000 Smss francs as the maximum figure for annual expenditure in the year 1971- 
This sum, and any extraordinary expenses, are borne by members. Members are listed in seven classes setting out the 
proportion they should pay. 


PUBLICATIONS 


UPU publications are listed in Lisle des publications 
du Bureau international', all are in French, some also in 
English, Arabic and Spanish. 


Union Postale (monthly review): published in Frcncli, 
German, English, Arabic, Clfinese, Spanish and 
Russian. 


58 



THE UNITED NATIONS — {Specialized Agencies) 


CONSTITUTION, GENERAL REGULATIONS AND CONVENTIONS 


The Constitution, which came into being as a result of 
the division of the Universal Postal Convention by the 
Vienna Congress in 1964, contains the basic organic pro- 
visions of the UPU. It took effect on January rst, rg66, 
and was thenceforth the permanent Act of the Union. 

The provisions providing for the application of the 
Constitution and the operation of the Union are contained 
in the General Regulations, which, like the other UPU 
Acts and unlike the Constitution, is renewable at each 
Congress. 


The common rules applicable to the international postal 
service and to the letter-post provisions are contained in 
the Universal Postal Convention and its Detailed Regula- 
tions. Giving to their importance in the postal field and 
their historical value, these two Acts, together with the 
Constitution and the General Regulations, constitute the 
compulsory Acts of the Union. It is therefore not possible 
to be a member country of the Union without being a 
party to these Acts and applying their provisions. 


SPECIAL AGREEMENTS 


The activities of the international postal service, other 
than letter mail, are governed by Special Agreements. 
These are binding only for the countries which have 
seceded to Utem. jTfiere aru eight stfci Ageeeaseats: 

1. Agreement concerning Insured Letters and Boxes. 

2. Agreement concerning Postal Parcels. 

3. Agreement concerning Postal Money Orders and 
uostal Travellers’ Cheques. 


4. Agreement concerning Giro Transfers. 

5. Agreement concerning Cash on Delivery items. 

6. Agreement concerning the Collection of Bills. 

7. Agreement concerning the International Savings Bank 
Service. 

8. Agreement concerning Subscriptions to Newspapers 
and Periodicals. 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION— WHO 

Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland 

Telephone: 34 60 61. 

Established in 1948. The purpose of WHO is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. 

Members: 13 1. 


ORGANIZATION 


WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 

President (1970-71): Dr. Hippolyte Ay& (Ivory Coast). 

Vice-Presidents (1970-71): Dr. P. D. Martinez (Mexico), 
Dr. A. S. Majali (Jordan), Dr. S. C. Chua (Singapore), Dr. 
D. Tumendelger (Mongolia), Dr. Esther Ammundsen 
(Denmark). 

Chairman, Committee A: Dr. M. Aldea (Romania), 

Chairman, Committee B: Dr. VV. Ravenna (Uruguay). 

The World Health Assembly meets once a j'ear, usually 
in Geneva, hut occasionally away from headquarters, at 
the invitation of a member state. The Assembly determines 
policy, adopts a programme and budget for the following 
year, appoints the Director-General, admits new members 
and decides the scale of assessments for members’ contri- 
butions to the budget. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
Chairman: Dr. Bogoseav Juricic (Chile). 

Vice-Chairmen: Dr. Basil D. B. Layton (Canada), Dr. 
Jamil Anouti (Lebanon). 

Rapporteurs: Dr. Vassos P. Vassilopoulos (Cyprus), Dr. 
S. B6daya-Ngaro (Central African Republic). 

The Board is composed of twenty-four health experts 
designated by, but not representing, their governments. 


It meets at least twice a year to review the Director- 
General’s programme, which it forwards to the Assembly 
with any recommendations that seem necessary. It also 
advises the Assembly on questions referred to it by that 
body. 

SECRETARIAT 

Dirscior-General: Dr. M. G. Camdau (Brazil). 

Deputy Director-General: Dr. P. Dorolle. 

Assistant Directors-General: Dr. N. F. Izmerov, Dr. H. 
Mahler, M. P. Siegel, Dr. L. Bernard. 

REGIONS 

Africa: Dr. A. Quenum, P.O.B. 6, Brazzaville, Congo. 

Americas: Dr. Abraham Horwitz, Pan-American Sani- 
tary Bureau, 525 23rd St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20037, U-S.A, 

Eastern Mediterranean: Dr. A. H. Taba, P.O.B. 1517, 
Alexandria, United Arab Republic. 

Europe: Dr. Leo Kaprio, 8 Scherfigsvej, Copenhagen 0 , 
Denmark. 

South-East Asia: Dr. V. T. Herat Gunaratne, Indra- 
prastha Estate, Ring Rd., New Delhi i, India. 

Western Pacific: Dr. Francisco J. Dy, P.O.B. 2932, 
Manila, Philippines. 


ACTIVITIES IN 1970 


WORLD HEALTH DAY 

April 7th is designated as World Health Day to com- 
memorate the coming into existence of WHO on that date 
in 1948. The theme in 1970 was "Cancer; early detection 
saves lives”, to draw attention to the role of early detec- 
tion in the treatment of cancer. As Dr. M. G. Candau, 
WHO Director-General, stated, "the battle against cancer 
is far from won, but even in the present state of Imowledge 
it would be half won if early detection and treatment 
became universal”. 

WORLD HEALTH ASSEiMBLY 
The Twenty-Third World Health Assembly met in 
Geneva in May 1970. An effective working budget of 
§73,230,000 was adopted to finance the work of the 
Organization in 1971, an increase of 8.25 per cent over the 
1970 figure. The MIHO programme of assistance to govern- 
ments and of technical services is also financed with the 
help of voluntarj’ contributions and the United Nations 


Development Programme. Many projects receive sub- 
stantial aid from the United Nations Children’s Fund 
(UNICEF). 

Malaria eradication. Current programmes arc being 
revised to apply the new strategy of malaria eradication 
adopted by the Assembly in 1969. Its main features are 
diversification of methods, better adaptation to local con- 
ditions and more realistic planning. By the end of 1969, of 
the 1,800 million persons in originally malarious areas in 
145 countries of the world, 39 per cent were living in areas 
where malaria had been eradicated and a further 40 per 
cent in areas where eradication programmes were in 
progress. In 36 countries, all the previously malaria areas 
had been completely freed from the disease. Over 1,300 
compounds have been reviewed in WHO’s programme for 
the evaluation and testing of new insecticides. 

Progress in smallpox eradication. Since 1967, the first 
year of the intensified programme oi smallpox eradication, 
incidence has declined almost 60 per cent. In 1969, 53,814 


GO 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


cases were recorded, the lowest in history. The number of 
countries reporting smallpox has also decreased, from 6i in 
1959 to 43 in 1967, and to 29 in 1970. Importation of 
smallpox from these countries by the rest of the world 
remains a problem, and cases continue to be reported each 
year from many countries that are otherwise free of the 
disease. Until smallpox is eradicated on a world-wide basis 
many governments must continue to pay a high price, 
through vaccination and quarantine, for remaining free of 
this disease. 

World health situation. WHO’s fourth report on the world 
health situation, presented to the Assembly in May 1970, 
showed that only in the developed countries was there a 
satisfactory relationship between higher population figures 
and the improvement of health services. The world’s 
population increased by 404.7 million between i960 and 
1968. The increase of children was 141 million, probably 
90 per cent of them bom in the developing countries. Each 
year 50 million or so additional people require health 
protection and care. 

Monitoring pollution. To combat water, soil, food and air 
pollution and noise, the Director-General was asked to 
submit a long-term programme for environmental health 
to the next World Health Assembly, The ultimate aim is 
the establishment of a world-wide system of surveillance 
and monitoring. A code of environmental health, drawn up 
in close collaboration rvith the national and international 
bodies concerned, was considered necessary. 

Smoking and health. Conscious of the role of smoking in 
lung and heart disease, including broncho-pulmonary 
cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary 
tlirombosis, the Assembly asked the Director-General to 
take a number of steps aimed at reducing this habit. 
Recommendations were also made in the matter of 
research and on the fixing of maximum limits for certain 
noxious substances contained in cigarettes. 

Medical research. The intensified medical research pro- 
gramme, initiated in 1959, now extends to virtually all 
aspects of public health. "The programme, which is of 


fundamental importance to WHO’s work, depends upon 
the advice and guidance it receives from the members of 
tlie Advisory Committee on Medical Research and scientific 
groups and also upon the work of innumerable scientists 
cither working individually or in the ever-widening net- 
work of research institutes throughout the world. It is 
enriching knowledge of a host of problems which still 
impede progress in controlling major communicable dis- 
eases, the prevention of nutritional disorders, cancer, 
cardiovascular diseases and mental illness, among others. 

INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR 
RESEARCH ON CANCER 

Lyons, franco 

Members: Australia, Belgium, France, Federal Republic of 
Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, U.S.S.R., United 
ICingdom, U.S.A. 

Director: Prof. H. Higginson. 

Established in 1965 to provide participating states with 
a means of co-operating in the stimulation and support of 
all phases of cancer research. The Agency is an autonomous 
body within the framework of WHO to participate and 
promote international co-operation in cancer research. 
The foundation stone of the building that rvill house the 
International Agency for Research on Cancer was laid in 
March 1969. Collaborative work wth over 60 centres in 
different parts of the world is in progress. Three regional 
centres have been set up, in Nairobi, Singapore and 
Jamaica, to study environmental factors in cancer. 

FEDERATION OF WORLD HEALTH 
FOUNDATIONS 

The Federation of World Health Foundations, estab- 
lished -with headquarters in Geneva in 1967, now represents 
World Health Foundations in Canada, Ceylon, Hong Kong, 
Iran, Ireland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the 
U.S.A. Their aim is to encourage voluntary support for the 
improvement of world health from sources such as business, 
industry and the general public. 


BUDGET, 1971 

(estimates in U.S. dollars) 

World Health Assembly . . 

Executive Board and its Committees 
Regional Committees . 

Programme Activities . 

Regional Offices, . 

Expert Committees . 

Administrative Services 
Other Purposes . • ’ . 

Revolving fund for teaching and lafaora 
tory equipment 


54L98>1 

235.950 

126,900 

60,756,277 

6,294,976 

216,800 

4,448,413 

508,700 

100,000 


Total 


73,130,000 



Cl 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 

PUBLICATIONS 


World Health (monthly): WHO illustrated magazine for 
the general public. 

WHO Chronicle (monthly): gives accounts of conferences, 
meetings of committees and field activities. 

Technical Report Series: reports of committees, study 
groups. 

Public Health Papers: contributions to the study of 
branches of public health. 

Monograph Series: fifty-six monographs have been pub- 
lished. 

Bulletin: WHO scientific papers. 


Official Records: give full accounts of the World Health 
Assembly, meetings of the Executive Board, Annual 
Report of the Director-General, programme and budget. 

Weehly Epidemiological Record: contains notifications and 
information on the application of the International 
Sanitary Regulations and notes on current incidence 
of certain diseases. 

Epidemiological and Vital Statistics Report (monthly). 

International Digest of Health Legislation. 

Regional reports. 


CONSTITUTION 


Chapter I 

The objective of the W'orld Health Organization shall 
be the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible 
level of health. 

Chapter II 

In order to achieve its objective, the functions of the 
Organization shall be: 

(a) to act as the directing and co-ordinating authority 
on international health work; 

(b) to establish and maintain effective collaboration with 
the United Nations, specialized agencies, govern- 
mental health administrations, professional groups 
and such other organizations as may be deemed 
appropriate; 

(c) to assist governments, upon request, in strengthening 
health services; 

(d) to furnish appropriate technical assistance and, in 
emergencies, necessary aid upon the request or 
acceptance of governments; 

(e) to provide or assist in providing, upon the request of 
the United Nations, health services and facilities to 
special groups, such as the peoples of trust terri- 
tories; 

(f) to establish and maintain such administrative and 
technical services as may be required, including 
epidemiological and statistical services; 

(g) to stimulate and advance work to eradicate epi- 
demic, endemic and other diseases; 

(h) to promote, in co-operation with other specialized 
agencies where necessary, the prevention of acci- 
dental injuries; 

(i) to promote, in co-operation with other specialized 
agencies where necessary, the improvement of 
nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic 
or working conditions and other aspects of environ- 
mental hygiene; 

(j) to promote co-operation among scientific and pro- 
fessional groups which contribute to the advance- 
ment of health; 

(k) to propose conventions, agreements and regulations, 
and make recommendations with respect to inter- 
national health matters and to perform such duties 
as may be assigned thereby to the Organization and 
are consistent with its objective; 


(l) to promote maternal and child health and welfare 
and to foster the ability to live harmoniously in a 
changing total environment; 

(m) to foster activities in the field of mental health, 
especially those affecting the harmony of human 
relations; 

(n) to promote and conduct research in the field of 
health; 

(o) to promote improved standards of teaching and 
training in the health, medical and related pro- 
fessions; 

(p) to study and report on, in co-operation with other 
specialized agencies where necessary, administrative 
and social techniques affecting public health and 
medical care from preventive and curative points of 
view, including hospital services and social security; 

(q) to provide information, counsel and assistance in the 
field of health; 

(r) to assist in developing an informed public opinion 
among all peoples on matters of health; 

(s) to establish and revise as necessary international 
nomenclatures of diseases, of causes of death and of 
public health practices; 

(t) to standardize diagnostic procedures as necessary; 

(u) to develop, establish and promote international 
standards with respect to food, biological, pharma- 
ceutical and similar products; 

(v) generally to take all necessary action to attain the 
objective of the Organization. 

Chapter HI 

Membership in the Organization shall be open to all 
states. 

Chapter IV 

The work of the Organization shall be carried out by 
The World Health Assembly 
The Executive Board 
The Secretariat 

Chapter V 

THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 

The functions of the Health Assembly shall be: 

(a) to determine the policies of the Organization; 

(b) to name the Members entitled to designate a pers 
to serve on the Board; 


62 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


(c) to appoint the Director-General; 

(d) to review and approve reports and activities of the 
Board and of the Director-General and to instruct 
the Board in regard to matters upon which action, 
study, investigation or report may be considered 
desirable: 

(e) to establish such committees as may be considered 
necessary for the work of the Organization: 

(f) to supervize the financial policies of the Organization 
and to review and approve the budget; 

(g) to instruct the Board and the Director-General to 
bring to the attention of Members and of inter- 
national organizations, governmental or non- 
governmental, any matter with regard to health 
which the Health Assembly may consider appro- 
priate; 

(h) to invite any orgam'zation, international or national, 
governmental or non-govemmental, which has 
responsibilities related to those of the Organization, 
to appoint representatives to participate, without 
right of vote, in its meetings or in those of the 
committees and conferences convened under its 
authority, on conditions prescribed by the Health 
Assembly; but in the case of national organizations, 
invitations shall be issued only with the consent of 
the government concerned; 

(i) to consider recommendations bearing on health made 
by the General Assembly, the Economic and Social 
Council, the Security Council or Trusteeship Council 
of the United Nations, and to report to them on the 
steps taken by the Organization to give effect to such 
recommendations: 

(j) to report to the Economic and Social Council in 
accordance with any agreement between the 
Organization and the United Nations; 

(k) to promote and conduct research in the field of 
health by the personnel of the Organization, by the 
establishment of its orvn institutions or by co- 
operation with official or non-official institutions of 
any Member with the consent of its government; 

(l) to establish such other institutions as it may consider 
desirable; 

(m) to take any other appropriate action to further the 
objective of the Organization. 

The World Health Assembly shall have authority to 

adopt regulations concerning; 

(a) sanitary and quarantine requirements and other 
procedures designed to prevent the international 
spread of disease; 

(b) nomenclatures with respect to diseases, causes of 
death and public health practices; 

(o) standards with respect to diagnostic procedures for 
international use; 


(d) standards with respect to the safety, purity, and 
potency of biological, pharmaceutical and similar 
products moving in international commerce; 

(e) advertising and labelling of biological, pharma- 
ceutical and similar products moving in international 
commerce. 

Chapter VI 

THE EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The Board shall consist of twenty-four persons designated 
by as many Members. 

The Board shall meet at least twice a year and shall 
determine the place of each meeting. 

The Board shall elect its chairman from among its 
members and shall adopt its own rules of procedure. 

The functions of the Board shall be: 

(a) to give effect to the decisions and policies of the 
Health Assembly; 

(b) to act as the executive organ of the Health Assembly; 

(c) to perform any other functions entrusted to it by the 
Health Assembly; 

(d) to advise the Health Assembly on questions referred 
to it by that body and on matters assigned to the 
Organization by conventions, agreements and regu- 
lations; 

(e) to submit advice or proposals to the Health Assembly 
on its own initiative; 

(f) to prepare the agenda of meetings of the Health 
Assembly; 

(g) to submit to the Health Assembly for consideration 
and approval a general programme of work covering 
a specific period; 

(h) to study all questioias within its competence; 

(i) to take emergency measures within the functions 
and financial resources of the Organization to deal 
with events requiring immediate action. In par- 
ticular it may authorize the Director-General to take 
the necessary steps to combat epidemics, to par- 
ticipate in the organization of health relief to victims 
of a calamity and to undertake studies and research 
the urgency of which has been drawn to the attention 
of the Board by any Member or by the Director- 
General. 

Chapter VII 
THE SECRETARIAT 
Chapters VIII-XI 

Committees, Conferences, Headquarters, Regional Ar- 
rangements. 

Chapters XII-XIX 

Budget, Expenses, Voting, Reports, Legal Capacity, 
Privileges and Immunities, Relations with other Organiza- 
tions, Amendments, Interpretation and Entry into Force. 


63 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION— WMO 

41 ave. Giuseppe Motta, Geneva, Switzerland 

Telephone; 34 64 00. 

WMO began its activities in 1951. It aims to standardize, co-ordinate and improve the services rendered by 
meteorology throughout the world. Members: 122 States, xi Territories. 

AIMS AND HISTORY 


AIMS 

1. To facilitate international co-operation in the estab- 
lishment of networks of stations and centres to provide 
meteorological services and observations. 

2. To promote the establishment and maintenance of 
systems for the rapid exchange of weather information. 

3. To promote standardization of meteorological observa- 
tions and ensure the uniform publication of observations 
and statistics. 

4. To further the application of meteorology to aviation, 
shipping, water problems, agriculture and other human 
activities. 

5. To encourage research and training in meteorology. 


HISTORY 

International co-operation in meteorology was estab- 
lished on a regular basis at the first Congress of meteoro- 
logical directors held in Vienna in 1873. In 1947, at Wash- 
ington, it was decided to establish a new organization 
founded on an agreement between governments. The Con- 
vention of the new World Meteorological Organization was 
ratified by a large number of countries, and began activities 
in 1951. It was recognized as a Specialized Agency when the 
General Assembly, in December 1951, approved an agree- 
ment between WMO and the United Nations. Membership 
is open to any country with a meteorological service which 
ratifies the Convention, or to whom the Convention is 
applied. 


ORGANIZATION 


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL CONGRESS 

Supreme organ of WMO; convened every four years; 
all members are represented on it; adopts regulations, 
approves policy, programme and budget. New meeting: 
Geneva, 197X. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Composed of twenty-four members, including the 
President, three Vice-Presidents and the Presidents of the 
six Regional Associations; meets at least yearly to prepare 
studies and recommendations for the Congress: supervises 
the implementation of Congress resolutions and regula- 
tions; informs members on technical matters and offers 
advice. 


President: Dr. A. Nvberg (Sweden). 

Vice-Presidents: W. J. Gibbs (Australia), E. K. Fedorov 
(U.S.S.R.), F. A. A. Acquaah (Ghana). 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: D. A. Davies (United Kingdom). 
Deputy Secretary-General: Dr. K. Langlo (Nonvay). 

The Secretariat serves as the administrative, document- 
ary and information centre of the Organization; undertakes 
special technical studies; prepares and distributes the ap- 
proved publications; organizes meetings of WMO constitu- 
ent bodies; generally acts as a link betiveen the meteoro- 
logical services of the world, and provides information for 
the general public. 


REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 


Members are grouped in six Regional Associations, whose 
task is to co-ordinate meteorological activity within their 
regions and to examine, from a regional point of view, 
questions referred to them by the Executive Committee. 
Sessions are held at least once every four years. 

Africa . . . President: M. Seck (Senegal). 

Asia . . . President: A. H. Nava! (Iran). 


South America President: S. Bravo Flores (Chile). 

North and Cen- 
tral America President: J. R. H. Noble (Canada). 

South-West 

Pacific . . President: K. Rajendram (Singapore). 

Europe . . R. J. Schneider (Switzerland). 


64 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS 


Eieht Technical Commissions composed of experts 
nominated by members study tlie applications of ^^teoro- 
low and problems and developments m specialized fields 
SeVsions are held at least once every four years. The 
Commissions are; 

Synoptic Meteorology Preside)ii:Ji. Leokov 

(CSM) (U.S.S.R.). 

Climatology (CCl) President; H. E. Laxiisburg 

(U.S.A.). 

Instruments and Methods President: V. D. Rockxf.y 
of Observation (CIMO) (U.S.A.). 


Atmospheric Sciences 
(CAS) 

Aeronautical Meteorology 
(CAcM) 

Agricultural Meteorology 
(CAgM) 

Hydrometeorology (CHy) 

hfaritime Meteorology 
(CMM) 


President: J. S. Sawyer 
(U.K.) 

President: N. A. Lieuraxce 
(U.S.A.). 

President;!^. P. Smith (U.K.). 

President: E. G. Popov 
(U.S.S.R.). 

President: S. L. Tierney 
(I reland). 


WMO ACTIVITIES 


The activities of WMO are grouped into 
programmes as follows: World Weather Watch mfO 
Research Programme. miO Programme on the imer 
action of Man and his Environment, and the WMO 
Technical Co-operation Programme. 

World Weather Watch. The Pifth World Meteorol^icM 
Congress (Geneva, April 1967) approved p a < 
by the Secretary-General of the Organiza . - 

implementation of a World Weather l a c 
meteorological satellites, computer techno g, 
system of world and regional centres. 

One of the primary responsibilities 
ordinate the reception and exchange of meteor g < 
to permit members to fulfil their responsi ‘ ‘ source 
application of meteorology. The basic conven 1 
for these data is from the world-wide nctwor c same 

stations where observations are made at exac^ y , 
agreed times. The methods and practices fol 
on internationally agreed decisions and P about 

uniform everywhere. In addition to repo ® , g jjjg 

8.000 land stations in the Internationa, no total 

3.000 aircraft and 4,000 ships contribute to a^d 

of 100.000 observations for the surface of earth and 

10.000 observations for the upper air. T brought 

increasing from year to year as new sta ion 

into service. Lists of weather j kept 

transmission schedules arc issued by Wh ^g^^ents. 

up to date by a regular and frequent sewce PP coastal 

They are used by meteorological services, ai 
vessels and ships on the high seas. 

The World Weather Watch includes plans 
main gaps in the existing world networ ° jjuately 
stations. The first four-year phase calls for appro 
40 new stations for npper-air observations . existing 
plementation of a full observing programine 95 
stations; average spacing will he i,5°° 
areas and 1,000 km. over land masses. tpllitcs 

The successful performance of 
has opened up new possibilities of obtain S 
on the struct^ and processes of the f of 

has produced a number of reports on the a ^ 

atmospheric sciences and their meetings 

developments in outer space. Informal p ® have been 
on a number of aspects of satellite ^^teorolo^ na 
*'-rtanged and their conclusions distribute 


Under the World Weather Watch plan, a global data- 

(mSfet^SXurS LTcow'^an?Wafhingto^^a^^^ 
S™. ml”, nrtion*!^ 

sorviecs^^a global telecommunications system has been 
organized by WMO since arrangements for the collection 
♦ fpcmLion of weather reports are also a responsi- 
hUay of the Organization, which lays down inte^ational 
^eStions controlling the contents as well as the hours 
pnd mode of the transmissions. . 

The WWW transmission system has been organized on 
Irl Ivel swtem. i.e., the main trunk circuit between 

TVMcT the regional telecommunications network and 
S national tofecommunications networks. To complete 
the World Weather Watch, programmes for reseatoh, 
the worm have been developed to permit 

the cffertive u ^^tional meteorological services. 

Weather Watch plan will be 
inc wuti nf the basic principle that each 

v^U^provide facilities and services which fall 

its terrftory. However, tliose developing countries 
within its temtopr assisted, as far as 

which are unah Nations Development Pro- 
possible, agreements. A third means 

gramme and toro gh D Voluntary Assistance Programme 

TL madrup of contri^tions in financial form 
which will be mad P cf^rvices offered by members 

Antarctica) implementation will be basen 

of voluntary P^rticip^ ^^Saal resources. The 
facilities and settees ™to some extent 

VoluntaiT A^tonw J which was 

replace the Pourth World Meteorological Congress 

,0 

+n members during the period 1965 to 1967- 
rendered . {the World Weather Watch is 

tho“ork of a number of the Technical 
supported by " CAeM. and in part by 

rn ra S. ?he^S.Iementation of the plan is sup- 
ported by SSlties of the six Regional Associations. 


UNITED NATIONS — (Specialized Agencies) 


WMO Research Programme. WMO’s main research 
effort in collaboration with the International Council of 
Scientific Unions (ICSU) will be centered on the Global 
Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP). The aim of 
the programme is to investigate the scientific problems 
which stand in the way of a fuller understanding of the 
atmosphere's structure and behaviour. 

GARP is being planned as a world-wide scientific effort 
involving both theoretical research and complex field 
experiments. It mil enable the fundamental physical and 
mathematical bases of long-range weather prediction to be 
developed further and tested. In doing this, use will be 
made of what are Icnown as numerical simulation models 
of the atmosphere’s circulation. 

GARP will be composed of several auxiliary programmes 
which will be known as GARP Sub-Programmes. The 
GARP Global Sub-Programme will have a leading role 
inasmuch as the large-scale motions of the global atmo- 
sphere is the central theme of GARP. Other Sub- 
Programmes, such as the Tropical Sub-Programme and the 
Air/Sea Sub-Programme, will be concerned with smaller- 
scale phenomena associated, for instance, with the deep 
convection systems in the tropics of the exchange processes 
between the atmosphere and the underlying surfaces. 

The research programme of WMO is supported in general 
by the work of one Technical Commission, CAS. 

WMO Programme on tho Interaction of Man and his 
Environment. This programme includes all the activities 
aimed at applying meteorological knowledge to human 
activities. “Ihey include such questions as agricultural 
meteorology, aeronautical meteorology, maritime meteor- 
olology and other oceanographic matters, human bio- 
meteorology, water resources, atmospheric pollution, 
meteorological factors involved in industr3', recreation, 
etc. 

In the field of agricultural meteorology, WMO has 
initiated in co-operation with FAO, UNDP, UNESCO and 
WHO, an inter-agency co-ordinating group on agricultural 
biometeorology. The objectives include the development 
and implementation of an agrometeorological programme 
in aid of world food production. Agroclimatological surveys 
in the Near East, in Africa south of the Sahara, and in the 
highlands of eastern Africa have been completed. Similar 
surveys are planned in other areas and related projects, 
including technical conferences, are being developed. 

Through CAeM acting in co-operation with expert 
bodies of the International Civil Aviation Organization, 
universal regulations have been drarvn up and are under 
continual revision for the supply of weather information 
for aircraft operations and for planning purposes. 

In view of the intimate relation between oceanography 
and meteorology, WMO takes an active part in a number 
of international ocean research projects, in the establish- 
ment of ocean stations on the high seas for combined 
meteorological and oceanographic purposes and in the 
collection and exchange of the resulting data. WMO is 
responsible for co-ordinating the international aspects of 
the global ocean forecast service for meteorological and 
some of tlie physical oceanographic parameters. It also has 
responsibilities in the archiving of ocean-atmosphere 
environmental data. 


Fields of interest common to the Intergovernmental 
Oceanographic Commission and WMO, such as the 
Integrated Global Ocean Station System, air-sea inter- 
action studies, telecommunications arrangements and legal 
aspects relating to scientific investigations of the ocean, 
are handled through joint Working Groups and mutual 
representation at meetings. The marine component of 
WMO has recently been strengthened by the establishment 
of an Executive Committee Panel on meteorological aspects 
of ocean affairs. 

WMO is continuing its close collaboration with the 
United Nations and other interested UN organizations in 
the field of water resources development and, in particular, 
is participating in the Priority Programme in Water 
Resources within the UN Development Decade. Particular 
activities are; fostering establishment of networks, stan- 
dardization of instruments and methods of observation, 
and training of manpower. WMO recognizes the potential 
importance of the International Hydrological Decade as a 
large-scale programme for the development and promotion 
of the science of hydrology. The Organization is playing a 
major role in this programme of international co-operation. 

The meteorological aspects of air pollution have been 
under consideration by several of the Technical Com- 
missions for some time. At its twenty-first session in June 
1969, the Executive Committee decided to co-ordinate the 
work by establishing an expert panel on the subject and to 
invite representatives of UN, UNESCO and WHO to 
participate in the work. 

The Technical Commissions whose work is most closely 
linked with this programme are CAgM, CHy, CCl and 
CIMO. 

WMO Technical Co-operation Programme. In view of the 
important contributions of meteorological services to 
economic development and planning (in the fields of water 
resources, agriculture, aviation, shipping, fishing, etc.) 
many countries request the Organization to assist them in 
the establishment or development of national meteoro- 
logical and hydrological services. Through its participation 
in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 
WMO provides assistance to a large number of countries 
in developing their meteorological services through expert 
missions, fellowships, training centres, training seminars, 
etc., under the Technical Assistance Component of 
UNDP. WMO also acts as executing agency for projects in 
a number of countries, financed by the Special Fund 
Component of this programme, under which extensive 
networks of hydrometeorological and hydrological ob- 
serving stations are set up, training and research centres 
are established and special studies are carried out for 
developing improved typhoon and flood-warning tech- 
niques. WMO’s allocation from the Technical Assistance 
Component of the UNDP for the year 1970 was approxi- 
mately U.S. $1,700,000. Total authorized cost of Special 
Fund Projects for which WMO is the executing agency 
during 1970 amounted to approximately U.S. $3,000,000. 
These funds for technical co-operation programmes are not 
included in the regular budget of the Organization given 
below. 

In addition to the assistance provided to developing 
countries under the UNDP mentioned above, requests have 
been received through the Voluntary Assistance Pro- 


60 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Specialized Agencies) 


gramme for the implementation of WWiV for 310 projects 
from 146 members. Of these, ten projects have been 
completed and 118 have been approved for implementation 
through offers received from various donor governments 


and were in different stages of implementation during 1970. 
The approximate value of assistance provided under VAP 
since the programme started in January 1968 to the end of 
1970 is of the order of §8.5 million. 


BUDGET 

1968-71 


Revenue 

U.S. $ 

Contributions ..... 
Miscellaneous Income .... 

1 

! 

11,807,000 

10,000 

Total .... 

11,817,000 


Expenditure 

U.S. s 

Policy-making Organs 

537.489 

Executive Management 

713.219 

Programme of Technical Activities 

7.504.769 

Regional Activities .... 

643,000 

Administrative and Common Services . 

2,238,523 

Other Budgetary Provisions 

180,000 

Total .... 

11,817,000 


PUBLICATIONS 


WMO Bulletin; quarterly; f. 1952; reports international 
meetings and activities in meteorology; contains articles 
on the various branches of meteorology and on the 
applications of meteorology. 

Basic Documents: published in the four official languages 
(English, French, Russian and Spanish), contain 
information on the WMO Convention, General and 
Technical Regulations. 

Pinal Reports of Meetings of WMO; published in English 
and French. 

Technical Publications; include Technical Isotes, Guides 
and Nomenclatures. 


WMO Technical Notes are published in one language only, 
but contain a summary in all four official languages. 

WMO Guides and Nomenclatures are published in English 
and French. 

World Weather Watch Planning Reports are published on 
the results of surveys and studies carried out on vari- 
ous aspects of World Weather Watch. 

GARP Publications; a joint WMO/ICSU series which 
presents the fundamental problems, projects and 
prospects in the development of plans for the Global 
Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP). 


CONVENTION 


Article i. Establishment of WhfO. 

Article The purposes of WMO are to facilitate world- 
wide co-operation in establishing a network of stations 
for making meteorological observations and to promote 
the establishment and maintenance of meteorologica 
centres charged with the provision of meteorological 
services; to promote the establishment of systems for the 
rapid exchange of weather information; to promote 
standardization of meteorological observations and pu - 
lications; to further the application of meteorology o 
aviation and other human activities: to encourage research 
and training in meteorology. 

Article 3. Membership. Any state belonging to the 
International Meteorological Organization in 1947 . 
become a member by ratifying WMO's Convention, any 
UN member possessing a meteorological service; any o ler 
country on territory possessing a meteorological service, 
which is approved by two-thirds of existing members- 

Articles 4-5. Organization of WMO. The World 
^Meteorological Congress; Executive Committee, Regiona 
Associations; Technical Commissions; Secretariat. 


Article 6 . Election of officers. 

Articles 7-iz. Congress: composition and functions: 
execution of decisions; sessions, voting; quorum. 

Articles 13-17. Executive Committee: composition and 
functions; sessions; voting; quorum. 

Article 18. Regional Associations: composition and 
functions; meetings. 

Article 19. Technical Commissions: organization and 
election of officers. 

Articles 20-22. Secretariat: officers and functions. 

Articles 23-24. Finances. 

Articles 25-26. Relations with UN and other organiza- 
tions. 

Article 27. Legal status, privileges and immunities. 

Articles 28-29. Amendments, interpretations and 
disputes. 

30 — 31. M^ithdrawal and suspension. 

Articles 32-34. Ratification and accession. 

Article 35. Entry into force. 


67 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


OTHER BODIES 


UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND— UNICEF 

New York City 

Established in 1946 to continue the work carried out by UNRRA in assisting mothers and children in war- 
devastated countries. Since 1950 UNICEF has mainly directed its activities to help children and young people in 
the developing countries in fields of health, nutrition, social welfare, and preparing for later responsibilities. 


ORGANIZATION 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The governing body of UNICEF meets once a year to 
determine policy and consider applications for aid. 
Countries receiring aid match UNICEF expenditure on 
all projects and are responsible for their implementation. 
Members: Representatives of 30 Countries. 

SECRETARIAT 

UNICEF is an integral part of the United Nations and 
personnel are members of the UN Secretariat. 

Executive Director: Henry R. Labouisse (U.S.A.). 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Europe and North Africa: 20 rue Pauline Borghese. 
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. 

Africa South of the Sahara: 26-28 Marina. 2nd Floor, 
Lagos, Nigeria; Amber House, Kampala, Uganda; 
Shell Building, Ave. Lamblin, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 
South Central Asia: 11 Jorbagh, New Delhi, India. 
Eastern Mediterranean: Dr. Raji Nasr Building, Beirut, 
Lebanon. 

The Americas: Avenida Providencia 329, Santiago, Chile. 
East Asia: 19 Phra Atit Rd., Bangkok, Thailand. 


ACTIVITIES 


In 1969 UNICEF approved activities, in co-operation 
with the appropriate specialized agencies, in developing 
and implementing projects undertaken by 92 governments, 
plus 22 on a regional or inter-regional basis. These projects 
comprise the creation and development of maternal and 
child health services; the prevention and treatment of 
specified diseases {T.B., malaria, yaws, trachoma, etc.); 
improvement of nutrition amongst under-nourished chil- 
dren and increase in food supplies (such as milk and other 
protein foods); extension of primary and secondary educa- 
tion and teacher training; development of welfare services; 
provision of vocational training for employment oppor- 
tunities. UNICEF’s contribution consists largely of the 
provision of supplies, equipment, transport, etc. Well over 
one-third of UNICEF aid is devoted to training personnel 
for implementation of the assisted projects, which to date 
has comprised over 570,000 trainees, nationals of develop- 
ing countries. 

In 1969 UNICEF equipped 4,000 new health centres 


(bringing the total to over 50,000). It assisted 600 mothers' 
club and day-care centres (bringing the total to 5.100). 
Over 750 schools were assisted in establishing food pro- 
ducing gardens or canteens (bringing the total to 8,000). 
Help was given in equipping 9,000 teacher-training schools 
and associated primary schools (making 48,000 in all). 
A total of over 302 million children have so far been 
vaccinated against tuberculosis; 32 million children pro- 
tected against malaria; nearly 24 million children treated 
for yaws; 41 million children treated for trachoma; and 

453,000 children discharged at the end of treatment for 
leprosy. In addition to such long-term programmes for 
promoting the health, nutrition, education, training and 
welfare of children, UNICEF has provided emergency help 
in relief of suffering experienced by children as the result 
of war, earthquakes, cyclones and floods in Nigeria/Biafra, 
Viet-Nam, the Middle East, Iraq, Yugoslavia and other 
countries. Help has also been provided in association 'rith 
the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, for the children 
of refugees in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. 


FINANCE 


UNICEF is financed by voluntary contributions from 
governments, non-govemmental organizations and indi- 
viduals. For 1969 UNICEF’s income was $47,000,000 from 
the followng sources: 

5 


Government contributions . 
Non-govemmental contributions 
Greeting card operations i 
Other income 


33,400,000 

7.800.000 

3.900.000 
2,000,000 


For 1970 income is estimated at $50-853 million. 

At the meeting of the Executive Board in April 197° 
allocations for the succeeding t^velvc months to a'led 
$43 million. The amounts allocated for supplies, equip- 
ment, etc., required for projects in the various regions 
(omitting the cost of staff engaged in operating sue 
projects, the cost of freight, etc.) were: 


GS 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


Africa 


§ 

. 13,130,000 

Health .... 

? 

. 19,414,000 

Asia .... 


20.I45,OCO 

Nutrition .... 

5.650,000 

Eastern Mediterranean 


• 3*014,000 

Family and child welfare 

. 2,114,000 

Europe 


. 90,000 

Education .... 

. 12,246000 

The Americas 


. 4,878,000 

Prc-vocational training 

. 180,000 

Inter-rcgional 


. 1,416,000 

Integrated services 

. 625,000 

The sums allocated for specific typos of programmes 

Planning .... 
Other activities . 

. 821,000 

. ■ 612.000 

were: 



Emergencies 

. 1,005 000 


UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE 
REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST— UNRWA 

Musciibeh Quarter, Beirut, Lebanon 

Founded in 1950 to provide relief, health, education and welfare services for needy Palestine refugees in the 

Near East. 


REGIONAL OFFICES 

Gaza Ship: UNRWA Field Office. Gaza. 

East Jordan: UNRWA Field Office, P.O.B. 484. Amman. 

West Bank: UNRWA Field Office, P.O.B. 19/0149. Jerusalem. 

Lebanon: UNRWA Field Office, P.O.B. 947. Beirut. 

Syrian Arab Republic: UNRWA Field Office, 19 Salah Eddin el Ayoubi St., Aban Rummaneh. Damascus. 
United Arab Republic: UNRWA Liaison Office. 8 Dar cl Shifa. Garden City, Cairo. 

Europe: UNRWA Liaison Office, Palais des Nations, Geneva. 

United States - UNRWA Liaison Office, United Nations, New York. 


ORGANIZATION 

Commissioner-General; Laurence V. Micheemore 
(U.S.A.). 

Deputy Commissioner-General: Sir John S. Rennie, 
G.C.M.G., O.n.E. (U.K.). 

UNRWA is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations 
General Assembly, and began operations in May 1950; h 
has a mandate currently extending to J une 30th T972, and 
employs an international staff of 122 and some 13.400 local 
staff mainly Palestinian refugees. The Commissioner- 
General is assisted by an Advisory Commission consisting 
of representatives of the governments of. 

Belgium Lebanon . 

France Syrian Arab Republic United Kingdom 

Jordan Turkey U.S.A. 


69 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 
ACTIVITIES 


Since 1950, UNRWA has fed and provided medical 
services for the needy among a registered refugee popula- 
tion which now numbers over 1,400,000, including 600,000 
in refugee camps. It has served 200 million meals to young 
children and distributed about 12,000 tons of clothing. A 
simple but effective community health service has been 
built up with technical guidance from WHO and there has 
never been a major epidemic among the refugees in 
UNRWA’s care. An education system has been developed 
with technical advice and guidance from UNESCO and 


there are 220,000 children in 480 elementary and pre- 
paratory schools operated by UNRWA. UNRWA also 
operates eight well-equipped, residential centres for 
training young refugee men and women as teachers or in a 
variety of industrial and semi-professional skills, tvith the 
result that it has become one of the most important 
channels for this type of technical assistance in the Mddle 
East. Construction for the continued expansion of this 
programme is well advanced. 


THE REFUGEES 


For UNRWA’s purposes, a bona fide Palestine refugee 
is one whose normal residence was in Palestine for a 
minimum of two years before the 1948 conflict and who, 
as a result of the hostilities, lost his home and means of 
livelihood. To be eligible for assistance, a refugee must 


reside in one of the "host” countries in which UNRWA 
operates, and be in need. Children and grandchildren who 
fulfil certain criteria are also eligible for some or all forms 
of UNRWA assistance. By June 30th, 1970, there were 
1,425,219 refugees registered with UNRWA. 


THE NEWLY DISPLACED 


After the renewal of Arab-Israeli hostilities in the Middle 
East in June 1967, hundreds of thousands of people fled 
from the fighting and the occupied areas. UNRWA was 
additionally empowered by a UN General Assembly resolu- 
tion to provide "humanitarian assistance, as far as prac- 
ticable, on an emergency basis and as a temporary measure” 
for those persons other than Palestine refugees who were 
newly displaced and in urgent need. In practice, UNRWA 
has lacked the funds to aid the other displaced persons and 
the main burden of supporting them has fallen on the 
Arab governments concerned. 

The U.A.R. Government has estimated that some 45,000 
refugees and other persons were displaced from Gaza and 
the Sinai region to the part of the U.A.R. beyond the Suez 
Canal, including some 4,000 registered refugees. Some 

117.500 people fled from the Quneitra region of S.W. Syria; 

17.500 of them were registered refugees, of whom 15,500 
now live in tented camps near Damascus and at Dera’a. 
Some 150,000 displaced Palestine refugees from the West 
Bank and Gaza Strip are now estimated to be in east 
Jordan: additionally the Jordan Government has regis- 
tered 246,000 displaced persons from tliese areas. Some 
120,000 of these people now live in six emergency camps, 
where prefabricated shelters have replaced the original 
tents, in the Amman, Jerash, and Irbid areas. 

THE FIGHTING IN EAST JORDAN 
UNRWA servdees in east Jordan were brought to a 
vdrtual standstill by the outbreak of civil strife on Septem- 
ber 17th, 1970, and were severely handicapped, even after 
tlie cease-fire, by the disruption of internal communica- 


tions and restrictions on the movement of vehicles. 
Nevertheless, health and sanitation services were restored 
on September zptli in the two refugee camps in Amman, 
the worst affected area, together with the distribution of 
water; regular food distribution was resumed from 
October ist onwards. Food convoys were sent into east 
Jordan from the West Bank, under UNRWA sponsorship, 
from September 27th to October 13th. 

By October 13th, 1970, all UNRWA services throughout 
Jordan were fully operational again, except for education, 
which was severely affected by the hostilities. UNRWA/ 
UNESCO schools reopened on November ist wherever 
possible but in certain areas, mainly in Amman, the school 
buildings have been extensively damaged and UNRWA is 
using marquee tents as schoolrooms until repairs can be 
effected. Other Agency installations and refugee shelters 
have also been damaged. Of family shelters constructed by 
UNRWA, about 1,400 were destroyed or extensively 
damaged in the Amman area and over 3,000 suffered more 
than minor damage. The extensive damage to UNRWA’s 
installations, supplies and equipment in east Jordan 
cannot be repaired without special contributions, and the 
Commissioner-General has again drawn attention to the 
pressing need for an additional $6 million in income to 
enable UNRWA services to the Palestine refugees in the 
Near East, especially education for the children, to be 
maintained through 1971 at their present level. As the 
Secretary-General has warned Member States, reductions 
in UNRWA's programmes would inevitably, in the dis- 
turbed conditions of the area, have a profoundly unsettling 
effect. 


70 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


NUMBER OF REFUGEE PUPILS RECEIVING EDUCATION IN UNRWA/UNESCO SCHOOLS 

(as at June 30th, 1970*) 


Field 

Numbek of 
Schools 

Pupils 

IN Elementary 
Classes 

Pupils in Preparatory 
Classes 

Total 
Number of 
Pupils 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

East Jordan 

West Bank 

Gaza Strip 

Lebanon .... 
Syria .... 

Total 

136 

87 

108 

61 

86 

32.157 

10,538 

21,844 

12,682 

11.825 

28,177 

II.I97 

19,207 

11,109 

9.S77 

80,334 

21.733 

41.051 

23.791 

21,702 

8,394 

3.558 

8,515 

3.708 

7.705 

5.438 

2,830 

7,857 

2,559 

3.207 

13.830 

6,386 

16,372 

6,267 

7,912 

74.164 

28.119 

57.423 

30,058 

29,614 

480 

89,044 

79.587 

168,611 

28,878 

21,889 

50,787 

219.378 


* Additionally in the 1969-70 school year a total o£ 50,041 refugee children received education in government schools and 
a total of 14,318 refugee children in private schools in the host countries, partly with grants paid by UNRWA. 


FINANCE 


UNRWA’S budget for 1971 is $47,545,000. 

In recent years about 80 per cent of the total income has been contributed by the governments of the United States, the 
United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden and the Federal Repirblic of Germany, the remainder being provided by some 75 
other governments, as well as by voluntary agencies and private sources. 

UNRWA’s average expenditure per refugee per year is just $37, or ten cents per day. 


ESTIMATED EXPENDITURE, 1970 


(as of Juno 30th, 1970) 



Estimated 
Expenditure 
(U.S. $’000) 

Percentage 

(Approx.) 

Relief Services: 

12,461 


Basic Rations ....•• 

— 

Supplementary Feeding .... 

2, III 

— 

Shelter ....... 

348 


Special Hardship Assistance 

529 

— 

Share of Common Costs* .... 

3,585 

— 

Total Relief Services 

19,034 

.. 

41-3 

Health Services: 

3,662 


Medical Services ..... 

— 

Environmental Sanitation 

1.369 


Share of Common Costs* .... 

1,139 


Total Health Services 

6,170 

13-3 

Education Services: 

I4.45Z 


General Education . . • • • 


Vocational and Professional Traimng . 

3.879 

— 

Share of Common Costs* .... 

2 ,8 io 


Total Education Services 

20,941 

45-4 

Grand Total .... 

48.145 

100.0 


* Common costs include all operations involving supply and transport semces, 
other internal services and general administration. The above summary table sets 
out the allocation of common costs to each of the Agency s operational pro- 


grammes. 


71 


























THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP 
IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN— UNMOGIP 

Kashmir 

Established 1949 to investigate border violations and incidents along the Kashmir cease-fire line. 

ORGANIZATION 

As of August 1970, the Group consisted of the Chief 
Military Observer, his Special Assistant and the Chief 
Administrative Officer, and of 45 military observers and 
8 air-crew from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, 

Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, 

Norway, Sweden, Uruguay. The observers are stationed on 
both sides of the cease-fire line. Also attached to the Group 
are civilian specialists, including administrative assistants, 
radio operators/technicians, vehicle mechanics, etc. 


Chief military Observer: Lient.-Gen. Luis Tassara 
Gonzalez (Chile). 

BUDGET 
1970 : U.S. $ 1,185,500. 

1971 (Estimate); U.S. ?i,2io,ooo. 


UNITED NATIONS TRUCE SUPERVISION ORGANIZATION— UNTSO 

Government House, Jerusalem 

Set up to maintain the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria on the one hand 
and Israel on the other. Following the cease-fire agreement between Israel and the U.A.R. of July 1967, UN 
Observers were stationed on each side of the Suez Canal. In October 1967, the number of observers was increased 
to 214. There are 98 observers posted in the Suez Canal Sector and 91 observers posted along the Syria/Israel 

cease-fire line. 

Chief of Staff: Col. E. Siilasvuo (Finland), 


UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION FOR THE UNIFICATION 
AND REHABILITATION OF KOREA— UNCURK 

Yongdongpo P.O. Box 56, Seoul, Republic of Korea 

Established 1950 to bring about by peaceful means a unified, independent and democratic Korea. 



MEMBERS 


Australia 

Pakistan 

Thailand 

Chile* 

Netherlands 

Philippines 

Turkey 


♦ Withdrew in November 1970. 



ORGANIZATION 



COMMISSION 

Composed of delegates of the member nations. Meets 
usually about four times a year, but can be convened more 
frequently if necessary. Reports to the General Assembly 
or Secretary-General annually or more often when 
circumstances warrant. 

Principal Secretary: Zouheir Kuzbari. 


COMMITTEE 

Consists of the representatives of Australia, the Philip- 
pines, Thailand, Turkey and the alternate representatives 
of Chile and the Netherlands resident in Seoul. Meets 
normally once a week, acting on behalf of the Commission 
bchvcen its sessions. 

BUDGET 

1970 Estimate: U.S. $271,600. 


72 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES— 

UNHCR 

Palais dos Naiions, Geneva 

Telephone; 34 6o ii. 33 10 00, 33 20 00, 33 40 00. 


The Office of the High Commissioner was set up in 1950 to provide intem^onal protection for refugees and to 
seek permanent solutions to their problems. In 1967 the mandate of UNHCR was extended until the end of 1973- 


ORGANIZATION 


HIGH COMMISSIONER 

High Commissioner (1966-73): Prince Sadroddin Aga 
Khan. 

Deputy High Commissioner: Charles H. Hack. 

The High Commissioner is elected by the United Nations 
General Assembly on the nomination of the Secretary- 
General. and is responsible to the General Assembly and to 
ECOSOC. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The Executive Committee of the High Commissioner s 
Programme, established by ECOSOC, gives the High 


Commissioner policy directives, and advice at his request 
in the field of international protection. It meets once a year 
at Geneva, and special sessions may be called to consider 
urgent problems. Members: representatives of thirty-one 
states. 

ADMINISTRATION 

Headquarters consists of the following divisions; High 
Commissioner's Cabinet (which includes the Secretariat), 
Legal, Africa/Asia, Americas/Europe, Public Afiairs and 
Administration and Finance. In addition there are 3- 
representatives and 12 correspondents, honorary ropre- 
sentativc.s or consultants in various countries. 


ACTIVITIES 


The Office of the High Commissioner concerns itself 
with those refugees who have been determined on an 
individual basis to come within its mandate under the 
Statute, and with those refugees whom it is called upon to 
assist under the terms of the good offices resolutions 
adopted by the General Assembly of the UN. Refugees 
meeting these conditions are entitled to the protection of 
the Office of the High Commissioner irrespective of their 
geographical location. Refugees who are assisted by other 
United Nations agencies, or who have the same rights or 
obligations as nationals of their country of residence, arc 
outside the mandate of UNHCR. 

The main functions of the Office arc to provide 
national protection, to seek permanent solutions to the 
problems of refugees, including voluntary reparation, 
resettlement in other countries and integration into the 
country of present residence, as well as to provide sup 
plementary aid and emergency relief to refugees as may 
be necessary. All activities are carried out on a humani- 
tarian and non-political basis. 

INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION 

The main objective of international protection, rvhich is 
the primary function of UNHCR, is to help refugees to 
Cease being refugees through the acquisition 01 e 
nationality of the country of residen'ce when voluntary 
repatriation is not applicable, and in the meantime to e 
Suard their rights and interests and improve their s a us. 
UNHCR pursues these objectives through seemng o 
facilitate naturalization of refugees, promoting t e con 
elusion of inter-govemmental legal instruments in favour 


of refugees and encouraging governments to adopt legal 
provisions for their benefit. 

The main legal instruments concerning refugees are the 
1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status 
of Refugees, which extends provisions of the Convention 
to new groups of refugees. The application of these two 
instruments is supervised by UNHCR. 


Other legal instruments directly or indirectly affecting 
the refugees include the 1954 Convention on the Status of 
Stateless Persons, the United Nations Convention on the 
Reduction of Statelessness of 1961, tbe 1957 Agreement 
relating to Refugee Seamen and the European Agreement 
of 1959 on the Suppression of Visas for Refugees. 

Three important new instruments are: the UN Declara- 
tion on Territorial Asylum, a resolution by the Committee 
of Ministers of the Council of Europe also concermng 
asylum, and the Convention by the Organization of 
African Unity concerning the Specific Aspects of 
Problems of Refugees in Africa, 

Among legal problems, the Office is called upon to devote 
special attention to the question of asylum, which is of 
crucial importance to refugees. 


MATERIAL ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES 
Emergency Relief and Supplementary Aid 
Emergency relief is provided in the case of new refugee 
situations when food supplies and medical aid are required 
on a large scale at short notice. In recent years this has 
been the case many times in Africa where the World Food 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


Program has provided considerable food supplies for the 
refugees’ subsistence pending their first harvest. 

Supplementary aid is provided for the neediest refugees 
and may take the form of supplementary feeding, medical 
aid, or clothing. 

Voluntary Repatriation 

The Office assists refugees wherever possible to overcome 
difficulties in the way of their repatriation. In cases where 
no funds are available for their transportation to their 
homeland, arrangements for payment of the cost involved 
may be made by UNHCR under its material assistance 
programmes. 

Resettlement 

From its inception UNHCR has been actively engaged 
in the promotion of resettlement through emigration, in 
close co-operation with interested governments, the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), 
the United States Refugee Program and voluntary agencies 
concerned with the resettlement of refugees. The task of 
UNHCR in this field is to negotiate with governments in an 
endeavour to obtain suitable resettlement opportunities 
for those refugees both able-bodied and handicapped who 
opt for this solution, to encourage governments to liberalize 
their criteria for the admission of refugees and to draw 
up special immigration schemes for them wherever 
possible. 

Integration of Refugees in their 
Country of Residence 

The object of local integration is to assist refugees to 
become self-supporting in their country of residence. In 
Europe, this is done either by granting refugees loans for 
establishment in agriculture, or by assisting them through 
vocational training or in other ways to leam a skill, or to 
establish themselves in gainful occupations. One major 
form of assistance to help refugees leave camps is to 
provide them with housing. 

In addition there are projects for the settlement in 
institutions of the aged and the sick, rehabilitation projects 
for handicapped refugees, and counselling projects which 
are essential for the guidance of refugees in the choice of a 
solution to their problems. 

In accordance with the policy, whereby primary respon- 
sibility for aid to refugees falls upon their country of 
residence, arrangements for the provision of material 
assistance to refugees in various European countries are 
being increasingly taken over by governments, local 
authorities and social welfare agencies. UNHCR intervenes 
where it is necessary for the international community to 
provide additional aid. 

The new groups of refugees in Africa and some of the 
refugees in Asia are mainly assisted through local settle- 
ment in agriculture. In Africa consolidation of the settle- 
ment of refugees is effected through close co-operation 
between UNHCR and other members of the UN system 
which provide development assistance to the areas con- 
cerned. 

Educational assistance continues to be provided from 
UNHCR programmes as far as primary education is con- 
cerned and from the UNHCR Education Account as far as 
post-primary education is concerned. UNHCR continues 
to co-operate closely with UNESCO in this field. 


The increasing problem of needy individual refugees in 
urban areas of Africa, mainly without agricultural back- 
ground, is requiring increasing attention. A Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees established within 
the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa, ivith 
the support of UNHCR and other members of the UN 
system is seeking solutions to the problems of these refugees 
through their resettlement in various countries in Africa. 

FINANCE 

The UNHCR material assistance programmes are financed 
from voluntary contributions made by governments and 
also from private sources. The financial targets of the 
UNHCR current programmes for 1969 and 1970 were of 
the order of $6 million. The target of the 1971 programme 
was approved by the Executive Committee of the High 
Commissioner’s Programme at its Twenty-First Session 
held in Geneva from September 28th to October 6th, 1970, 
for an amount of approximately $6.6 million. 

In addition there is a $500,000 Emergency Fund on which 
UNHCR can draw to meet emergency situations. Further- 
more, assistance measures outside the current programme 
are financed from Special Trust Funds donated to or 
channelled through UNHCR. 

DEVELOPMENTS, 1969-70 

As of October 31st, 1970, 60 States were parties to the 
1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 43 
States had acceded to the 1967 Protocol. A Convention 
Governing the Specific Aspects of the Problems of Refugees 
in Africa, which will serve as a valuable complement to the 
1951 Convention, was adopted in September 1969 by the 
Organization of African Unity. The Convention provides 
that the granting of asylum to refugees is a peaceful and 
humanitarian act and cannot be considered by any state as 
unfriendly. It further provides that no refugee can be 
subjected by a member state of the OAU to treatment 
which would compel him to return to or to stay in a 
territor3' where he was in danger of persecution. 

In Europe a significant development took place in 
respect of the acquisition by refugees of the nationality of 
their country of residence, once repatriation appears not to 
be practical. The Consultative Assembly of the Council of 
Europe adopted a recommendation which was endorsed by 
the Council’s Committee of Ministers, as well as several 
resolutions, the purpose of which is to facilitate the 
acquisition by refugees in member States of the Council of 
Europe of the nationality of their country of residence 
through naturalization and marriage, through the accession 
to and the liberal implementation of the United Nations 
Convention of 1961 on the Reduction of Statelessness and 
also through the dissemination of information concerning 
the relevant legislation among the refugees. The Executiv’c 
Committee at its Twenty-First Session also endorsed the 
efforts mads in this field. 

During 1969 some 275,000 refugees benefited from 
UNHCR material assistance programmes, the majoritj', 
some 250,000, in Africa. Progress continued to be achieved 
in the rural settlement of refugees and the phase of con- 
solidation has often been reached thanks to the generous 
support of governments and the co-operation of other 
interested members of tlie United Nations system, m- 


74 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


eluding, in particular, WFP, FAO, ILO, UNESCO, 
UNICEF, WHO and UNDP. In two countries, Burundi 
and the Central African Republic, refugee settlements arc 
included in integrated zonal development plans, imple- 
mented by the United Nations Development Programme, 
the executing agency being FAO. In 1969 major new rural 
settlement projects were launched in three countries, the 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and the 
Sudan. 

In the Congo plans which were still under way in 196S 
for the settlement of refugees from the Sudan in the 
Province Orientale finally reached fruition and the project 
launched towards the end of 1969 was gaining impetus at 
the beginning of 1970. In Ethiopia a programme was 
initiated and launched to assist a group of refugees trom 
the Sudan, mainly in the fields of health and education. In 
the Sudan work started on the settlement of a sizeable 
group of refugees from Ethiopia. 

In spile of the attention which the OATJ Bureau for the 
Placement and Education of Refugees is devoting to the 
needy individual refugees, their grooving number in African 
cities constitutes a major challenge for the immediate 
future. Thanks mainly to the generous support of Nordic 
governments, UNHCR hopes, through educational assist- 
ance and vocational training, to be able to provide some of 


the refugees concerned with the necessary skills they need 
to integrate themselves and become self-supporting. 

UNHCR and the United Nations Educational and 
Training Programme for Southern Africa concluded an 
agreement whereby UNHCR will provide assistance to 
refugees from Southern Africa up to the first level of 
secondary education, while the Programme will be respon- 
sible for education at the higher levels to those eligible 
refugees livdng in that region. 

In Europe the long-term major aid programmes to 
provide permanent solutions for the “old” European 
refugees, including in particular housing projects for 
refugees in Greece, are in their final phase. Any new 
need for assistance which might arise among these refugees 
is met through the current UNHCR programme when the 
country of residence is not in a position to provide the 
assistance necessary. 

Resettlement continues to play a major part in the 
solution of the problems of new European refugees of 
whom a larger number entered certain European countries 
in 1968 and 1969. The share taken by countries of asylum 
and of resettlement and the long established co-operation 
between UNHCR, ICEM and the United States Refugee 
Program contribute to prevent an accumulation of those 
refugees in reception centres. 


STATUTE 


Chapter I 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

1. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 
acting under the authority of the General Assembly, shall 
assume the function of providing international protection, 
under the auspices of the United Nations, to refugees who 
fall within the scope of the present Statute and of seeking 
permanent solutions for the problem of refugees by assist- 
ing governments and, subject to the approval of the govern- 
ments concerned, private organizations to facilitate the 
voluntary repatriation of such refugees, or their assimilation 
within new national communities. 

2. The work of the High Commissioner shall be of an 
entirely non-political character; it shall be humanitarian 
and social and shall relate, as a rule, to groups and 
categories of refugees. 

3- The High Commissioner shall follow policy directives 
given him by the General Assembly or the Economic and 
Social Council. 

4' Provisions for the establishment of an Executive 

Committee. 

5. Provisions for the continuation of the Office. 

Chapter II 

functions of the HIGH COMMISSIONER 
fi- The competence of the High Commissioner shall 
extend to any person who, owing to well-founded fear of 
xing persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality 
or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality 
and is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other 
an personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of 
the protection of that country: or who, not having a 
nationality and being outside the country of his former 


habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear or for 
reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to 
return to it. 

Any other person who is outside the country of his 
nationality or, if he has no nationality, the counby of his 
former habitual residence, because he has had well- 
founded fear of persecution by reason of.his race, religion, 
nationality or political opinion and is unable or, because of 
such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of 
the government of the country of his nationality, or, if he 
has no nationality, to return to the country of his former 
habitual residence. 

7. Refugees to whom the High Commissioner’s compe- 
tence shall not extend. 

8. Means of providing protection for refugees. 

9. The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional 
activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the 
General Assembly may determine, within the limits of the 
resources placed at his disposal. 

10. The High Commissioner shall administer any funds, 
public or private, which he receives for assistance to 
refugees, and shall distribute them among the private and, 
as appropriate, public agencies which he deems best 
qualified to administer such assistance. 

11. Presentation of report to the Economic and Social 
Committee and to the General Assembly. 

12. Co-operation with the various specialized agencies. 

Chapter III 

ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 

13. Election of the High Commissioner. 

14. Appointment of Deputy High Commissioner and 
other staS. 

15—22. Organization and Finance. 


75 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY— IAEA 

Kaerntnerring 11, 1010 Vienna 

Telephone: 52 45 ii. 

Founded in' 1957, autonomous intergovernmental organization related to the United Nations by the terms 
of an Agreement which recognizes it as "the agency under the aegis of the United Nations responsible for inter- 
national activities concerned with the peaceful uses of atomic energy”. Its objectives are "to seek to accelerate 
and enlarge the contributions of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world” and "to 
ensure that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a 

way as to further any military purpose.” Members: 103. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL CONFERENCE 

Consists of representatives of all member states. It 
convenes each year to participate in the general debate on 
the Agency’s policy and programme, to approve the budget 
and the annual report, to approve applications for 
membership, to elect new members to 'the Board of 
Governors and to consider all matters referred to it by the 
Board of Governors; and, every four years, to approve the 
appointment of a Director-General. 

President (1970): Prof. Vikram A. Sarabhai (India). 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Consists of 25 member states, 13 designated by the Board 
of Governors and 12 elected by the General Conference. It 
has authority to carry out the functions of the Agency in 
accordance with the Statute and subject to its responsi- 
bilities to the General Conference. It meets four or five 
times a year to consider matters proposed to it by member 
states or the Director-General. It approves and submits the 
draft budget and the Agency's programme to the General 
Conference. Every fourth year it appoints a Director- 
General subject to approval by the General Confer- 
ence. 

Board Members (1970-71): Argentina, Australia, Belgium, 
Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Hungary, 
India, Japan, Jlorocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, 


Poland, South Africa, Spain, Syria, Thailand, U.S.S.R., 
U.K., U.S.A., Uruguay, 'Vietnam. 

Chairman (1970.-71): Mr. Vishnu Trivedi (India). 

SECRETARIAT 

Consists of approximately 354 professional staff and 
about 700 general service staff. It is headed by the 
Director-General who is responsible for the administration 
and implementation of the Agency’s programme. He is 
assisted by four Deputy Directors-General and an 
Inspector-General. The Secretariat is divided into five 
departments: Technical Assistance and Publications; 
Technical Operations; Research and Isotopes; Safeguards 
and Inspection; Administration. 

Director-General (reappointed 1969 for a term of four 
years); Dr. Sigvard Eklund (Sweden). 

SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

The Committee was set up in 1958 to advise the Board 
of Governors and the Director-General upon scientific and 
technical matters. In J une 1969, the following distinguished 
scientists were appointed for terms of three years. 

Dr. M. A. El-Guebellv (U.A.R.), Dr. Bertrand Gold- 
schmidt (France), Dr. W. B. Lewis (Canada), Prof. I* 
Malek (Czechoslovalda), Prof. S. Mitsui (Japan), Prof. 
L. CiNTRA DO Prado (Brazil), Prof. Isidor I. Rabi (U.S.A), 
Dr. Homi N. Sethna Spitsvn 

(U.S.S.R.). 


ACTIVITIES 


Technical Assistance and Training. Last year the IAEA 
prowded 230 experts and visiting professors to developing 
countries, awarded 484 fellowsliips and arranged the loan 
of equipment valued at $883,000. Twelve regional training 
courses and two visiting seminars provided instruction on 
beneficial uses of nuclear energy to 692 participants in 
14 countries. 

Food and Agriculturo. In co-operation with FAO, the 
Agency programme covers research on tlie use of radiation 
and radioisotopes in six fields; plant improvement by 
radiation mutation; eradication of destructive insects by 
the sterile-male technique; improvement of livestock and 
preparation of animal vaccines; study of effect of insecti- 
cide residues; preservation of food by irradiation; improve- 
ment of the use of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer. Over 


200 projects are carried out annually in co-ordination 
wth member states. 

Life Sciences. The programme in life science includes 
nuclear medicine, radiation biology and dosimetry. Thirt}'- 
four countries have undertaken research in nuclear medi- 
cine with Agency support on such topics as the use of 
radioisotopes in diagnosis and treatment of anaemia, 
goitre and malnutrition. Research in radiation biology 
with Agency support is being conducted in 32 countries. 
In collaboration with WHO the Agency prepared a manual 
on radiation haematology and one on basic dosimetry — the 
science of measurement of radiation doses. 

Physical Sciences. The Agency’s programme in physical 
sciences is designed to develop or disseminate basic know- 
ledge that will eventually' be of practical use. Regular 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


international conferences on fission physics, neutron 
inelastic scattering, and controlled nuclear fusion are the 
primary means of world-wide communication in these 
research areas. Agency experts, in co-operation with 
UNESCO and FAO, have made use of isotope techniques 
to investigate water sources. A sub-regional co-operation 
plan in the Far East will study the upgrading of bagasse 
and other fibre boards by radiation for low cost housing. 
In mining, radioisotope X-ray fluorescence makes possible 
on-the-spot analysis of the mineral content of ore samples. 
This technique is being tested in India, tlie Pliilippincs and 
Yugoslavia. 

Nuclear Power and Reactors. To help developing coun- 
tries the IAEA is stimulating research toward improved 
economy of small and medium-sized reactors. It has also 
sent missions to advise many developing countries in 
planning nuclear power programmes and on the siting of 
proposed nuclear power facilities. The IAEA is partici- 
pating in a number of studies concerning dual-purpose 
reactors-to produce fresh water from the sea as well as to 
provide power and light. Developing countries have shown 
interest in the engineering possibilities of nuclear explo- 
sives. It is expected that nuclear energy can perform ciml 
engineering feats beyond the range of ordinary explosives. 
To this end. the IAEA has e.xpandcd its programme to 
promote the exchange of relevant information, and the 
first international technical meeting on nuclear explosions 
for peaceful purposes was held in JIarch 1970. Three 
research reactor projects sponsored by the Agency arc: 
NORA, based in Norway, pioneered in new measurements 
for light and heavy water lattices. The IPA (India/ 
Philippines/Agency) project, completed in 1969, concen- 
trated on solid state physics, and the NPY (Norway/ 
Poland/Yugoslavia) has enabled the three countries con- 
cerned to solve a number of problems in nuclear power 
physics. 

Health Safety and Waste Management. In co-operation 
with other international organizations, the Agency has 
established basic standards and recommendations relating 
to all aspects of radiation safety under both normal and 
emergency conditions. Thirty publications concerning 
these standards and recommendations have been issued. 
IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive 
materials by rail, road, sea and air have been adopted as 
egal standards by many governments and have been 
included in the conventions and recommendations of 
nearly all international organizations concerned ivith 
ransport. In 1969 the revised codes of practice for the safe 
operation of nuclear power plants and research reactors 
ond a series of recommendations on the use of ports bj' 
nuclear merchant ships ivere published. In 197° special 
attention was being given to the problem of radioactive 
onvironmental pollution. 

information and Technical Services. Ten to fifteen large 
international conferences and symposia arc organized each 
yoar and some 40 smaller panels and meetings. Papers 
presented at these meetings are published by the Agency 
imd distributed for sale all over the world. The head- 
quarters library contains approximately 30,000 books, 
100,000 reports and 1,000 films. The International Nuclear 
formation System (INIS), an information-handling 
ee eme, began operations in 1970. Employing computer 
ecliniques for storage, correlation and retrieval, INIS will 


provide a world catalogue of technical information relating 
to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. When in full 
operation, it is estimated that approximately 85,000 pieces 
of new literature will be catalogued annually by INIS. The 
Nuclear Data Unit is an international centre for neutron 
data basic for reactors. In co-operation with three other 
principal centres at Brookhaven (U.S.A.), Obninsk 
(U.S.S.R.) and the European Nuclear Energy Agency' 
(ENEA) centre at Saclay (France), the world’s neutron 
data are collected, processed by means of computers and 
distributed, free of charge. 

Safeguards. At present, safeguards are applied by the 
Agency to 70 reactors and 37 other nuclear facilities. 
Mexico became the first country to request safeguards for 
all its nuclear activities under the terms of the Tlatelolco 
Treaty which creates a nuclear-free Latin America. At 
present a total of 44 agreements with 32 countries are in 
effect. By the terms of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation 
of Nuclear Weapons, signatory countries which have no 
nuclear weapons agree to accept Agency safeguards. After 
the Treaty came into force in March 1970 a "Safeguards 
Committee” has been established to advise the Agency on 
the content of the agreements to be concluded between 
parties to NPT and the Agency. More attention is being 
given to safeguards research, including the use of instru- 
ments to simplify procedures and minimize manpower 
required. A list oi 39 staff members available to serve as 
inspectors has been approved. 

Laboratories. The IAEA operates three laboratories, one 
in Seibersdorf, Austria, one at the Agency’s headquarters 
in Vienna and one in Monaco devoted to the study of 
marine radioactivity. The Seibersdorf and Headquarters 
Laboratories, working jointly, provide services for many 
of the Agency’s programmes in physics, chemistry, 
hydrology, nuclear medicine and agriculture. This work 
involves the analysis of hundreds of samples of plant 
material in fertilizer research, the preparation and inter- 
comparison of labelled compounds for use in nuclear 
medicine and the analysis of water samples for isotope 
content. An agreement between the Agency, the Govern- 
ment of the Principality of Monaco and the Oceanographic 
Institute at Monaco established the IAEA International 
Laboratory on the Mediterranean coast. This agreement 
has been extended until the end of 1974. The laboratory 
will concentrate on the study of health and safety aspects 
concerning radioactive pollution of the sea. 

Centre for Theoretical Physics. One of IAEA’s out- 
standing contributions in pure science has been tlie 
establishment, in 1964, of the International Centre for 
Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy. Generous support 
from the Italian Government and a number of other 
organizations has enabled the Centre to bring together in 
a working relationship scientists from both developed and 
developing countries. Eight Nobel laureates attended the 
four-week symposium held in June 1968 to review the 
entire field of contemporary physics. Recently, agreement 
was reached between the Agency and UNESCO to operate 
the Trieste Centre jointly. 

Supplying Fissionable Materials. The Agency is em- 
powered by its Statute to serve as an intermediary in 
arranging the delivery of special fissionable materials to 
member states. By June 1970, 98 transfers of such 


77 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


material, about half of them gifts, had been made to 22 
recipient countries. All material supplied was for research 
reactors or other research purposes. Supplier States have 
been Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Sweden, the U.S.S.R., U.K. and the U.S.A. The 
fund of special fissionable material still available to the 
Agency for supply to its members is almost 5,000 kilo- 
grammes of uranium-235 contained in enriched uranium. 

BUDGET 

The Regular Budget for 1971 amounts to §13,778,000. 
The new target for voluntary contributions to finance the 
IAEA programme of technical assistance is §2.5 million. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Proceedings of Conferences, Symposia and Seminars. 
IAEA Bulletin. 

Atomic Energy Review. 

Nuclear Fusion; Journal of Plasma Physics and Thermo- 
nuclear Fusion. 

Technical Directories. 

Panel Proceedings Series. 

Safety Series. 

Bibliographical Series. 

Technical Reports Series. 

Science Features. 


SUMMARY OF THE STATUTE 

{Adopted October 23rd, 1956) 


The Agency is authorized: 

1. To encourage and assist research on, and development 
and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful 
uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to 
act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the 
performance of services or the supplying of materials, 
equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for 
another; and to perform any operation or service useful in 
research on, or development or practical application of, 
atomic energy for peaceful purposes. 

2. To make provision, in accordance with this Statute 
for materials services, equipment, and facilities to meet 
the needs of research on, and development and practical 
application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, in- 
cluding the production of electric power, with due con- 
sideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of 
the world. 

3. To foster the exchange of scientific and technical 
information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

4. To encourage the exchange and training of scientists 
and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

5. To establish and administer safeguards designed to 
ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or 
control are not used in such a way as to further any 
military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request 
of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement 
or, at the request of a State, to any of that State’s activ- 
ities in the field of atomic energy. 

6. To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where 
appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs 
of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies 
concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and 
minimization of danger to life and property (including such 
standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the 
application of these standards to its own operations as 
well as to the operations making use of materials, services, 
equipment, facilities, and information made available by 
the Agency or at its request or under its control or super- 
vision; and to provide for the application of these stan- 
dards, at the request of the parties; to operations under 
any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the 
request of a State, to any of that State’s activities in tlie 
field of atomic energy. 


7. To acquire or establish any facilities, plant and equip- 
ment useful in carrying out its authorised functions, when- 
ever the facilities, plant, and equipment otherwise available 
to it in the area concerned are inadequate or available 
only on terms it deems unsatisfactory. 

ORGANIZATION 

General Conference. A General Conference consisting of 
representatives of all members shall meet in regular annual 
session and in such special sessions as shall be convened. 
The Conference may discuss any matters within the scope 
of this statute or relating to the powers and functions of 
any organs provided for in this Statute, and may make 
recommendations. 

The General Conference shall: 

1. Elect members of the Board of Governors. 

2. Approve states for membership. 

3. Consider the annual report of the Board. 

4. Approve reports to be submitted to the United 
Nations. 

5. Approve any agreement or agreements between the 
Agency and the United Nations and other organizations. 

6. Approve rules and limitations regarding tlie exercise 
of borrowing powers. 

7. Approve amendments to the Statute. 

8 . Approve the appointment of the Director-General. 

Board of Governors. The Board of Governors is chosen 

by rules laid dovm in Article VI of the Statute. 

The Board shall have authority to carry out the func- 
tions of the Agency in accordance with tlie Statute, subject 
to its responsibilities to the General Conference. It shall 
meet at such times as it may determine and may establish 
such committees as it deems advisable. 

The Board shall prepare an annual report and any other 
reports the Agency is required to make. These shall be 
submitted to the General Conference. 

Staff. The staff of the Agency shall be headed by a 
Director-General. The Director-General shall be appointed 
by the Board of Governors with the aproval of the General 
Conference for a term of four years. The Director-General 
shall be responsible for the appointment, organization, and 
functioning of the staff. The staff shall include such 
qualified scientific and technical and other personnel as 


7S 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


may be required to fulfil the objectives and functions of 
the Agency. The Agency shall be guided by the principle 
that its permanent staS shall be kept to a minimum. 

Intormation and Materials. Each member should make 
available such information as would, in the judgment of the 
member, be helpful to the Agency. 

Members may make available to the Agency such quan- 
tities of special fissionable materials as they deem advisable 
and on such terms as shall be agreed with the Agency. On 
request of the Agency a member shall deliver to another 
member or group of members such quantities of such 
materials as the Agency may specify. The Agency shall be 
responsible for storing and protecting materials in its 
possession. It shall ensure that these materials shall be 
safeguarded against hazards of the weather, unauthorised 
removal or diversion, damage or destruction, including 
sabotage, and forcible seizure. In storing special fissionable 
materials in its possession, the Agency shall ensure the 
geographical distribution of these materials in such a way 
as not to allow concentration of large amounts of such 
materials in any one country or region of the world. 

Projects and Safeguards. Any member or group of 
members of the Agency desiring to set up any research 
project for peaceful purposes may request the assistance 
of the Agency in securing special fissionable and other 
materials. For the purpose of considering the request, the 
Agency may send into the territory of the member or 
group persons qualified to examine the jjroject. 

With respect to any Agency project the Agency shall 
have the following rights and responsibilities: 

*-.To examine the design of specialised equipment and 
facilities, including nuclear reactors, and to approve it 
only from the vie\vpoint of assuring that it will not further 


any military purpose, that it complies with applicable 
health and safety standards. 

2. To require the maintenance and production of 
operating records and progress reports. 

3. To approve the means to be used for the chemical 
processing of irradiated materials solely to ensure that this 
chemical processing will not lend itself to diversion of 
materials for military purposes and will comply with 
applicable health and safety standards. 

4. To send into the territory inspectors who shall have 
access at all times to all places and data and relevant 
persons. 

Finance. The Board of Governors shall submit to the 
General Conference the annual budget estimates for the 
expenses of the Agency. 

Expenditure shall be classified as: 

1. Administrative expenses (including costs of staff and 
meetings and costs of implementing safeguards). 

2. Expenses in connection with any materials, facilities, 
plant, and equipment acquired or established by the 
Agency. 

The Board shall have the authority to exercise borrowing 
powers on behalf of the Agency. 

Privileges and Immunities. The Agency shall enjoy in the 
territory of each member such legal capacity and such 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise 
of its functions. 

Disputes. Any question or dispute concerning the inter- 
pretation or application of this Statute which is not settled 
by negotiation shall be referred to the International Court 
of Justice unless the parties concerned agree on another 
mode of settlement. 


WORLD FOOD PROGRAM — WFP 

Via dollo Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy 


Established 1963 for a three-year experimental period, and extended 1965, the WFP is a joint UN-FAO effort 
to provide emergency relief and to stimulate economic and social development through aid in the form of food. 


ORGANIZATION 

Intergovernmental Committee: 24 members, iz elected 
by ECOSOC and 12 by FAO. 

Joint UN-FAO Administrative Unit: carries out the day- 
to-day activities of the ^VFP. 

Executive Director: Francisco Aquino. 


ACTIVITIES 

Member governments of the United Nations and FAO 
make voluntary contributions of commodities, cash, and 
(particularly shipping) to WFP, which uses the 
000 for emergency relief for victims of natural and man- 
®ade disasters and for support for economic and social 
ovelopment projects in the developing countries. The food 


is supplied, for example, as an incentive in development 
self-help schemes, as part wages in labour-intensive pro- 
jects of many kinds, particularly in the rural economy, but 
also in the industrial field, and in support of institutional 
feeding schemes where the emphasis is mainly on enabling 
the beneficiaries to have an adequate and balanced diet. In 
some cases it is feed for livestock that is supph'ed, the 
introduction of modern feeding practices leading to in- 
creased production and thus to an improvement of the 
people’s nutrition. Recipient governments are encouraged 
to take steps to replace the WFP aid as soon as each 
project, which may be for anything up to five years, comes 
to an end. 

As at October ist, 1970, 459 development projects had 
been approved since the beginning of the Programme’s 


79 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


operations at a total cost to WFP of $937,439,100. Broken 
do\vn by region: in Latin America and the Caribbean, 
72 projects in 19 countries; in North Africa and the Near 
East, 106 projects in ii countries; in West Atrica, 79 
projects in 22 countries; in Mediterranean Europe and 
East Africa, 79 projects in 17 countries; in Asia and the 
Far East, 123 projects in 14 countries. In addition, 117 
emergency operations have been undertaken in 67 coun- 
tries at a total cost to the Programme of $91,389,500. 

The biggest single project ever undertaken is for the 
development of the dairy industry in several areas of India 
at a total cost to the Programme ol nearly $56 million. 


RESOURCES 

As at October ist, 1970, the resources made available to 
the Programme through voluntary contributions by 
governments, including pledges for the period 1969-70, 
stood at a total of $532,504,500; $384,610,765 were in 
commodities and $147,893,735 in cash and services. A 
further $41,760,746 worth of food grains was made avail- 
able to the Programme by signatories of the Food Aid 
Convention. The target set by the UN and FAO for the 
pledging period 1971-72 amounts to $300 million. By the 
end of August 1970 a total of $215,774,725 had been 
pledged bj"^ 58 countries. 


UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IN CYPRUS— UNFICYP 

P.O. Box 1G42, Nicosia, Cyprus 


Set up in March 1964 by Security Council Resolution, for 
a three-month period, subsequently extended to June 
1971. The purpose of the Force is to keep the peace between 
the Greek and Turkish communities pending a resolution 
of outstanding issues between them. 

Commander: Maj.-Gen. D. Prem Chand (India). 

Special Representative of the Secretary-General : Bibiano F. 
Osorio-Tafall (Mexico). 


COMPOSITION OF FORCE 

(December 1970) 


Australia 

Military 

Police 

50 

Austria (medical unit) 

55 

45 

Canada 

577 

— 

Denmark 

. 296 

40 

Finland . 

288 

“ 

Ireland . 

. 428 

- 

Sweden 

285 

40 

United Kingdom 

. 1,078 


Total 

■ 3.007 

175 


40 civilians are attached to UNFICYP. 
Grand Total: 3,222. 


FINANCE 

Provisional estimate of cost for the period from March 
1964 to December 1970 was $122,605,000. 


UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT— 

UNCTAD 


Palais des Nations, Geneva 
Telephone: 34 60 ii, 33 40 00, 33 20 00, 33 10 00. 

Set up as an organ of tlie United Nations General Assembly by a resolution of December 1964 on the recom- 
mendation of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, held March- June 1964. Aims to promote 
international trade with a view to accelerating economic development. 


ORGANIZATION 


CONFERENCE 

First session, Geneva, March 23rd-June i6th, 1964. 
Second session. New Delhi, February ist-March 29th, 
1968. Members: 136 (end of 1970). 

Secretary-General: Manuel Pjirez Guerrero (Venezuela) 
in March 1969 succeeded Dr. IlAdL Prebisch (.Argen- 
tina). 


TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

UNCTAD’s main executive organ, the Board carries out 
the functions of the Conference when tlie latter is not in 
session. Members: 55 states elected by the Conference 
having regard to geographical distribution and continuing 
representation for the principal trading states; 3 r members 
of the Board are developing countries. In 1970 the Board 


80 



THE UNITED NATIONS— {Other Bodies) 


held its tenth regular and its tourtli "special” sessions. At 
the regular session, the Board recommended policy 
measures on shipping and ports with a view to promoting 
the earnings of developing countries from invisible trade, 
reached consensus of principles of pricing policy for com- 
modities, established a new Intergovernmental Group to 
examine problems of transfer of technolog>’ to developing 
countries, and reviewed the recommendations of the 
various subsidiary bodies. At the special session, the Board 
approved arrangements for tlie implementation, in 1971 if 
possible, of a generalized system of tariff preferences for 
exports of developing countries. 

President {1970): Pieure-Attilio Forthomme (Belgium). 
aiAIN COJilMITTEES 

The Board has four main committees and a Special 
Committee on Preferences. 

Committee on Commodities: 55 members. Chairman {igyo): 
Josfe Martinez Cobo (Ecuador). Fifth session, July 
7th-i8th, 1970. Adopted recommendations for the 
regulation of disposals of surpluses and strategic 
reserves, made new arrangements to improve the 
process of intergovernmental consultations on com- 
modity problems, and reviewed the market situation 
of a series of individual commodities. 

Permanent Group on Synthetics and Substitutes: 21 
members. Chairman (1970): Maruli H. Pang- 
gabean (Indonesia). Fourth session, June 29th- 
July 3rd, 1970. Made recommendations relating to 
research programmes for natural products and 
recommendations to improve the market situation 
of rubber, cotton and shellac. 

Committee on Manufactures: 45 members. Chairman (1970): 


Brij Nand.an Swarup (India). Fourth session, 
Januarj' 2oth-3oth, 1970. Approved a work pro- 
gramme for the liberalization of non-tariff barriers 
affecting trade of developing countries, studied 
restrictive business practices, examined problems of 
tariff reclassification. 

Special Committee on Preferences: open to all interested 
UNCTAD member countries. Chairman (1970); Thiru- 
M,u,RAYA Swaminathan (India). Met from March 31st 
to April 17th, and again from September 21st to 
October 12th, 1970. Agreed on mutually acceptable 
arrangements concerning the establishment of general- 
ized, non-discriminatory, non-reciprocal preferential 
treatment to exports of developing countries in the 
markets of developed countries. Preference-giving 
countries toII seek necessary legislative or other 
sanction with the aim of implementing the preferential 
arrangements as early as possible in 1971. 

Committee on Invisibles and Financing related to Trade: 
45 members. Chairman (1970): Jerzy Bieinski 
(Poland). Fourth session, July 20th-3ist, 1970. 
Recommended continuity in the provision of financial 
resources lor development, discussed measures to 
liberalize assistance such as untying of aid, studied 
further possibility of establishing a direct link between 
Special Drawing Rights of the International Monetary 
Fund and development finance. 

Committee on Shipping: 45 members. Chairman (1970): 
Jean Robert (France). Fourth session, April 20th- 
May 4th, 1970. Made recommendations for easing 
freight rates on cargoes from developing countries, for 
the latter’s participation in liner conferences, for 
assisting the expansion of their merchant marines, and 
for training of personnel. 


AIMS 


The principal functions of UNCTAD are: to promote 
international trade, in order to accelerate economic 
development, particularly trade between countries at 
different stages of development, between developing 
countries and between countries with different systems of 
economic and social organization; to formulate principles 
and policies on international trade and related problems 


of economic development; to make proposals for putting 
these principles and policies into effect; to review and 
facilitate the co-ordination of activities of other UN bodies 
dealing with related problems; to initiate action for the 
negotiation and adoption of multilateral legal instruments 
in the field of trade; to harmonize trade and related policies 
of governments and regional economic groupings. 


developments in 1970 


During 1970, e.xports fi-om developing countries grew at 
arate of 10.5 per cent, the highest in the First Development 
Decade. Nevertheless, their share in world exports con 
tinued to decline due to the considerably more rapid 
progress of the industrialized countries. 


The international strategy for the second 
ations Development Decade, the igyos, adopted y 
venty-fifth session of the United Nations General 
ssembly, reflects all the key ideas advanced witmn 
TICTAD with a view to increasing export earnings o 


developing countries and accelerating their rate of econo- 
mic growdh. 

Important UNCTAD activities during 1970, in addition 
to those cited above, included the negotiation of the 
fourth International Tin Agreement; a session from 
November 2nd-i8th, 1970, ol an Intergovernmental Group 
seeking to facilitate trade expansion, economic co-operation 
and regional integration among developing countries; and 
technical assistance activities in the field of trade and 
development. 


81 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 

BUDGET 
1970: U.S. 58,823,200. 

1970 (Estimate): U.S. §10,686,200. 

PUBLICATIONS 


The complete proceedings of UNCTAD II (New Delhi 
February ist-March 29th, 1968) appear in the follorving 
five volumes: 

Volume I, Report and Annexes: Background, list of 
resolutions, declarations and other decisions, and 
adoption of the report of the Conference. 

Volume II, Commodity Problems and Policies: The develop- 
ment of an international commodity policy, liberaliza- 
tion of trade, recent developments and long-term 
trends. 

Volume III, Problems and Policies of Trade in Manufac- 
tures and Semi-Manufactures: Preferences, trade 
liberalization, export credits, labour implications for 
developing countries. 


Volume IV, Problems and Policies of Financing: Growth, 
development finance, mobilization and evaluation of 
resources, economic management and international 
monetary issues. 

Volume V, Special Problems in World Trade and Develop- 
ment: The international division of labour and the 
developing countries, trade relations, trade expansion 
and economic integration, special preferences, needs of 
the least developed countries, and the world food prob- 
lem. 

The reports of the main UNCTAD bodies, as well as 
several important studies on specific problems, have been 
published during T970. 


UNITED NATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR 
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT— UNRISD 

Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland 

Established in 1964 as an autonomous UN activity to conduct research into problems and policies of social 
development and economic development during different phases of economic growth. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD 

Superv'ises the activities of the Institute. Members 
include representatives of the Secretary-General of UN, of 
two of the four Specialized Agencies directly concerned 
(ILO, UNESCO, FAO, WHO) in rotation, and of the UN 
regional institutes for Asia, Latin America and Africa, as 
well as the Institute’s Director and seven individuals 
nominated by the Commission for Social Development and 
elected by the Economic and Social Council. 

Chairman: Jan Tinbergen (Netherlands). 


Members: Jan Szczepanski (Poland); Gonzalo Aguirre 
BeltrXn (Mexico); Jacques Delors (France); 
Moh.imed Ennaceur (Tunisia); Philip M. Hauser 
(U.S. A.); Akhter Hameed Khan (Pakistan); Gunnar 
ICarl Myrdal (Sweden). 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Director: D. V. McGranahan (U.S.A.). 

Secretary: G. Lambert-Lamond (France). 


FUNCTIONS 


The Institute was created to conduct research into 
problems and policies of social development and relation- 
ships between various types of social development and 
economic development during different phases of economic 
growth. It was intended that the studies of the Institute 
should contribute to {a) the work of the United Nations 
Secretariat in the field of social policy, social development 
planning and balanced economic and social development; 
(6) regional planning institutes already existing or in the 
process of being set up under the auspices of the United 
Nations; (c) national institutes in the field of economic 
and/or social development and planning. 


The Institute was set up with the active support of the 
Social Commission of the United Nations (now the Com- 
mission for Social Development), which had for some time 
been emphasizing, in reports and resolutions, the im- 
portance of taking social factors into account in develop- 
ment planning and of achieving a balanced and integrated 
economic and social development policy. Intensified 
research on the means of achieving that goal was felt to be 
desirable. 


82 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies; 


ACTIVITIES 


Researcli is carried out under four programmes as listed 
below; 

I. The Inter-relations between Social and Economic Develop- 
ment. 

Contents and measurement of development. 

The general development index. 

Factors associated with fast and slow rates of economic 
growth. 

Afeasurement of real progress at the local level. 

The Data Bank of development indicators. 

r. Methodology of Social Planning. 

Empirical study of decision-making processes in the 
social sectors. 

Social prognosis. 

3. The Introduction of Social Change and Innovation. 

Rural institutions and planned change. 

Preparation of the child for modernization. 

Refugee resettlement and rural development. 

Jfail survey of experiences in vocational training. 

Social implications of the Green Revolution. 

4 - Regional Development. 

Regional development; experiences and prospects — a 
worldwide study. 

Regional disaggregation of national policies and plans. 
The role of growth policies and growth centres in 
regional development. 

Information systems for regional development. 

Regional sociology. 

FINANCE 

The Institute is financed by voluntary contributions of 
member countries of the United Nations. 

PUBLICATIONS 

SALES PUBLICATIONS 

Inducing Social Change in Developing Cammtinilies 
(English, French, Spanish; 1967). 
manning for Children and Youth within National Develop- 


ment Planning (jointly rvith UNICEF; English, French; 
1967). 

Levels of Living and Economic Growth (English; 1969). 

A Review of Rural Co-operation in Developing Areas 
(English; ig6g). 

Estudios de la Realidad Campesina: Cooperacidn y Canibio 
(Spanish; 1970). 

Distribution of Income and Economic Growth: concepts and 
issues (English; 1970). 

Compilation of Development Indicators (1969). 

NON-SALES PUBLICATIONS 

Research Notes (English, French, Spanish; annually). 

The following were published during 1970; 

Organization of Land Redistribution Beneficiaries. 

Regional Development — Experienees and Prospects: South 
and Southeast Asia. 

Studies in the Measurement of Levels of Living and Welfare. 

Interregional Allocation of Investments for Social and 
Economic Development: an elementary model approach to 
analysis. 

Studies in the Methodology of Social Planning. 

Social Modernization and Economic Development in 
Argentina. 

La priparation dc V enfant d, la modernisation: I'exemple de 
la Tunisie. 

Case Studies on Information Systems for Regional Develop- 
ment: Sweden. 

Case Studies on Information Systems for Regional Develop- 
ment: Chile. 

Contents and Measurement of Socio-Economic Development. 

Etude sur les systemes de decision. 

Growth Poles and Growth Centres as Instruments of Regional 
Development and Modernization with Special Reference 
to Bulgaria and France (also in French). 

Preparation of the Child for Modernization: Shills and 
Intellectual Requirements (review of the literature). 

Le changement social ct les institutions du dSveloppenicnt dans 
line population rdfugUc.. 

Rural Co-operatives and Planned Change in Africa. 


83 


THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH- 

UNITAR 

801 United Nations Plaza, New York 

Established 1965 as an autonomous body within the framework of the United Nations. Provides training to 
personnel, particularly from developing countries, for national and international service, and conducts research 
and study related to the functions and objectives of the United Nations. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Composed of eighteen members appointed by the UN 
Secretary-General to serve for two years. The UN Secretary- 
General and the Presidents of the General Assembly and 
ECOSOC, and the Executive Director of the Institute are 
ex-officio members. Specialized agencies are represented 
appropriately at meetings. The Board meets usually once 
a year and is responsible for determining basic policies of 
the Institute and for reviewing and adopting the annual 
budget. 


Subsidiary Committees: Administrative and Financial; 
Research; Training. 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 

The Executive Director is appointed by the Secretary- 
General, after consultation with the Board, and is respon- 
sible for the overall organization, direction and administra- 
tion of the Institute. 

Executive Director: Chief S. O. Adebo, c.m.g. (Nigeria). 


FUNCTIONS 


The purpose of the Institute is to enhance, by training 
and research, "the effectiveness of the United Nations in 
achieving the major objectives of the Organization, in 
particular the maintenance of peace and security and the 
promotion of economic and social development”. Training 
at various levels is provided to persons, particularly from 
the developing countries, for assignments with the UN or 
the specialized agencies and for assignments in their 
national services which are connected with the work of the 
UN. The Institute also conducts research and study into 
problems which may concern the UN. 

Training Programmes in iffji: 

1. UNITAR seminars on international organization and 
multilateral diplomacy in New York and Geneva. 

2. Basic training courses for new recruits and junior 
officers of the foreign service. 

3. Regional seminars on procedures and techniques of 
technical assistance. 

4. Seminar on major problems of technical and financial 
co-operation. 

5. Colloquium for senior officials in the United Nations 
system. 

6. United Nations/UNITAR fellowships in international 
law. 

7. Regional refresher training course in international law. 

8. UNIT.^R weehends bringing together senior diplo- 
mats, UN officials and eminent scholars for informal 
exchanges of views. 

9. Special lecture series. 


10, Study on the feasibility of a United Nations staff 
college. 

11. Seminar for international procurement officers. 

Research Programmes in igji: 

1. Relations between United Nations and regional 
organizations. 

2. Braindrain: the international migration of profes- 
sionals from developing to developed countries. 

3. Transfer of technology from enterprise to enterprise. 

4. New techniques and methods of training. 

5. Comparative study of measures against racial dis- 
crimination. 

6. Peaceful settlement of disputes. 

7. Safeguards machinery of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency. 

8. Financing of international waterways. 

g. Planning and development in relation to ocean 
resources and marine pollution. 

10. Youth and international society. 

11. Evaluation of technical assistance. 

12. Operational analysis of the UN Economic and Social 
Council. 

13. Use by mass media of UN public information. 

14. Regional seminar on international law for Africa. 


84 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 

FINANCE 

Expenses are met from voluntary contributions made by 
governments, inter-govemmental organizations, from 
foundations and other non-govcmmental sources. 

Estimated Budget (1971): ii, 500,000. 


PUBLICATIONS 


UN Development Aid: Criteria and Methods 0/ Evaluation. 
Towards Wider Acceptance of UN Treaties. 

Small Stales and Territories; Status and Problems. 

Peaceful Settlement of Disputes; Ideas and Proposals for 
Research. 

Social Psychological Techniques and the Peaceful Settlement 
of International Disputes. 


Report of the International Research Conference on Race 
Relations, Aspen, Colorado, fune 1970. 

Emigration of Highly-Skilled Manpower from the Developing 
Countries. 

Manual of United Nations Technical Assistance. 

Manual of External Financing. 


UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME — UNDP 

Now York City 

Established in 1965 to aid the developing countries in increasing the wealth-producing capabilities of their natural 
and human resources by supporting economic and social projects, with pre-investment, help and technical 
assistance. The UNDP came into effect in January 1966. bringing together the previous activities of the 
Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance and the UN Special Fund. 


EXECUTING AGENCIES 


UN 

IBRD 

UNCTAD 

ILO 

ITU 

UNIDO 

FAO 

WMO 

IDB 

UNESCO 

IAEA 

AfDB 

ICAO 

UPU 

AsDB 

WHO 

IMCO 



The UNDP functions under tlic authority of ECOSOC 
and of the General Assembly. 

Governing Council: 37 moms., representing both developed 


and developing countries; the policy-making body of 
the UNDP. 

President (1971): HernAn Santa Cruz (Chile). 
Administrator; Paul G. Hoffman (U.S.A.). 
Co-Administrator: C. V. Narasimhan (India). 

Inter-Agency Consultative Board (lACB): composed of the 
UN Secretary-General and the Executive Heads of 
the Specialized Agencies and other bodies; provides 
guidance and advice. 


activities 


The UNDP today is the world's largest programme of 
Multinational technical co-operation. It works in partner- 
ship \vith over 130 governments, representing almos 
three thousand million people. Voluntary 
from almost every nation in the world provide the UNDI 
with its financial resources. Governments of low-income 
countries all over the world, together wth the United 
Nations and i6 other international agencies, arc currently- 
carrying out UNDP-assisted activities whicli will cost 
almost $2,500 million on completion. Development wor 
already completed has cost close to $1,5°° million, more 
than half of it paid by the developing countries themselves. 

fn pursuit of its basic objective — -helping the poorer 
nations to develop their human and natural resources more 
fully— the UNDP affords the international community a 
significant opportunity for productive co-operation. 

of technical knowledge, skills, P®cs°mie a 
facilities by participating countries is an essential p< 
he UNDP’s day-to-day operations. 


By mid-1970 over 1,000 large-scale pre-investment pro- 
jects had been undertaken by the developing countries 
noth UNDP support, and more than 200 others were about 
to get under way. These projects cost an average of over 
$2 million each, generally take between four and five years 
to complete, can engage the services of a score of inter- 
national experts and require a large inventory of specialized 
modem equipment. 

UNDP-supported pre-investment projects assist the 
development efforts of low-income countries in one or more 
of four basic ways; 

(o) By uncovering, inventorying and determining the 
economic potential of natural resources; 

(6) By educating and training people in the knowledge 
and skills necessary to build and maintain modem 
economic and social systems; 

(c) By establishing research centres for the development 
and application of modern productive technologies; 


85 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


{d) By strengthening national and regional frameworks 
for development planning and administration. 

In addition, during a typical year the UNDP supports 
about 2,500 smaller-scalc development projects. With 
average yearly e.xpenditures of some $25,000 each, these 
projects often employ only a single international expert, 
can be completed in several months, rarely require outlays 
for equipment, but do provide low-income countries with 
critically needed advisory, consultant and training 
services. 

UNDP support for well over 300 large-scale and tens of 
thousands of smaller projects has now been completed and 
country and regional projects are currently operational in 
all parts of tlie world. 

UNDP-assisted projects — large and small — annually 


engage the services of some 8,000 international experts, 
provide over 5,000 fellowships for advanced study abroad 
and supply almost $30 million worth of equipment. The 
projects help stimulate progress in virtually every economic 
and social sector. 

UNDP Resident Representatives direct Field Offices in 
over 90 developing countries throughout the world. These 
officials, as leaders of the team of representatives of all 
United Nations organizations concerned, assist govern- 
ments in formulating programmes of UNDP aid and in 
seeing that the Programme’s field operations are carried 
out. 

UNDP Headquarters in New York, with an international 
staff drawn from more than 60 countries, maintains a close 
and co-ordinated supervdsion of all Programme activities. 


LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 
APPROVED FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE, 1959-70 


Field of Activity 

Number 

OF 

Projects 

Project 
Costs 
(in million 
U.S. $ 
equivalents) 

Resource Surveys 

479 

805.4 

Education and Training 

444 

1,264.9 

Applied Research 

Economic Development 

277 

624.5 

Planning 

34 

88.0 

Total 

1.234 

2,782.8* 


* Of which $1,064.9 provided by UNDP and $1,717.9 
provided by recipient governments. 


COST OF DEVELOPMENT WORK APPROVED 
FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE BY ECONOJIIC AND 
SOCIAL SECTOR. 1959-69 


Sector 

Project 
Costs 
(in million 
U.S. $ 
equivalents) 

Agriculture ...... 

1,176.2 

Industry ...... 

746.7 

Education and Science .... 

589-7 

Public Services ..... 

432.6 

Health 

179.0 

Housing, Building, Physical Planning 

60.3 

Public Administration .... 

205.4 

Social Welfare ..... 

40-3 

Multi-sector ...... 

1S1.6 

To bo allocated ..... 

3S1.0 

Tot.\l ..... 

3,992.8 


COST OF DEVELOPMENT WORK APPROVED 
FOR UNDP ASSISTANCE BY 
GEOGRAPHICAL REGION, 1959-70 


Regiox 

Project 
Costs 
(in million 
U.S. $ 

equivalents) 

Africa ....... 

1.324-1 

The Americas ..... 

894.1 

Asia and the Far East .... 

1.043-4 

Europe ...... 

326.0 

Middle East ...... 

254-3 

Inter-regional ..... 

53-6 

Global 

1-5 

To bo allocated ..... 

95-8 

Total ..... 

3.992 -S 


80 



THE UNITED NATIONS — (Other Bodies) 


FINANCE 


The Development Programme is financed by the 
voluntary contributions of members of the United Nations, 
the Specialized Agencies, and the IAEA. Contributions 
pledged for 1971 reached an estimated total of U.S. $240 
million (as of October 1970). The cumulative total of 


contributions pledged by some 120 countries since the 
inception of activities (the Expanded Programme of 
Technical Assistance in 1950, and the UN Special Fund in 
1959) to the end of 1970 is approximately $2,107 million. 


UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION— 

UNIDO 


Fclderhaus, Raihausplaiz 2, A-1010 Vienna, Austria 

Telephone: 43 50 

Established January 1967 to promote industrial development by encouraging the mobilization of national and 
international resources, and to assist in, promote and accelerate the industrialization of the developing countries, 

with particular emphasis on the manufacturing sector. 


ORGANIZATION 


INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD 

Composed of 45 members elected by the UN General 
Assembly from among the members of the UN or its 
related agencies for a term of three years. Both developed 
and developing countries are equitably represented. The 
principle functions and powers of the Board are to formu- 
late principles and policies to achieve the purpose of tlie 
Organization, to consider and approve the programme of 
its activities and also to review and facilitate the co- 
ordination of activities within the United Nations system 
in the field of industrial development. The Board normally 
holds one session a year. 

President ( 1970 ): Zdenek Sudivv (Czechoslovakia). 
Secretary: Almamy Syci-a. 


SECRETARIAT 

Has overall responsibility for administration and re- 
searcli programmes and is in charge of operational pro- 
grammes, including activities executed by UNIDO as a 
participating organization of the UNDP. The Secretariat 
consists of the Office of the Executive Director, the 
Technical Co-operation Division, three Divisions of Indus- 
trial Technology, Industrial Policies and Programming and 
Industrial Services and Institutions, and a Division of 
Administration, Conference and General Services. 

Executive Director: Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman 
(U.A.R.). 


FUNCTIONS 


Operational Activities 

Carrying out surveys of industrial development possi- 
bilities, formulation of industrial development plans and 
programmes, pre-investment and feasibility studies; 

Advising at the various stages of implementation and 
follow-up of industrial projects; 

Assistance in achieving the efficient utilization of new 
and ejdsting industrial capacity, including the solution of 
technical and technological problems, and the improve- 
ment and control of quality, management and per- 
formance; 

Assistance in developing and improving marketing and 
distribution techniques and the development of export- 
orientated industry; 

Assistance in the training of technical and other appro- 
priate categories of personnel, including such forms of 
training as management workshops and in-plant training; 

Assistance in the dissemination of information on tech- 
nological iimovations and know-how, the development of 
systems of patents and industrial property, and tlie 
adaptation and application of existing technology to the 
needs of developing countries; 


Assistance in promoting domestic financing and in 
obtaining external financing for specific industrial projects; 

Assistance in establishing or strengthening institutions 
to deal with various aspects of industrial development, 
including planning and programming, project formulation 
and eimluation, engineering and design, training and 
management, applied research, standardization and quality 
control, marketing, small-scale industry, investment pro- 
motion and pilot plants. 

Seminars, workshops and in-plant training: These are 
organized by UNIDO in various sectors of industry and 
mostly in industrialized countries for the training of 
personnel and the acceleration of the flow of technical 
Icnow-how and skills from industrialized countries to 
developing countries. Participation in this activity is on a 
regional or interregional level and is open to all interested 
governments. 

Studies and Research 

Include, in particular, the compilation, analysis, publica- 
tion and dissemination of data concerning various aspects 
of industrialization, such as industrial technology, invest- 
ment, financing, production, management and planning. 


87 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON 
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 
Convened by UNIDO in November-December 1967, in 
Athens, Greece, in order to initiate a dialogue between 
developed and developing countries on all major issues of 
industrialization and to stimulate further international 


co-operation in this field. The main items on the agenda 
were: (i) a general survey of the recent evolution and 
characteristics of world industry, \vith emphasis on the 
developing countries, (2) a review of key industries, 

(3) policies and measures in developing countries, and 

(4) ways and means of international co-operation. 


UNIDO’S TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN 1970 


As a participating and executing agency in the United 
Nations Development Programme, UNIDO was respon- 
sible in 1970 for the execution of 52 long-term pre- 
investment projects financed from the Special Fund com- 
ponent of UNDP. In addition UNIDO was associated in 
the implementation of 10 projects executed by another 
Agency including ILO, FAO, UNESCO and the United 
Nations. The total value of the 52 projects executed by 
UNIDO was about S101.5 million, of which $39.8 million 
were in UNDP allocations and $61.7 million in counterpart 
contributions by recipient governments. These costs cover 
both the services of experts engaged on the projects and 
the training of their counterparts as well as equipment 
need for the project. 

The purpose of these projects which had a duration of 
three to five years is the establishment of industrial 
development and design centres, research and standards 
institutes, small industries and industrial estate and pilot 
plants in various fields of activity including metalworking, 
petrochemicals, fertilizers, asbestos, textiles, engineering 
and electrical industries. 

UNIDO’s participation in the Technical Assistance 
component of UNDP, which is devoted mainly to medium- 
term experts’ services and fellowships, was in 1970 in the 
order of S3.6 million. This amount represented the cost of 
207 fellowship posts and the services of 247 experts in all 
aspects of tte manufacturing industry, development, 
policies and productivity, small-scale industries, promotion 
of export orientated industries, standardization, repair and 
maintenance. Experts were also attached to governmental 
planning, development or financial institutions active in 
the industrial field. 

The Special Industrial Services programme provided as 
in previous years speedy short-term assistance in the 
rehabilitation of existing industries and the development 
of new ones, with about 300 new projects approved in 
1970. In terms of expenditures on the implementation of 
projects financed under the Programme, these amounted 
in 1970 to 54.0 million. 

Assistance provided under the programme was of the 
"trouble shooting’’ nature to solve technical and opera- 
tional problems of manufacturing enterprises, preparation 
and implementation of industrial projects and practical 
assistance at different stages in the preparation of new 
projects until financing is assured, among others. 

UNIDO’s Regular Programme with 1970 resources of 
?i.5 million is utilized for short-term assistance not 
exceeding one year. A major part of the programme was 
devoted to the financing of fellowship posts for training in 
industrialized countries. The remainder of the funds was 


used in financing experts engaged on field projects as well 
as a number of regional advisers attached to the Regional 
Economic Commissions in Africa, the Americas and Asia 
and the UN Economic and Social Office in Beirut. 

The Programme was also utilized to finance long-range 
country programming. The purpose of this exercise, which 
was initiated by UNIDO in 1969, is to assist developing 
countries to identify their technical assistance needs in 
industry for several years in advance, based on their omi 
development plans and priorities. 

The UNIDO General Trust Fund which is supported 
from voluntary' contributions by member states made 
annually at a pledging conference amounted in 1970 to 
$1.8 million. The Fund was utilized in supplementing 
UNIDO’s activities under other technical assistance 
programmes and initiating new ones in such fields as the 
establishment of physical units including foundries, work- 
shops, in-plant training and other technical meetings, 
industrial information and plant design and laboratory 
testing. 

In the field of training the number of individual fellow- 
ship posts established in 1970 under all UNIDO pro- 
grammes amounted to 590 posts, representing 3,035 man- 
months, in various fields of specialization. In addition, 
thirty programmes of group in-plant training programmes, 
seminars and symposia partly or wholly financed from 
UNDP/TA funds were organized in 1970 with 360 fellow- 
ship holders from developing countries. The majority of 
these programmes were in the metalworking, mechanical, 
te.xtilcs, pulp and paper, electrical, small-scale industries, 
and development financing. 


FINANCE 

Administrative and Research Budget: part of the regular 
budget of the UN; total (1970) U.S. $10,300,000. 

Operational Programmes; financed from voluntary con- 
tributions by governments, from the UNDP, and from the 
UN regular programme of technical assistance. 

Special industrial Services (SIS): financed from voluntary’ 
contributions, these services provide, at short notice, 
assistance to governments ivishing to rehabilitate existing 
industry or develop new industrial projects. 

PUBLICATIONS 

UNIDO Newsletter (monthly). 

Industrial Research and Development News (quarterly). 
Industrialization and Productivity Bulletin (biannual). 
Industrial Development Abstracts (monthly). 


88 



THE UNITED NATIONS— (Other Bodies) 


UNITED NATIONS CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT FUND 

United Nations, New York 

Established by the UN General Assembly in December 1966, the Capital Development Fund was due to begin 

operations in January 1968. 

ORGANIZATION 

Owing to initial lack of financial resources, it lias not yet been possible to give full effect to the institutional arrangement 

described below. 


EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Composed of tiventy-four representatives elected by the 
UN Genera] Assembly for a term of three years from among 
members of the UN or its related intergovernmental 
agencies. There is equitable representation of developed 
and developing countries. The Board exercises control of 
the policies and operations of the Capital Development 
Fund and is the final authority for the approval of grants 
and loans submitted to it by the Managing Director. The 
Board meets at least once a year. 

The functions of the Board will provisionally be per- 
formed by the Governing Gouncil of UNDP. 


MANAGING DIRECTOR 

Chief executive officer; exercises his functions under 
general direction of Executive Board; has overall responsi- 
bility for the operations of the Capital Fund; submits, 
with his recommendations, requests for grants and loans 
to Executive Board. Appointed by the UN Secretary- 
General for a period of four years. 

Managing Director: The Administrator of UNDP (fire 

fern.). 


FUNCTIONS 


.\ssists developing countries in tlie development of their 
economies by supplementing existing sources of capital 
assistance by means of grants and loans, particularly 
long-term loans made free of interest or at low rates of 
interest. 

Assistance is directed towards the achievement of tlie 
accelerated and self-sustained growth of the economies of 
those countries and is orientated towards the diversifica- 
Uon of their economies, with due regard to the need for 
industrial development as a basis for economic and social 
progress. 

Assistance is given to a Member Government of the UN 
or of its related intergovernmental organizations or to a 
group of such States or to an authorized entity within such 
a State. 

Assistance may be given to support general development 
plans or to meet general development requirements, and 
is not necessarily limited to specific projects. 

Assistance is co-ordinated with aid from other sources. 
Close liaison is maintained wth the Regional Economic 


Commissions, UNIDO, UNDP, the UN intergovernmental 
organizations and the regional development banks. 


FINANCE 

Administrative Activities: financed by the regular budget 
of the UN. 

Operational Activities: financed by voluntary contribu- 
tions, in cash or kind, from governments or other sources. 
The First Pledging Conference, held in October 1967, 
was attended by representatives of 64 countries. $1,292,267 
was pledged by governments of 21 developing countries. 
At the Second Pledging Conference, held in November 
1968, $1,315,334 was pledged by the governments of 31 
countries. $821,590 was pledged by the governments of 
26 countries at the Third Pledging Conference held in 
October 1969. 

At the Fourth Pledging Conference held in October 1970, 
the equivalent of $950.055 was pledged by the govern- 
ments of 27 developing countries. 


UNITED NATIONS MIDDLE EAST MISSION— -UNMEM 

P.O.B. 2324, Nicosia, Cyprus 

Established by the UN Security Council in November 1967 to form arid maintain contacts with the States con- 
cerned in the i9?7 ArabSeU conflet, in order to assist efforts to achieve a peaceful and acceptable settlement 
' in the area. 


ORGANIZATION 

Secrefary-Gcneral’s Special Representative: Gunnar V. 
Jarring (Sweden). 


89 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 


We the -peoples of the United Nations determined 
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, 
which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to 
mankind, and 

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the 
dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal 
rights of men and women and of nations large and small, 
and 

to establish conditions under which justice and respect 
for the obligations arising from treaties and other 
sources of international law can be maintained, and 
to promote social progress and better standards of life in 
larger freedom. 

And for these ends 

to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one 
another as good neighbours, and 

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and 
security, and 

to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the 
institution of methods, that armed force shall not be 
used, save in the common interest, and 
to employ international machinery for the promotion of 
the economic and social advancement of all peoples. 

Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims. 
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through 
representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, 
who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the 
United Nations and do hereby establish an international 
organization to be known as the United Nations. 

Chapter I 

PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES 
Article i 

The Purposes of the United Nations are; 

1. To maintain international peace and security, and to 
that end: to take effective collective measures for the 
prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the 
suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the 
peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in 
conformity with the principles of justice and international 
law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or 
situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; 

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on 
respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determin- 
ation of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures 
to strengthen universal peace; 

3. To achieve international co-operation in solving 
international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or 
humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging 
respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for 
all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; 
and 

4. To be a centre for harmonizing the accusations of 
nations in the attainment of these common ends. 

Article 2 

The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the 
Purposes stated in Article i, shall act in accordance with 
the following Principles. 

1. The Organization is based on the principle of the 
sovereign equality of all its Members. 

2. AU Members, in order to ensure to all of them the 


rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfil 
in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance 
with the present Charter. 

3. All Members shall settle their international disputes 
by peaceful means in such a manner that international 
peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. 

4. All Members shall retrain in their international 
relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial 
integrity or political independence of any state, or in any 
other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United 
Nations. 

5. All Members shall give the United Nations every 
assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the 
present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to 
any state against which the United Nations is taking 
preventive or enforcement action. 

6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are 
not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with 
these Principles so far as may be necessary for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security. 

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall 
authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which 
are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state 
or shall require the Members to submit such matters to 
settlement under the present Charter; but this principle 
shall not prejudice the application of enforcement mea- 
sures under Chapter VII. 

Chapter II 
MEMBERSHIP 

Article 3 

The original Members of the United Nations shall be the 
states which, having participated in the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, 
or having previously signed the Declaration by United 
Nations of January 1, 1942, sign the present Charter and 
ratify it in accordance wth Article no. 

Article 4 

1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other 
peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained 
in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the 
Organization, are able and willing to carry out these 
obligations. 

2. The admission of any such state to membership in 
the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the 
General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security 
Council. 

Article 5 

A Member of the United Nations against which pre- 
ventive or enforcement action has been taken by the 
Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of 
the rights and privileges of membership by the General 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Securit 
Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may b 
restored by the Security Council. 

Article 6 

A Jlember of the United Nations which has persistent!; 
violated the Principles contained in the present Charte 
may be expelled from the Organization by the Genera 
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Securit 
Council. 


90 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Chapter III 

ORGANS 

Article 7 

1. There are established as the principal organs of the 
United Nations; a General Assembly, a Security Council, 
an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, 
an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat. 

2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary 
may be established in accordance with the present Charter. 

Article 8 

The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the 
eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity 
and under conditions of equity in its principal and 
subsidiary organs. 

Chapter IV 

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Composition 

Article 9 

1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members 
of the United Nations. 

2. Each Member shall have not more than five repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly. 

Functions and Powers 

Article lo 

The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any 
matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating 
to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in 
the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article i2, 
may make recommendations to the Members of the United 
Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such 
questions or matters. 

Article II 

1. The General Assembly may consider the general 
principles of co-operation in the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security, including the principles 
governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, 
and may make recommendations \vith regard to such 
principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to 
both. 

2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions 
relating to the maintenance of international peace and 
security brought before it by any Member of the United 
Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is 
not a Member of the United Nations in accordance mth 
Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 
12, may make recommendations wdth regard to any such 
question to the state or states concerned or to the Securit}’ 
Council or to both. Any such question on which action is 
necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the 
General Assembly either before or after discussion. 

3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the 
Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger 
mtemational peace and security. 

4; The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this 
Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10. 

Article 12 

1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of 
any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the 
present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any 
recommendations with regard to that dispute or situation 
unless the Security Council so requests. 

2. "nie Secretary-General, with the consent of the 
Security Council, shall notify the General ^sembly at 
^ch session of any matters relative to the maintenance of 
mtemational peace and security which are being dealt with 


by the Security Council and shall similarly notify the 
General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations 
if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the 
Security Council ceases to deal with such matters. 

Article 13 

1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make 
recommendations for the purpose of: 

(a) promoting international co-operation in the political 
field and encouraging the progressive development 
of international law and its codification; 

(b) promoting international co-operation in the economic, 
social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and 
assisting in the realization of human rights and 
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as 
to race, sex, language, or religion. 

2. The further responsibilities, functions and pow'ers of 
the General Assembly with respect to matters mentioned 
in paragraph i (b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X. 

Article 14 

Subject to the provision of Article 12, the General 
Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful 
adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it 
deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly 
relations among nations, including situations resulting 
from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter 
setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United 
Nations. 

Article 15 

X. The General Assembly shall receive and consider 
annual and special reports from the Security Council; 
these reports shall include an account of the measures that 
the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain 
international peace and security. 

2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider 
reports from the other organs of the United Nations. 

Article 16 

The General Assembly shall perform such functions wth 
respect to the international trusteeship system as are 
assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the 
approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not 
designated as strategic. 

Article 17 

1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the 
the budget of the Organization. 

2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by 
the Members as apportioned by the General .\ssembly. 

3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve 
any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized 
agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the 
administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a 
view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned. 

Voting 

Article 18 

1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have 
one vote. 

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important 
questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the 
members present and voting. These questions shall include: 
recommendations with respect to the maintenance of 
international peace and security, the election of the non- 
permanent members of the Security Council, the election 
of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the 
election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accord- 
ance with paragraph i(c) of Article 86 the admission of 
new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the 
rights and privileges of membership,, the expulsion of 
Members, questions relating to the operation of the 
trusteeship system, and budgetary questions. 


91 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


3, Decisions on other questions, including the determin- 
ation of additional categories of questions to be decided 
by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of 
the members present and voting. 

Article 19 

A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in 
the payment of its financial contributions to the Organ- 
ization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the 
amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the 
contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. 
The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a 
Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is 
due to conditions beyond the control of the Member. 

Procedure 

Article 20 

The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual 
sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require. 
Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary- 
General at the request of the Security Council or of a 
majority of the Members of the United Nations. 

Article 21 

The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of 
procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. 

Article 22 

The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary 
organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its 
functions. 

Chapter V 

THE SECURITY COUNCIL 

Composition 

Article 23 

1. The Security Council shall consist of eleven Members 
of the United Nations. The Republic of China. France, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United 
States of America shall be permanent members of the 
Security Council The General Assembly shall elect six 
other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent 
members of the Security Council, due regard being specially 
paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members 
of the United Nations to the maintenance of international 
peace and security and to the other purposes of the 
Organization, and also to equitable geographical distri- 
bution. 

2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council 
shall be elected for a term of two years In the first election 
of the non-permanent members, however, three shall be 
chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not 
be eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
representative. 

Functions and Powers 

Article 24 

1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the 
United Nations, its Members confer on the Security 
Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of 
international peace and security, and agree that in carrying 
out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council 
acts on their behalf. 

2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall 
act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the 
United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security 
Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in 
Chapters VI. VH, VIII. and XII. 


3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when 
necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its 
consideration. 

Article 25 

The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and 
carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance 
with the present Charter. 

Article 26 

In order to promote the establishment and maintenance 
of international peace and security with the least diversion 
for armaments of the world's human and economic 
resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for 
formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff 
Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted 
to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment 
of a system for the regulation of armaments. 

Voting 

Article 27 

1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one 
vote. 

2. Decisions of the Security CouncD on procedural 
matters shall be made by an afiirmative vote of seven 
members. 

3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters 
shall be made by an affirmative vote of seven members 
including the concurring votes of the permanent members; 
provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under 
paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain 
from voting. 

Procedure 

A rticle 28 

1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to he 
able to function continuously. Each member of the Security 
Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at 
the Seat of the Organization. 

2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at 
which each of its members may, if it so desires, be repre- 
sented by a member of the government or by some other 
specially designated representative. 

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such 
places other than the seat of the Organization as in its 
judgment will best facilitate its work. 

Article 29 

The Security Council may establish such subsidiary 
organs as it deems necessary' for the performance of its 
functions. 

Article 30 

The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure, including the method of selecting its President. 

Article 31 

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a 
member of the Security Council may participate, without 
vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the 
Security Council whenever the latter considers that the 
interests of that Member are specially aficcted. 

Article 32 

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a 
member of the Security Council or any state which is not 
a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute 
under consideration by the Security Council, shall be 
invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion 
relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay 
down such conditions as it deems just for the participation 
of a state tvhich is not a Member of the United Nations. 


92 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Chapter VI 

PACIFIC SETTLEMEOT OF DISPUTES 
Article 33 

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which 
is likely to endanger the maintenance of international 
peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by 
negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, 
judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrange- 
ments, or other peaceful means of their own choice. 

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, 
call upon the parties to settle their disputes by such means. 

Article 34 

The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or 
any situation which might lead to international friction or 
give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the 
continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger 
the maintenance of international peace and security. 

Article 35 

1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any 
dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in 
Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of 
the General Assembly. 

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations 
may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of 
the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if 
it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the 
obligations of pacific settlement promded in the present 
Charter. 

3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect 
of matters brought to its attention under this Article will 
be subject to the provisions of Articles n and 12. 

Article 36 

1. The Security Council may. at any stage of a dispute 
of the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of 
like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods 
of adjustment. 

2. The Security Council should take into consideration 
any procedures for the settlement of the dispute which 
have already been adopted by the parties. 

3 - In making recommendations under this Article the 
Security Council should also take into consideration that 
legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the 
parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance 
with the provisions of the Statute of the Court. 

Article 37 

1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred 
to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in 
that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council. 

2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance 
of the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance 
of mtemational peace and security, it shall decide whether 
to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such 
terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. 

Article 38 

Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, 
the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute 
so request, make recommendations to the parties with a 
view to a pacific settlement of the dispute. 

Chapter VII 

action with RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE 
PEACE. BREACHES OF THE PEACE, 

AND acts of AGGRESSION 
Article 39 

The Security Council shall determine the existence of 
threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act ot 


aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide 
what measures shall be taken in accordance wth Articles 
41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and 
security. 

Article 40 

In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the 
Security Council may, before making the recommendations 
or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, 
call upon the parties concerned to comply with such 
provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. 
Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the 
rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The 
Security Council shall duly take account of failure to 
comply with such provisional measures. 

Article 41 

The Security Council may decide what measures not 
involving the use of armed force are to be employed to 
give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the 
Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. 
These may include complete or partial interruption of 
economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, 
radio, and other means of communication, and the severance 
of diplomatic relations. 

Article 42 

Should the Security Council consider that measures 
provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have 
proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, 
sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or 
restore international peace and security. Such action may 
include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations 
by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations. 

Article 43 

1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to 
contribute to the maintenance of international peace and 
security, undertake to make available to the Security 
Council, on its call and in accordance with a special 
agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and 
facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the 
purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the 
numbers and types of forces, their degree of readiness and 
general location, and the nature of the facilities and 
assistance to be provided. 

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as 
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. 
They shall be concluded between the Security Council and 
Members or between the Security Council and groups of 
Members and shall be subject to ratification by the 
signatory states in accordance with their respective 
constitutional processes. 

Article 44 

When the Security Council has decided to use force it 
shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it 
to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations 
assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the 
Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the 
Security Council concerning the employment of contingents 
of that Member’s armed forces. 

Article 45 

In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent 
military measures. Members shall hold immediately 
available national air-force contingents for combined 
international enforcement action. The strength and degree 
of readiness of these contingents and plans for their 
combined action shall be determined, within the limits 
laid down in the special agreement and agreements referred 
to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance 
of the Milita^ Staff Committee. 


93 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 46 

Plans for the application of armed force shall be made 
by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military 
Staff Committee. 

Article 47 

1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee 
to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions 
relating to the Security Council’s military requirements for 
the maintenance of international peace and security, the 
employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, 
the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament. 

2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the 
Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Securitj' 
Council or their representatives. Any Member of the 
United Nations not permanently represented on the 
Committee shall be invited by the Committee to be 
associated with it when the efficient discharge of the 
Committee’s responsibilities requires the participation of 
that Member in its work. 

3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible 
under the Security Council for the strategic direction of 
any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security 
Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces 
shall be worked out subsequently. 

4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization 
of the Security Council and after consultation with 
appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional sub- 
committees. 

Article 48 

1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the 
Security Council for the maintenance of international 
peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the 
United Nations or by some of them, as the Security 
Council may determine. 

2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members 
of the United Nations directly and through their action in 
the appropriate international agencies of which they are 
members. 

Article 49 

The Members of the United Nations shall join in 
affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures 
decided upon by the Security Council. 

Article 50 

I f preventive or enforcement measures against any state 
are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether 
a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself 
confronted mth special economic problems arising from 
the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to 
consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of 
those problems. 

Article 51 

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent 
right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed 
attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, 
until the Security Council has taken measures necessary 
to maintain international peace and security. Measures 
taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence 
shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and 
shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility 
of the Security Council under the present Charter to take 
at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to 
maintain or restore international peace and security. 

Chapter VIII 

REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 

Article 52 

I. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence 
of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such 
matters relating to the maintenance of international peace 


and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided 
that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are 
consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United 
Nations. 

2. The Members of the United Nations entering into 
such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make 
every eSort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes 
through such regional agencies before referring them to 
the Security Council. 

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development 
of pacific settlement of local disputes through such 
regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either 
on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference 
from the Security Council. 

4. This Article in no way impairs the application of 
Articles 34 and 35. 

Article 53 

1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize 
such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement 
action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall 
be taken under regional arrangements or by regional 
agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, 
w'ith the exception of measures against any enemy state, 
as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for 
pursuant to Article 1 07 or in regional arrangements directed 
against renewal of agressive policy on the part of any such 
state, until such time as the Organization may, on request 
of the Governments concerned, be charged with the 
responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a 
state. 

2. ’The term enemy state as used in paragraph i of this 
Article applies to any state which during the Second World 
War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present 
Charter. 

Article 54 

The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully 
informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation 
under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for 
the maintenance of international peace and security. 


Chapter IX 

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL 
CO-OPERATION . 

Article 55 

With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and 
well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly 
relations among nations based on respect for the principle 
of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the 
United Nations shall promote: 

(a) higher standards of living, full employment, and 
conditions of economic and social progress and 
development; 

(b) solutions of international economic, social, healtli, 
and related problems; and international cultural and 
educational co-operation; and 

(c) universal respect for, and observance of, human 
rights and fundamental freedoms for all without 
distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. 

Article 56 

All Members pledge themselves to take joint and 
separate action in co-operation with the Organization for 
the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55. 

Article 57 

1. The various specialized agencies, established by 
intergovernmental agreement and having wide inter- 
national responsibilities, as defined in their basic instru- 
ments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health. 


94 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with 
the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 63. 

2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship wth 
the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized 
agencies. 

Article 58 

The Organization shall make recommendations for the 
co-ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized 
agencies. 

Article 59 

The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate 
negotiations among the states concerned for the creation 
of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplish- 
ment of the purposes set forth in Article 55. 

Article 60 

Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the 
Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the 
General Assembly and, under the authority of the General 
Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall 
have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X. 

Chapter X 

THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL 
Composition 

Article 61 

_ 1. The Econorruc and Social Council shall consist of 
eighteen hlembers of the United Nations elected by the 
General Assembly. 

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, six members 
of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each 
year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be 
eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. At the first election, eighteen members of the 
Economic and Social Council shall be chosen. The term of 
ofiice of six members so chosen shall expire at the end of 
one year, and of six other members at the end of two years, 
in accordance with arrangements made by the General 
Assembly. 

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one representative. 

Functions and Powers 

Article 62 

1. The Economic and Social Council may make or 
initiate studies and reports with respect to intemationm 
economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related 
matters and may make recommendations ^vith respect to 
any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members 
of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies 
concerned. 

2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of 

promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights 
and fundamental freedoms for all. . . 

3- It may prepare draft conventions for submission to 

the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling 
'vithin its competence. ., - 

4- It may call, in accordance with the rules presenbea 
by the United Nations, international conferences on 
matters falling within its competence. 

Article 63 

!• The Economic and Social Council may epter m to 
agreements with any of the agencies referred to in ^rttcie 
57. defining the terms on which the agency concerned snmi 
he brought into relationship with the United Nataoiw. u 
agreements shall be subject to approval by the General 
Assembly. 


2. It may co-ordinate the activities of the specialized 
agencies through consultation with and recommendations 
to such agencies and through recommendations to the 
General Assembly and to the Members of the United 
Nations. 

Article 64 

1. The Economic and Social Council may take appro- 
priate steps to obtain regular reports from the speci^zed 
agencies. It may make arrangements with the Members of 
the United Nations and with specialized agencies to obtain 
reports on the steps taken to give effect to its own recom- 
mendations and to recommendations on matters falling 
within its competence made by the General Assembly. 

2. It may communicate its observations on these reports 

to the General AssemblJ^ ^ 


Article 65 

The Economic and Social Council may furnish infor- 
mation to the Security Council and shall assist the Security'- 
Council upon its request. ' 

Article 66 ' 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall^rfqra such 

functions as fall within its competence in wnneefibn^with 
the carrying out of the recommendation^j^f th'e'General 
Assembly. nf Vsl' f' 

2. It may, with the approval of the GMeral Assembly, 
perform services at the request of Memters'of the United 
Nations and at the request of specialized agencies. 

3. It shall perform such other funcBbns'^ are specified 

elsewhere in the present Charter or M'majr be^assigned to 
it by the General Assembly. j! [is. \ 

/ j I j 

Voting ^ ■■ 

Article 67 

1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one vote. 

2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall 
be made by a majority of the members present and voting. 


Procedure 

Article 68 

The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions 
in economic and social fields and for the promotion of 
human rights, and such other commissions as may be 
required for the performance of its functions. 

Article 69 

The Economic and Social Council shall invite any 
Member of the United Nations to participate, without 
vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular 
concern to that Member. 

Article 70 

The Economic and Social Council may make arrange- 
ments for representatives of the specialized agencies to 
participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those 
of the commiuions established by it, and for its represent- 
atives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized 
agencies. 

Article 71 

The Economic and Social Council may make suitable 
arrangements for consultation with non-governmental 
organizations which are concerned with matters within its 
competence. Such arrangements may be made with 
international organizations and, where appropriate, with 
national organizations after consultation ivith the Member 
of the United Nations concerned. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Ariicle 72 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its onm 
rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its 
President. 

2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as 
required in accordance with its rules, which shall include 
provision for the convening of meetings on the request of 
a majority of its members. 

Chapter XI 

NON-SELF-GO\rERNING TERRITORIES 
Article 73 

Members of the United Nations which have or assume 
responsibilities for the administration of territories whose 
peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-govern- 
ment recognize the principle that the interests of the 
inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept 
as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, 
within the system of international peace and security 
established by the present Charter, the well-being of the 
inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end: 

(a) to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the 
peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, 
and educational advancement, their just treatment, 
and their protection against abuses; 

(b) to develop self-government, to take due account of 
the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist 
them in the progressive development of their free 
political institutions, according to the particular 
circumstances of each territory and its peoples and 
their varying stages of advancement; 

(c) to further international peace and security; 

(d) to promote constructive measures of development, 
to encourage research, and to co-operate with one 
another and, when and where appropriate, with 
specialized international bodies with a view to the 
practical achievement of the social, economic, and 
scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and 

(e) to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for 
information purposes, subject to such limitations as 
security and constitutional considerations may 
require, statistical and other information of a 
technical nature relating to economic, social, and 
educational conditions in the territories for which 
they are respectively responsible other than those 
territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply. 

Ariicle 74 

Members of the United Nations also agree that their 
policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter 
applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, 
must be based on the general principles of good-neighbour- 
liness, due account being taken of the interests and well- 
being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and 
commercial matters. 

Chapter XII 

INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM 
Article 75 

The United Nations shall establish under its authority 
an international trusteeship system for the administration 
and supervision of such territories as may be placed there- 
under by subsequent individual agreements. These 
territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories. 

Article 76 

The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in 
accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid 
down in Article i of the present Charter, shall be: 

(a) to further international peace and security; 


(b) to promote the political, economic,' social, and 
educational advancement of the inhabitants of the 
trust territories, and their progressive development 
towards self-government or independence as may be 
appropriate to the particular circumstances of each 
territory and its peoples and the freely expressed 
wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be 
provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement; 

(c) to encourage respect for human rights and for 
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as 
to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage 
recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of 
the world; and 

(d) to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and 
commercial matters for all Members of the United 
Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment 
for the latter in the administration of justice, with- 
out prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing 
objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80. 

Ariicle 77 

1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories 
in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by 
means of trusteeship agreements: 

(a) territories now held under mandate; 

(b) territories which may be detached from enemy 
states as a result of the Second World War; and 

(c) territories voluntarily placed under the system by 
states responsible for their administration. 

2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to 
which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought 
under the trusteeship system and upon what terms. 

Artiele 78 

The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories 
which have become Members of the United Nations, 
relationship among which shall be based on respect for 
the principle of sovereign equality. 

Article 79 

The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed 
under the trusteeship system, including any alteration of 
amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly 
concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of 
territories held under mandate by a Member of the United 
Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 
83 and 85. 

Article 80 

1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trustee- 
ship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, 
placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and 
until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in 
this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any 
manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples 
or the terms of existing international instruments to which 
Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties. 

2. Paragraph i of this Article shall not be interpreted 
as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the 
negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing 
mandated and other territories under the trusteeship 
system as provided for in Article 77. 

Article 8r 

The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the 
terms under which the trust territory will be administered 
and designate the authority which will exercise the 
administration of the trust territory. Such authority, 
hereinafter called the administering authority, may be 
one or more states or the Organization itself. 


96 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Article 82 

There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, 
a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the 
trust territory to which the agreement applies, without 
prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made 
under Article 43. 

Article 83 

1. All functions of the United Nations relating to 
strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the 
trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amend- 
ment, shall be exercised by the Security Council. 

2. The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be 
applicable to the people of each strategic area. 

3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions 
of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to 
security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the 
Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the 
United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to 
political, economic, social, and educational matters in the 
strategic areas. 

Article 84 

It shall be the duty of the administering authority to 
ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the 
maintenance of international peace and security. To this 
end the administering authority may make use of volunteer 
forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territorj’ in 
carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council 
undertaken in tliis regard by the administering authority, 
as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and 
order within the trust territory. 

Article 85 

1. The_ functions of the United Nations with regard to 
tmsteeship agreements for all areas not designated as 
stmtegic, including the approval of the terms of the trustee- 
ship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall 
he exercised by the General Assembly. 

2. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the 
authority of the General Assembly, shall assist the General 
Assembly in carrying out these functions. 


Chapter XIII 

THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 
Composition 


Article 86 

1. The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following 
Members of the United Nations: 

Members administering trust territories; 

(b) such of those Members mentioned by name in 
Article 23 as are not administering trust territones; 
and 


(c) as many other Members elected for three-year terms 
by the General Assembly as may be necessary to 
ensure that the total number of members of the 
Trusteeship Council is equally divided between 
those Members of the United Nations which admin- 
ister trust territories and those which do not. 

2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall 
ther^^^^ one specially qualified person to represent it 


^'‘nctions and Powers 

Article 87 

The General Assembly and, under its authority, the 
^steeship Council, in carrjdng out their functions, may. 
W consider reports submitted by the administering 
authority; 

i ) UMept petitions and examine them in consultation 
"uth the administering authority; 


(c) provide for periodic visits to the respective trust 
territories at times agreed upon with the admin- 
istering authority; and 

(d) take these and other actions in conformity with the 
terms of the trusteeship agreements. 

Article 88 

The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire 
on the political, economic, social, and educational advance- 
ment of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the 
administering authority for each trust territory within the 
competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual 
report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such 
questionnaire. 

Voting 

Article 89 

1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have 
one vote. 

2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made 
by a majority of the members present and voting. 

Procedure 

Article 90 

1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of 
procedure, including the method ol selecting its President. 

2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in 
accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for 
the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of 
its members. 

Article 91 

The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, a\'ail 
itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council 
and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with 
which they are respectively concerned. 

Chatter XIV 

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 

Article 92 

The International Court of Justice shall be the principal 
judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in 
accordance wdth the annexed Statute, which is based upon 
the Statute of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter. 

Article 93 

1. All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto 
parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justices 

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations 
may become a party to the Statute of the International 
Court of Justice on condition to be determined in each case 
by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the 
Security Council. 

Article 94 

1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to 
comply with the decision of the International Court of 
Justice in any case to which it is a party. 

2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations 
incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the 
Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security 
Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recom- 
mendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give 
effect to the judgement. 


Article 95 

Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members 
of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their 
differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements 
already in existence or which may be concluded in the 
future. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


Ariiole 96 

1. The General Assembly or the Security ConncU may 
request the International Court of Justice to give an 
advisory opinion on any legal question. 

2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized 
agencies, which may at any time be so authorized by the 
General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of 
the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of 
their activities. 

Chapter XV 
THE SECRETARIAT 

Article 97 

The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and 
such staff as the Organization may require. The Secretary- 
General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon 
the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be 
the chief administrative officer of the Organization. 

Article 98 

The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all 
meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, 
of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship 
Council, and shall perform such other functions as are 
entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General 
shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on 
the work of the Organization. 

Article 99 

The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the 
Security Council any matter which in his opinion may 
threaten the maintenance of international peace and 
security. 

Article 100 

1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary- 
General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions 
from any government or from any other authority external 
to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action 
which might reflect on their position as international 
officials responsible only to the Organization. 

2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to 
respect the exclusively international character of the 
responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and 
not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their 
responsibilities. 

Article loi 

1. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General 
under regulations established by the General Assembly. 

2. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned to 
the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, 
and, as required, to other organs of the United Nations. 
These staffs shall form a part of the Secretariat. 

3. The paramount consideration in the employment of 
the staff and in the determination of the conditions of 
service shall be the necessity of securing the highest 
standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due 
regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the 
staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible. 

Chapter XVT 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 

Article 102 

I. Every treaty and every international agreement 
entered into by any Member of the United Nations after 
the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible 
be registered with the Secretariat and published by it. 


2. No party to any such treaty or international agree- 
ment which has not been registered in accordance \vith the 
provisions of paragraph i of this Article may. invoke that 
treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations. 

Article 103 

In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the 
Members of the United Nations under the present Charter 
and their obligations under any other international agree- 
ment, their obligations under the present Charter shall 
prevriil. 

Article 104 

The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of 
its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for 
the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of its 
purposes. 

Article 105 

1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each 
of its Members such privileges and immunities as are 
necessary for the fulfillment of its purposes. 

2. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations 
and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy SLCh 
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the indepen- 
dent exercise of their functions in coimection with the 
Organization. 

3. The General Assembly may make recommendations 
with a view to determining the details of the application 
of paragraphs i and 2 of this Article or may propose 
conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this 
purpose. 

Chapter XVII 

TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS 

Article 106 

Pending the coming into force of such special agreements 
referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security 
Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities 
under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration 
signed at Moscow, October 30, 1943, and France, shall, in 
accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that 
Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion 
requires with other Members of the United Nations with a 
view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as 
may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining inter- 
national peace and security. 

Article 107 

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or 
preclude action, in relation to any state which during the 
Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to 
the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that 
war by the Governments having responsibility for such 
action. 

Chapter XVTII 
AMENDMENTS 

Article 108 

Amendments to the present Charter shall come into 
force for all Members of the United Nations when they 
have been adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members 
of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with 
their respective constitutional processes by two-thirds of 
the Members of the United Nations, including all the 
permanent members of the Security Council. 

Article log 

X. A General Conference of the Members of the United 
Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter 
may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds 


98 



THE UNITED NATIONS 


vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a 
vote of any seven members of the Security Council. Each 
Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the 
conference. 

2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended 
by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect 
when ratified in accordance with their respective constitu- 
tional processes by two-thirds of the Members of the United 
Nations including all the permanent members of the 
Security Council. 

3. If such a conference has not been held before the 
tenth annual session of the General Assembly follo\ving 
the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal 
to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of 
that session of the General Assembly, and the conference 
shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the 
members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any 
seven members of the Security Council. 

Chapter XIX 

RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE 
Article no 

1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory 
states in accordance with their respective constitutional 
processes. 

2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Govera- 
tnent of the United States of America, which shall notify 


all the signatory states of each deposit as well as the 
Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been 
appointed. 

3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the 
deposit of ratifications by the Republic of China, France, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the 
United States of America, and by a majority of the other 
signatory states. A protocol of the ratifications deposited 
shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the 
United States of America which shall communicate copies 
thereof to all the signatory states. 

4. The states signatory to the present Charter which 
ratify it after it has come into force will become original 
Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit 
of their respective ratifications. 

Article in 

The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, 
Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, 
shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government 
of the United States of America. Duly certified copies 
thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the 
Governments of the other signatory states. 

In faith whereof the representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United Nations have signed the present 
Charter. 

Done at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day 
of June, one thousand nine hundred and fortj'-five. 


AMENDMENTS 


The following amendments to Articles 23, 27 and 61 of the 
Charter came into force in August 1965. 

Article 23 

1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members 
of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the 
United Stotes of America shall be permanent members of 
the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten 
other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent 
members of the Security Council, due regard being 
socially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of 
Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of 
international peace and security and to the other purposes 
of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical 

distribution. 

, Tho non-permanent members of the Security Council 
snail be elected for a term of two years. In the first election 
of the non-permanent members after the increase of the 
membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, 
wo of the tour additional members shall be chosen foi" ^ 
term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible 
or immediate re-election. 

3 - Each member of the Security Council shall have one 

representative. 

Article i-j 

Each member of the Security Council shall have one 

2 - Decisions of the Security Council on procedural 
atters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine 
members. 

Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters 
90 made by an affirmative vote of nine members 
oiuding the concurring votes of the permanent members. 


provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and nnder 
paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain 
from voting. 

Article 61 

1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of 
twenty-seven Members of the United Nations elected by 
the General Assembly. 

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, nine 
members of the Economic and Social Council shall be 
elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring 
member shall be eligible for immediate re-election. 

3. At the first election after the increase in the member- 
ship of the Economic and Social Council from eighteen to 
twenty-seven members, in addition to the members 
elected in place of the six members whose term of office 
expires at the end of that year, nine additional members 
shall be elected. Of these nine additional members, the 
term of office of three members so elected shall expire at 
the end of one year, and of three other members at the end 
of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by 
the General Assembly. 

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council 
shall have one representative. 

The following amendment to Paragraph i of Article 109 
of the Charter came into force in June 1968. 

Article 109 

I. A General Conference of the Members of the United 
Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter 
may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds 
vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a 
vote of any nine members of the Security Council. Each 
Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the 
conference. 


99 



AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK-AfDB 

B.P. 1387, Abidjan, Ivory Coast 

Established September 1964 under the aegis of the UN Economic Commission for Africa, the Bank began operations 

in July 1966. 

MEbIBERS 

Total Membership: 31 African countries. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Composed of one representative from each member state. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Consists of nine members; responsible for the general 
operations of the Bank. 

President and Chairman of Board of Directors: Abdel- 
WAHAB Labidi (Tunisia). 

Vice-Presidents: Sheikh M. A. Alamoody (Kenya), Louis 
Negre (Mali), Ola Vincent (Nigeria). 


FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 

The initial authorized capital stock of the Bank, con- 
sisting of 250,000 shares, is equivalent to $250 million. It 
is to be subscribed solely by African countries. Half of the 
capital stock will be paid-up, the other half remains 
callable. Each member must subscribe equally to both 
paid-up shares and callable shares. The paid-up capital 
stock was to be paid in gold or convertible currency in six 
instalments over a period of five years, ending March 1969. 

At December 31st, 1968, the equivalent of $217.8 
million had been subscribed, of which $65.3 million had 
been paid in by May 31st, 1970. 


AIMS AND 

The Bank seeks to contribute to the economic and social 
development of members either individually or jointly. 
To this end, it aims to promote investment of public and 
private capital in Africa, to use its normal capital resources 
to make or guarantee loans and investments, and to pro- 
vide technical assistance in the preparation, financing and 
implementation of development projects. The Bank may 
grant direct or indirect credits; it may operate alone or in 
concert with other financial institutions. 

A Pre-Investment Unit has been established within the 
Bank. For the purpose of identification, evaluation and 
preparation of projects in member countries the UNDP is 
to provide $2.7 million and the Bank $2.2 million over a 


Country 

Subscriptions 
(million U.S. $) 

Algeria . 





24-5 

Burundi 

, , 




1.2 

Cameroon 





4.0 

Chad . 





1.6 

Congo (Brazzaville) . 




1-5 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 



13.0 

Dahomey 





1.4 

Ethiopia 





10.3 

Ghana . 





12.8 

Guinea . 





2.5 

Ivory Coast 





6.0 

Kenya . 





6.0 

Liberia . 





2.6 

Malawi . 





2.0 

Mali 





2.3 

Mauritania 





1. 1 

Jlorocco 





15.1 

Niger 





1.6 

Nigeria . 





24.1 

Rwanda 





1.2 

Senegal . 





5-5 

Sierra Leone 





2.1 

Somalia . 





2.2 

Sudan . 





10, 1 

Tanzania 





6.3 

Togo 





I.O 

Tunisia . 





6.9 

Uganda . 





4.6 

United Arab Republic 




30.0 

Upper Volta 





1-3 

Zambia . 

• 




13-0 

Total . 




217.8 


ACTIVITIES 

five-year period. A co-ordinating committee for the iden- 
tification of multinational projects in the field of power, 
transport and telecommunications has been established 
with EGA, IBRD and UNDP under the chairmanship of 
the African Development Bank. The Bank has entered into 
an agreement of co-operation with FAO and UNESCO and 
it is now in the process of establishing formal working 
relationship and co-operation with other .specialized 
agencies of the United Nations. It is one of the executing 
agencies for UNDP projects in Africa. 

In order to increase its capital resources and raise money 
for lending at concessionary terms, the Bank has promoted 
the establishment of an African Development Fund, a 


100 


AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 


special fund ^vithin the meaning of its Agreement. Con- 
tributions to the proposed fund are open to industrialized 
countries. From the contacts already made, very promising 
reactions have been received. 

Together with a number of private banks, AfDB is 
promoting the International Financial Corporation for 
Investment and Development in Africa (SocidtiS inter- 
nationale financifere pour les investissemcnts et le ddveloppe- 
ment en Afrique — SIFIDA), registered in Luxembourg in 
July 1970, with a capital of S12.5 million. 

Other activities of the Bank are in the field of co- 
operation wth national finance institutions, by joint 


financing of projects, equity participation in national 
finance institutions by the Bank, joint financing and 
appraisal of projects and the granting of technical assistance. 

The Bank is participating in a study regarding possible 
economic co-operation between Ghana and its neighbours, 
the Entente States {see chapter on Conseil de TEntente), 
which would assist the promotion of trade between the 
six countries and also facilitate the establishment of larger 
industries which for their economic viability need a large 
market. 

In association with UN, the Bank has also undertaken a 
survey on tourism in fourteen west African countries. 


LOANS 


Date 

Country 

Purpose 

Amount 




(million U.S. ?) 

April 1967 

Kenya 

Improvement of two international 



highways 

2.3 

June 1968 . 

Tunisia 

Medjerda Valley irrigation scheme 

2-75 

July igfiS . 

Sierra Leone 

Investment in Sierra Reone National 


Development Bank 

0.12 

Sept. 1968 

Uganda 

Water supply and sewerage schemes 

0.23 

July 1969 . 

Liberia 

Foreign exchange costs of 15 MW gas | 



turbine for Monrovia electric power 
system 

1-35 



East African Development 

Participation in equity capital 



Bank 

I.O 



Line of credit 

2.0 

1969 

Sierra Leone 

To Guma Valley Water Co. to in- 


Malawi 

crease water supply capacity 
Electricity Supply Commission pro- 

1-5 



^lorocco 

ject 

Construction of high frequency power 

3-0 


transmission and telecommunica- 
tions lines 

2.8 



Mali 

Upper Volta 

Construction of textile plant 

Line of Credit to National Develop- 

0-54 


ment Bank of Upper Volta 

2.0 


PRINCIPAL EVENTS 


1961 


Feasibility studies on the sitting up of a 
regional development bank by multi- 
national panel of experts. 

1962 


UN Economic Commission for Africa sets 
up Special Committee of nine member states 
to begin making arrangements to form 
Bank. 

1963 

Aug. 

Conference of African Finance Ministers 
approves formation agreements. 

1964 

Sept. 

Formation agreement comes into force, 65 
per cent of authorized capital stock sub- 
scribed. 


Nov. 

Inaugural meeting of Board of Governors, 


1964 

Nov. 

Lagos. Officials elected, Abidjan chosen as 
headquarters. 

1966 

July 

Second annual meeting of Board of Gover- 
nors. 

1967 

Aug. 

Topographical and soil survey on section of 
proposed TanZam railway commissioned. 
Third annual meeting of Board of Governors, 
Abidjan. 


Oct. 

Co-operative programme agreed with FAO. 

1968 

Aug. 

Fourth annual meeting of Board of Gover- 
nors, Nairobi. 

1969 

June 

Co-operation agreed with UNESCO. 


Aug. 

Fifth meeting of Board of Governors, 
Freetown. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Annual Report. 
Quarterly Statements. 


101 


ANZUS TREATY 


The Security Treaty (ANZUS Pact) was signed in San Francisco in 1951 to co-ordinate defence as the first step 
to a more comprehensive system of regional security in the Pacific. This system was developed further in 1954 

with the formation of SEATO. 


MEMBERS 

Australia New Zealand U.S.A. 


ORGANIZATION 


ANZUS COUNCIL 

The ANZUS Council consists of the Foreign Ministers (or 
their Deputies) of the three signatory powers, and can 
meet at any time. 

There is no permanent staff, and costs are home by the 
Government in whose territory the meeting is held. The 
instruments of ratification are deposited with the Govern- 
ment of Australia, Canberra. 


MEETINGS OF 

San Francisco, 1951. 

Honolulu, August 1952. 

Washington, September 1953. 

Geneva, May 1954. 

Washington, June 1954. 

Washington, October 1954. 

Washington, September 1955. 

Washington, November 1956. 

Washington, October 1957. 

Washington, October 1958. 

Washin^on, October 1959- 


MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES 

Each of the signatories nominates a Military Representa- 
tive accredited to the Council. 

The functions of the Military Representatives are to 
advise the Council on problems of military co-operation in 
the Pacific. They attend the annual Council meetings, and 
also meet periodically as required by circumstances. There 
is no fixed venue for meetings of the Military Representa- 
tives. 

ANZUS COUNCIL 

Canberra, May 1962. 

Wellington, June 1963. 

Washington, July 1964. 

Washington, June 1965. 

Canberra, June 1966. 

Washington, April 1967. 

Wellington, April 1968. 

Washington, October 1968. 

Canberra, August 1969. 

New York, September 1970. 


SECURITY TREATY 

{Betwsen Australia, New Zealand and the U.S.A.) 


The parties to this treaty: 

reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of 
the UN Charter and their desire to live in peace with all 
peoples and Governments, and desiring to strengthen the 
fabric of peace in the Pacific area; 

noting that the United States already has arrangements 
pursuant to which its armed forces are stationed in tte 
Philippines, and has armed forces and administrative 
responsibilities in the Ryukyus, and upon the coming into 
force of the Japanese peace treaty may also station armed 
forces in and about Japan to assist in the preservation 
of peace and security in the Japan area; 

recognizing that Australia and New Zealand, as members 
of the British Commonwealth of Nations, have military 
obligations outside as well as within the Pacific area; 

desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of 
unity, so that no potential aggressor could be under the 
illusion that any of them stand alone in the Pacific area; 
and 

desiring further to co-ordinate their efforts for collective 
defence for the preservation of peace and security pending 


the development of a more comprehensive system of 
regional security in the Pacific area; 

declare and agree as follows; 

Article i 

The parties undertake, in conformity with the UN 
Charter, to settle by peaceful means any international dis- 
putes in which they might be involved, and to refrain in 
their international relations from the use of force in any 
manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United 
Nations. 

Article 2 

In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of 
the treaty, the parties will maintain and develop their 
individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack 
"by means of continuous self-help and mutual aid". 

Article 3 

The parties will consult together when, in the opinion 
of any one of them, the territorial integrity, political 
independence, or security of any one of them is threatened 
in the Pacific. 


102 



ANZUS TREATY 


Article 4 

"Each party recognizes that an armed attack in the 
Pacific area on any of the other parties would be dangerous 
to its own peace and safety, and declares that it \\^1 act 
to meet the common danger in accordance with its consti- 
tutional processes.” Any such attack, and all measures 
taken as a result of such attack rvill be reported to the 
UN Security Council. Such measures will be terminated 
when the Security Council has taken the necessary 
steps to restore and maintain international peace and 
security. 

Article 5 

For the purpose of Article 4, an armed attack on any of 
the three countries will be deemed to include "an armed 
attack on the metropolitan territory of any of the parties, 
or on the island territories undei its jurisdiction in the 
Pacific, or on its armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft 
in the Pacific”. 

Article 6 

The treaty will not affect the rights and obligations of 
the three countries under the UN Charter, or the responsi- 
bility of the United Nations for the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. 

Article 7 

The three countries will establish a Council, consisting 
of their Foreign Ministers or deputies, to consider matters 


concerning the implementation of the treaty. The Council 
will be organized as to be able to meet at any time. 

Article 8 

Pending the development of a more comprehensive 
regional security system in the Pacific, and the develop- 
ment by the UN of more effective means to maintain 
international peace and security, the Council established 
under Article 7 will maintain a consultative relationship 
with States, regional organizations, associations of States, 
and other authorities in the Pacific area which are in a 
position to further the purpose of the treaty and contribute 
to the security of the area. 

Article 9 

The Treaty is to be ratified by the parties in accordance 
with their respective constitutional processes. The instru- 
ments of ratification are to be deposited with the 
Australian Government. 

Article 10 

The Treaty is to remain in force indefinitely. Any party 
may cease to be a member of the Council established by 
Article 7 one year after notice has been given to the 
Government of Australia, which will inform the Govern- 
ments of the other parties. 


103 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 

Midan Ai Tahrir, Cairo, U.A.R. 

The Leagu e of Arab States is a voluntary association of sovereign Arab states designed to strengthen the close 
ties linking them and to co-ordinate their policies and activities and direct them towards the common good of all 

the Arab countries. 


Algeria 

Iraq 

Jordan 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 


MEMBERS 

Libya 
Morocco 
Saudi Arabia 
Southern Yemen 
Sudan 


Syrian Arab Republic 
Tunisia 

United Arab Republic 
Yemen 



ORGANIZATION 


THE COUNCIL 

The supreme organ of the Arab League. Meets in March 
and September. Consists of representatives of the fourteen 
member states, each of which has one vote, 'and a representa- 
tive for Palestine. 

PERMANENT COMMITTEES 
There are ten Permanent Committees for Political, 
Cultural, Economical, Social, Military, Legal Affairs, 
Information, Health, Communications and Arab Human 
Rights. 


SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: AIurammad Abdel-Khalek Hassouna 
(U.A.R.). 

Assistant Secretaries-General: Dr. S. Nopal (U.A.R.), Aref 
Zaher (Iraq), Assad El Assad (Lebanon), Selim El 
Yapi (Syria). 

Military Assistant Secretary: Gen. Muhamed Sadig 
(U.A.R.). 

Economic Assistant Secretary: Aref Zaher (Iraq). 


104 




THE ARAB LEAGUE 


The Secretariat has departments of Economic, Political, 
Legal, Cultural, Social and Labour affairs, and for Petro- 
leum, Finance, Palestine, Health, Press and Information, 
Secretariat, Communications, and Protocol. 

ECONOMIC COUNCIL 

Established in 1950; first meeting 1953: composed of the 
Ministers of Economic Affairs or their representatives. 

COUNCIL OF ARAB ECONOMIC UNITY 

In June 1957 th^ Economic Council approved a Con- 
vention for Economic Unity; the Economic Unity Agree- 
ment has been signed by Jordan {1962), Syria {1962), 
U.A.R. {1962), Kuwait {1962), Morocco (1962), Iraq {1963), 
Yemen (1963) and Sudan (1968). It has been ratified by 
Kuwait (1962), U.A.R. {1963), S3Tia {1964), Iraq (1964), 
Jordan (1964), Yemen (1967) and Sudan {1969). After 
ratification by five members a Council of Arab Economic 
Unity was set up in June 1964: the aims of the Arab 
Economic Unity Agreement include removal of internal 
tariffs, establishing common external tariffs, freedom of 
movement of labour and capital, and adoption of common 
economic policies; Sec.-Gen. Abdel Muneim el Banna 
(see below: text of Arab Economic Unity Agreement, and 
further details). 

In August 1964 U.A.R., Iraq, Kuwait, Syria and Jordan 
ratified a resolution establishing the Common Market of 
Arab States, to operate from January ist, 1965. Kuwait’s 
National Assembly voted against implementation of the 
agreement in July 1965. 

SPECIALIZED AGENCY 

Arab Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization: 

Cairo; proposed by Charter of Arab Cultural Unity, 
Baghdad 1964; aims to promote the ideals of Arab Cultural 
Unity (see below) and particularly to establish specialized 
institutes propagating Arab ideals and preparing research 
workers specializing in Arab civilization. 

Director-General: Dr. Abdel-Aziz El Saved. 

An Arab League Permanent Delegation has been estab- 
lished at UNESCO, and may act on behalf of Arab states 
not having delegates at UNESCO. 

Each member state submits an annual report on progress 
in education, cultural matters, and science. 

First session of General Conference was held in Cairo, 
July-August 1970. 

The Organization includes; 

Arab Regional Literacy Organization: Cairo. 

Institute of Arab Research and Studies: Cairo. 

Institute of Arabic Manuscripts. 

Pfirmanent Bureau for Co-ordination of Arabization in the 
Arab World: Rabat. 

Museum of Arab Culture: Cairo. 

OTHER BODIES 

Joint Defence Council: Established in 1950 to implement 
loint defence; consists of the Foreign Ministers and Defence 
Ministers, or their representatives. 

Pormanent Military Commission: Established 195°: com- 
posed of representatives of army General Staffs; main 
purpose; to draw up plans of joint defence for submission 

0 the Joint Defence Council. 


Arab States Broadcasting Union: Cairo. 

Federation of Arab Nows Agencies: Beirut; f. 1965; this 
Federation will work on the establishment of an Arab 
Central News Agency. 

Arab Financial Institution for Economic Development: 

A resolution was passed in 1957 establish an Arab 
Development Bank; U.A.R., Yemen, Saudi vri-abia, Jordan, 
Lebanon, Libya, Iraq and Kuwait signed the resolution; 
capital f20 million in gold; Kuwait has declared she will 
contribute a further fE 5 million. 

Arab Postal Union: 28 Adly Street, Cairo, U.A.R.; f. 
1954; Aims: to establish more strict postal relations 
between the Arab countries than those laid down by the 
Universal Postal Union, to pursue the development and 
modernization of postal services in member countries; 
Dir. Dr. Anouar Bakir. Pubis. Bulletin (monthly). 
Review (quarterly). News (annual) and occasional studies. 

Arab Telecommunications Union: 83 Ramses Street, 
Cairo, U.A.R.; f. 1958; to co-ordinate and develop tele- 
communications between member countries; to exchange 
technical aid and encourge research. Mems.: Arab League 
countries; Pres. Mahmoud Muhammad Riad. 

Permanent Commission for the Problems of the Arab Gulf 
Emirates: Established in 1965 to assist the economic 
development of the Gulf states; Chair. Khaled Al Badr. 

Arab Labour Organization: Arab League Building, 
Midan Al Tahrir, Cairo; established in 1965 for co- 
operation between member states in labour problems; 
unification of labour legislation and general conditions 
of work wherever possible; research; technical assist- 
ance; social insurance; training, etc.; Dir. of Social and 
Labour Affairs of the Arab League Dr. Abdel-Wahhab 
El-Aschmaoui. 

Palestine Liberation Organization: Amman; f. 1964; 
this organization is separate from the Arab League, which 
provides it tvith funds and support; Chair. Yasir 
Araeat; Chief of Staff Palestine Liberation Army Col. 
Osman Haddad. 

Arab Board for the Diversion of the Jordan River: Cairo; 
f. 1964 to co-ordinate engineering aspects of diverting the 
headwaters of the River Jordan, to deprive Israel of water; 
main projects include the Mukhaiba Dam on the River 
.Yarmuk (Jordan), to be linked by tunnel to the East Ghor 
Irrigation Scheme, and to serve as a storage dam for wateff 
diverted from rivers farther north (Litani, Hasbani, 
Wazzani and Banias); the activities of the Board have been 
interrupted by the Arab-Israeli hostilities. 

Arab Unified Military Command: Cairo; f. 1964 to co- 
ordinate military policies with regard to the liberation of 
Palestine. 

Arab Organization for Standardization and Metrology 
(ASMO): II Mohamed Marashly St., Zamalek, P.O.B. 690, 
Cairo, U.A.R.; f. 1968 to assist in the establishment of 
national standardization and metrology bodies in the Arab 
States, co-ordinate and unify specifications and standards; 
to unify technical terms and symbols, methods of testing, 
analysis, measurements, calibration and quality control 
systems; and to co-ordinate Arab activities in these areas 
with corresponding international efforts. Mems.; Algeria, 
Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Saudi 
Arabia, Sudan, Syria, U.A.R. Sec.-Gen. Dr. Mahmoud 


105 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


Mohamad Salama (U.A.R.). Pnbls. Annual Report (in 
French and English), Standardization and Metrology (in 
Arabic), reports, recommendations and information 
pamphlets. 

Arab Council for Civil Aviation: lo El Kil St., Cairo; 
f. 1967 to control and co-ordinate the technical aspects of 
aviation between member countries. 

Arab Air Carriers’ Organization (AACO) : 707 South Bloc, 
STARCO, rue George Picot, Lebanon; f. 1965 to co- 
ordinate and promote co-operation in the activities of 
Arab airline companies; Pres. (1970-71) Gen. Zouheir 
Akeel; Sec.-Gen. Salim A. Salaam. 

Arab Union of Automobile Clubs and Tourist Societies: 

8 Kasr El Nil St., Cairo; f. 1965. 

Arab Engineering Union: 81 Ramses St., Cairo; co- 
operates with the Arab League in matters concerning the 
engineering profes.sion; holds a conference on scientific 
engineering studies every two years. 

Arab Cities Organization: P.O.B. 4954, Kuwait; f. 1967; 
deals ivith the scientific, cultural and social aspects of town 
development, planning, administration, etc.; bolds con- 
ferences every two years — next Conference Tunis, summer 
1971; the main Arab Town Councils are members; 44 were 
represented at the First Conference in Beirut; Dir. Tales 
Al-Taher. 

Arab Organization for Administrative Sciences: 8 

Salaheldin St., Cairo; f. 1969 to develop administrative 
sciences and improve administrative machinery and 


financial affairs related to administration; Pres. Dr. 
Hassan Tewfik. 

Administrative Tribunal of the Arab League: Cairo; 
f, 1964; began operations 1966. 

SPECIAL BUREAUX 

Bureau for Boycotting Israel, Damascus; Commissionei- 
General Muhammad Mahgoub. 

Pan-Arab Organization for Social Defence against 
Crime: Arab League Bldg., Midan A 1 Tahrir, Cairo; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr. Abdel-Wahhab El-Aschmaoui. 

The International Arab Bureau for Narcotics: Cairo; 
Dir.-Gen. Gen. Ahmad Amen Alhadiqah (U.A.R). 

The international Arab Bureau for Defence against 
Crime: Baghdad; Dir.-Gen. Amer Al-Moktar 
(Iraq). 

The International Arab Bureau for Police dealing with 

Crime: Damascus; Dir.-Gen. Ashek Eldeery 
(Syria). 

Arab Students Hostel, for women, Cairo. 

SPECIAL INSTITUTE 
Library, Cairo. 

Information Offices: New York (with branches at 
Washington, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas), Geneva, 
Bonn, Rio de Janeiro, London, New Delhi, Rome, Ottawa, 
Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Paris, Dakar and Nairobi. OflSces are 
planned in Addis Ababa, Ankara, Lagos, Copenhagen dan 
Madrid. 


BUDGET 


CONTRIBUTIONS (%) 


(1970) 


U.A.R 

• 23-73 

Tunisia 

• 4-67 

Kuwait 

• 15-50 

Sudan 

. 4. XI 

Saudi Arabia 

- 12-47 

I.ebanon 

- 3-85 

Iraq 

. IS. 00 

Jordan 

- 1-93 

Morocco 

. 7.00 

Libya 

- 4-24 

Syria 

Algeria 

4.00 

. 6.00 

Yemen 

. 0.50 


100.00 


EXPENDITURE 1969-70 





General Secretariat 

673.358 

2,677,258 

Institute of Arab Research 


and Studies . 

68,456 

17.500 

Pan-Arab Organization for 
Social Defence against 
Crime .... 

18,920 

65,246 

Permanent Bureau for Co- 
ordination of Arabization 
in the Arab World . 

108,700 

Total 

760,734 

2.868,704 


THE ARAB LEAGUE 


1945 

1946 
1950 

195s 

1953 


1953 

1954 

1956 

1957 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 


1961 


1962 


RECORD OF EVENTS 


Pact of the Arab League signed, March. 

Cultural Treaty signed. 

Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty. 

Agreements on extradition, 171113 and letters of 
request, nationality of Arabs outside their 
country of origin. 

Formation of Arab Telecommunications and 
Kadio Communications Union. 

Agreements for facilitating trade between Arab 
countries. 

Founding of Institute of Advanced Arab Studies, 
Cairo. 

Convention on the privileges and immunities of 
the League. 

First Conference of Arab Education Ministers, 
Cairo, December. 

Formation of Arab Postal Union. 

Nationality Agreement. 

Agreement on the adoption of a Common Tariff 
Nomenclature. Establishment of the Arab 
Potassium Company. 

Agreement on the creation of Arab Financial 
Institution for Economic Development, June. 

Cultural Agreement with UNESCO signed, 
November. 

Co-operation Agreement between the Arab 
League and the International Labour Organisa- 
tion. 

First Arab Oil Congress, Cairo, April. 

• Inauguration of new Arab League HQ at Midan 
A1 Tahrir, Cairo, March. 

Second Arab Petroleum Congress, Beirut, October. 
Co-operation Agreement between the Arab 
League and the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the UN. 

Agreement to establish a Universal Arab Airline. 
Third Arab Petroleum Congress, Alexandria. 
Kuwait joins League. 

Arab League force sent to Kuwait. 

Syrian Arab Republic rejoins League as indepen- 
dent member. 

Agreement on the establishment of the Arab 
Organization for Administrative Sciences. 
Agreement with WHO on exchange of medical 
infonnation. May. 

Agreement to establish economic unity 
below: sections on Council of Arab Economic 
Unity and on Arab Economic Unity Agreemen }. 
Couneff Meeting at Shtoura, Lebanon in Au^^ 
to hear Syrian complaints against the U. . 


U.A.R. announced intention of leaving Arab 
League. 

Council Meeting re-convened at Cairo in Septem- 
ber to reappoint Secretary-General. Boycotted by 
U.A.R. 


1963 Arab League decides to withdraw troops from 
Kuwait, leaving only token force, January- 
February. 

U.A.R. resumes active membership of League, 
March. 

Agreement to establish an Arab Navigation 
Company, December. 

Agreement on establishment of an Arab Organiza- 
tion on Social Defence against Crime. 

Fourth Arab Petroleum Congress, Beirut, 
November. 

196,^ Cairo conference of Arab leaders on the exploita- 
tion by Israel of the Jordan waters, January. 
Second Conference of Arab Education Ministers, 
Baghdad, February. 

First session of the Council of Arab Information 
Ministers, Cairo, March. 

Arab Common Market approved by Arab Econo- 
mic Unity Council, August. 

Second meeting on Jordan waters, September. 
First Conference of Arab Ministers of Com- 
munications, Beirut, November. 

1965 Arab Common Market established, January. 

Emergency meeting on German recognition of 
Israel, March. 

Fifth Arab Petroleum Congress, Cairo, March. 


Second session of the Council of Arab Information 
Ministers, Amman, April. 

Third Meeting on Jordan waters. May. Tunisia 
absent. 

Casablanca Conference of Arab leaders, Septem- 
ber. Tunisia absent. 

Establishment of Arab Air Carriers’ Organization. 
Agreement on Arab Co-operation for the Peaceful 
Uses of Atomic Energy. 

Establishment of Arab Union of Automobile 
Clubs and Tourist Societies, October. 


Third Session of the Council of Arab Information 
Ministers, Damascus, February. 

Cairo Conference of Arab leaders, March. Tnnisia 
absent. 

Cairo Conference of Arab leaders, June. 

Cairo Conference of Arab Foreign Ministers, 
September. Tunisia absent. 

First session of Arab League Administrative 
Court, September. 


107 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


1967 Fourth session of the Council of Arab Information 
OfiScers, February, 

Sixth Arab Petroleum Congress, Baghdad, March, 
Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Kuwait, June, 
Cairo meeting of Heads of State of Algeria, Iraq. 
Sudan, Syria, U.A,R,, July, 

Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Khartoum, 
August. Topics discussed included Arab oil em- 
bargo against U.S.A. and U.K., and preparations 
for a meeting of Arab leaders. 

Conference of Arab leaders in Khartoum, August. 
It was decided to resume oil supplies to the West. 
Syria absent. 

Extraordinary Session of the Council of Arab 
Information hlinisters, Bizerta, September. 
Meeting of Arab Economic Ministers, Algiers, 
November. 

Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Cairo, 
December. 

Establishment of Civil Aviation Council for Arab 
States. 

Agreement to establish an Arab Tanker Company, 
December. 

1968 First Conference of Arab Tourist Ministers, 
Cairo, February. 

Third Conference of Arab Education Ministers, 
Kuwait, February. 

Meeting of Arab Foreign Ministers, Cairo, Sep- 
tember. Tunisia absent. 

Establishment of an Arab Fund for Economic and 
Social Development. 


1969 Permanent Council of Co-operation Experts 
established to promote co-operative movement in 
Arab States, January. 

First Session of the Arab States Broadcasting 
Union (ASBU), lOiartoum, February. 

Fifth session of the Council of Arab Information 
Ministers, Cairo, February. 

Emergency meeting of Foreign Ministers, Cairo, 
August. Planned response to the A 1 Aqsa mosque 
fire and called for an Islamic Summit Conference 
to be held in September. 

1969 Meeting of Joint Defence Council, November. 
Discussed acceleration of military mobilization 
against Israel. 

Summit Meeting held in Rabat, December. Heads 
of State unable to agree on the question of 
member states' commitments to a joint military 
contingency plan. 

Establishment of the Industrial Development 
Centre for the Arab States. 

First Conference of Arab Health Ministers, Cairo. 

1970 Sixth session of the Council of Arab Information 
Ministers, Cairo, January. 

Establishment of the Arab Organization for 
Agricultural Development. 

Establishment of the Arab Educational, Cultural 
and Scientific Organization. 

Seventh Arab Petroleum Congress, Kuwait, 
March. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Daily and fortnightly Bulletin (Arabic and English). 

New York Office; Arab World (monthly), and News and 
Views. 

Geneva Office: Le Monde Arabe (monthly), and Noiwclles 
du Monde Arabe (weekly). 

Buenos Aires Office; Arabia Review (monthly). 


Rie de Janeiro Office: Orients Arabe (monthly). 

Rome Office: Rassegna del Mondo A rabo- {monthly). 
London Office: The Arab (monthly). 

New Delhi Office: At Arab (monthly). 

Bonn Office: Arabische Korrespondenz (fortnightly). 
Ottawa Office: Spotlight on the Arab World (fortnightly); 
The Arab Case (monthly). 


108 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


THE PACT OF THE LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES 

(March 22nd, 1945) 


Article i 

The League of Arab States is composed of the indepen- 
dent Arab States which have signed this Pact. 

Any independent Arab state has the right to become a 
member of the League. If it desires to do so, it shall submit 
a request which will be deposited with the Permanent 
Secretariat-General and submitted to the Council at the 
first meeting held after submission of the request. 

Article 2 

The League has as its purpose the strengthening of the 
relations between the member states; the co-ordination of 
their policies in order to achieve co-operation between 
them and to safeguard their independence and sovereignty; 
and a general concern with the aSairs and interests of the 
Arab countries. It has also as its purpose the close co- 
operation of the member states, with due regard to the 
organization and circumstances of each state, on the 
following matters: 

{a) Economic and financial affairs, including commercial 
relations, customs, currency, and questions of agri- 
culture and industry. 

(fi) Communications: this includes railways, roads, avia- 
tion, navigation, telegraphs and posts. 

(e) Cultural affairs. 

(d) Nationality, passports, visas, execution of judgments, 
and extradition of criminals. 

(e) Social affairs. 

(f) Health problems. 

Article 3 

The League shall possess a (Council composed of the 
representatives of the member states of the League; each 
shall have a single vote, irrespective of the number 
of its representatives. 

It shall be the task of the Council to achieve the realiza- 
tion of the objectives of the League and to supervise the 
execution of agreements which the member states have 
concluded on the questions enumerated in the preceding 
article, or on any other questions. 

It likewise shall be the Council's task to decide upon the 
jneans by which the League is to co-operate with the 
international bodies to bo created in the future in order to 
guarantee security and peace and regulate economic and 
social relations. 

Article 4 

For each of the questions listed in Article 2 there shall 
, set up a special committee in which the member states 
h 11 ^ugue shall be represented. These committees 
Shall be charged with the task of laying down the prin- 
®pies and extent of co-operation. Such principles shall bo 
ormulated as draft agreements, to be presented to the 
, huncil for examination preparatory to their submission 
10 the aforesaid states. 

Eepresentatives of the other Arab countries may take 
ih the work of the aforesaid committees. The Council 
s aU determine the conditions under which these repre- 
sentatives may be permitted to participate and the rules 
governing such representation. 

Article 5 

I resort to force in order to resolve disputes arising 
euveen tivo or more member states of the League is 


prohibited. If there should arise among them a difference 
which does not concern a state’s independence, sovereignty, 
or territorial integrity, and if the parties to the dispute 
have recourse to the Council lor the settlement of this 
difference, the decision of the Council shall then bo 
enforceable and obligatory. 

In such a case, the states between whom the difference 
has arisen shall not participate in the deliberations and 
decisions of the Council. 

The Council shall mediate in all differences which 
threaten to lead to war between two member states, or a 
member state and a third state, with a view to bringing 
about their reconciliation. 

Decisions of arbitration and mediation shall be taken by 
majority vote. 

Article 6 

In case of agression or threat of aggression by one state 
against a member state, the state which has been attacked 
or threatened with aggression may demand the immediate 
convocation of the Council. 

The Council shall by unanimous decision determine the 
measures necessary to repulse the aggression. If the 
aggressor is a member state, his vote shall not be counted 
in determining unanimity. 

If, as a result of the attack, the government of the State 
attacked finds itself unable to communicate with the 
Council, that state’s representative in the Council shall 
have the right to request the convocation of the Council 
for the purpose indicated in the foregoing paragraph. In 
the event that this representative is unable to communicate 
with the Council, any member state of the League shall 
have the right to request the convocation of the Council. 

Article 7 

Unanimous decisions of the Council shall be binding 
upon all member states of the League; majority decisions 
shall be binding only upon those states which have 
accepted them. 

In either case the decisions of the Council shall be en- 
forced in each member state according to its respective 
basic laws. 

Article 8 

Each member state shall respect the systems of govern- 
ment established in the other member states and regard 
them as exclusive concerns of those states. Each shall 
pledge to abstain from any action calculated to change 
established systems of government. 

Article 9 

States of the League which desire to establish closer 
co-operation and stronger bonds than are provided by this 
Pact may conclude agreements to that end. 

Treaties and agreements already concluded or to bo 
concluded in the future between a member state and 
another state shall not bo binding or restrictive upon other 
members. 

Aiiicle 10 

The permanent seat of the League of Arab States is 
established in Cairo. The Council may, however, assemble 
at anj’ other place it may designate. 


109 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


Article ii 

The Council of the League shall convene in ordinary 
session twice a year, in March and in September. It shall 
convene in extraordinary session upon the request of two 
member states of the League whenever the need arises. 

Article 12 

The League shall have a permanent Secretariat-General 
which sh^l consist of a Secretary-General, Assistant 
Secretaries, and an appropriate number of officials. 

The Council of the League shall appoint the Secretary- 
General by a majority of two-thirds of the states of the 
League. The Secretary-General, with the approval of the 
Council shall appoint the Assistant Secretaries and the 
principal oflScials of the League. 

The Council of the League shall establish an adminis- 
trative regulation for the functions of the Secretariat- 
General and naatters relating to the Staff. 

The Secretary-General shall have the rank of Ambas- 
sador and the Assistant Secretaries that of Ministers 
Plenipotentiary. 

The first Secretary-General of the League is named in an 
Annex to this Pact. 

Article 13 

The Secretary-General shall prepare the draft of tlie 
budget of the League and shall submit it to the Council 
for approval before the beginning of each fiscal year. 

The Council shall fix the share of the expenses to be 
borne by each state of the League. This share may be 
reconsidered if necessary. 

Article 14 

The members of the Council of the League eis well as the 
members of the committees and the ofiicials who are to_bo 
designated in the administrative regulation shall enjoy 
diplomatic privileges and immunity when engaged in the 
exercise of their functions. 

The building occupied by the organs of the League shall 
be inviolable. 

Article 15 

The first meeting of the Council shall be convened at the 
invitation of the head of the Eg5q)tian Government. 
Thereafter it shall be convened at the invitation of the 
Secretary-General. 

The representatives of the member states of the I-eagoe 
shall alternately assume the presidency of the Council at 
each of its ordinary sessions. 

Article 16 

Except in cases specifically indicated in this Pact, a 
majority vote of the Council shall be sufiicient to make 
enforceable decisions on the following matters: 

(o) Matters relating to personnel. 

(6) Adoption of the budget of the League. 

(e) Establishment of the adnunistrative regulations for 
the Council, the Committees, and the Secretariat- 
General. 

)(J) Decisions to adjourn the sessions. 

Article 17 

Each member state of the League shall deposit with the 
Secretariat-General one copy of every treaty or agreement 
concluded or to be concluded in the future betvveen itself 
and another member state of the League or a third state. 


Article 18 

If a member state contemplates withdrawal from the 
League, it shall inform the Council of its intention one 
year before such withdrawal is to go into effect. 

The Council of the League may consider any state which 
fails to fulfil its obligations under this Pact as having 
become separated from the League, this to go into effect 
upon a unanimous decision of the states, not counting the 
state concerned. 


Article ig 

This Pact may be amended with the consent of two- 
thirds of the states belonging to the League, especially in 
order to make firmer and stronger ties between the member 
states, to create an Arab Tribunal of Arbitration, and to 
regulate the relations of the League rvith any international 
bodies to be created in the future to guarantee security and 
peace. 

Final action on an amendment cannot be taken prior to 
the session following the session in which the motion was 
initiated. 

If a state does not accept such an amendment it may 
withdraw at such time as the amendment goes into eff^t, 
without being bound by the provisions of the preceding 
article. 

Article 20 

This Pact and its Annexes shall be ratified according to 
the basic laws in force among the High Contracting Parties. 

The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with 
the Secretariat-General of the Council and the Pact shall 
become operative as regards each ratifying state fifteen 
days after the Secretary-General has received the in- 
struments of ratification from four states. 

This Pact has been drawn up in Cairo in the Arabic 
language on this 8th day of Rabi’ II, thirteen hundred and 
sixty-four (March 22nd, 1945), in one copy which shall be 
deposited in the safe keeping of the Secretariat-General. 

An identical copy shall be delivered to each state of the 
League. 

Annex Regarding Palestine 

Since the termination of the last great war the rule of 
the Ottoman Empire over the Arab countries, among them 
Palestine, which had become detached from that Empire, 
has come to an end. She has come to be autonomous, not 
subordinate to any other state. 

The Treaty of Lausanne proclaimed that her future was 
to be settled by the parties concerned. 

However, even though she was as yet unable to control 
her own affairs, the Covenant of the League (of Nations) 
in 1919 made provision for a regime based upon recognition 
of her independence. ' 

Her international existence and independence in the 
legal sense cannot, therefore, be questioned, any more than 
could the independence of the other Arab countries. 

Although the outward manifestations of this indepen- 
dence have remained obscured for reasons beyond her 
control, this should not be allowed to interfere with her 
participation in the work of the Council of tho Ixagac. 

The states signatory to the Pact of tho Arab League axe 
therefore of the opinion that, considering the special 
circumstances of Palestine and until that Country can 
effectively exercise its independence, the Council of the 
League should take charge of the selection of an Arab 
representative from Palestine to take part in its work. 


110 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


Annex Regarding Co-operation with Countries which are not 
Members of the Council of tho League 

Whereas the member states of tho League will have to 
deal in the Council as well as in the committees with 
matters which will benefit and affect the Arab world at 
large; 

And whereas the Council has to take into account the 
aspirations of the Arab countries which are not members 
of the Council and has to work toward their realization; 


Now therefore, it particularly behoves the states sig- 
natory to the Pact of the Arab League to enjoin the 
Council of the League, when considering the admission of 
those countries to participation in the committees referred 
to in the Pact, that it should do its utmost to co-operate 
with them, and furthermore, that it should spare no effort 
to learn their needs and understand their aspirations and 
hopes; and that it should work thenceforth for their best 
interests and the safeguarding of their future with all the 
political means at its disposal. 


SUMMARY OF CHARTER OF ARAB CULTURAL UNITY 

The Charter of Arab Cultural Unity supersedes the Cultural Treaty of 1945. 

It was dra\vn up in Baghdad on February 29th, 1964. 

PREAMBLE 

Concerning the common basis of the cultural and intellectual heritage of the Arab States and the value of co-operation in 
education, culture and science to the insurance of Arab human rights and the building and advancement of human 

civilization. 


Article i. The aims of education in bringing up a genera- 
tion in Arab ideals. 

Article 2. Agreement between Jlcmber States for co- 
operation and exchange of personnel, organization of 
conferences and co-ordination of activities in educational 
and technical matters. 

Article 3. Agreement to develop and merge the Cultural 
department, Institutes of Arabic hlanuscripts and the 
Institute of Higher Arabic Studies to be included in frame- 
work of Arab League and to be called The Arab Educa- 
tional, Cultural and Scientific Organization. 

Article 4. On standardization of education methods and 
^alifications, teacher training and administration of 
educational institutes. 

5. On co-ordination in higher education; aim to 
establish a federation of Arab Universities. 

Article 6. On co-operation in the endeavour to make 
^ma^ education compulsory and improve secondary 

Article 7. On exchange of specializations. 

Article 8. On the endeavour to bring up the younger 
generation adherent to religious principles. 

Article 9. On promoting the education of women. 

10. Arabic to be the common language of in- 
rruction wherever possible. 

Article II. On the endeavour to spread knowledge of all 
®pects of the Arab countries among member states. 

.drtic/e 12. On the production of a "master book” as 
^n reference book for education in Arab history, etc. 

13. On the spiritual, national, professional and 
leatific basis for the education of teachers. 

Article 14. On the establishment of a teachers’ association. 

revival, safeguarding and dissemination 
slamic Arab culture, language and script. 


Article 16. On translation of ancient and foreign books, 
and encouragement of intellectual production. 

Article 17. On the unification of scientific and civilization 
terms to assist Arabization. 

Article 18. On the establishment of a council for Aca- 
demics. 

Article 19. On the endeavour to improve relations 
between public libraries, museums and art galleries, and 
on archaeological co-operation. 

Article so. On co-operation in the arts and mass media. 

Article 21. On co-operation to issue special literary, 
scientific and artistic copyright laws for Arab League 
Countries. 

Article 22. On the establishment of a publication registra- 
tion centre in each country; bibliographical information 
to be sent to the Arab Educational, Cultural and Scientific 
Organization. 

Article 23. On regulations governing the exchange of 
professors, teachers and experts. 

Article 24. On the interchange of pupils and students and 
interim agreements on the equality of certificates ponding 
implementation of Article 4. 

Article 25. On general co-operation. 

Article 26. On encouraging travel for cultural, scouting, 
and sporting purposes in the Arab countries. 

Article 27. On bringing closer together and unifying 
where possible separate legislative trends; and on intro- 
ducing comparative legal studies of Arab countries in 
schools and universities. 

Article 28. On co-operation in the co-ordinating of efforts 
internationally and especially with UNESCO. 

Articles 29-32. On procedures for ratification, member- 
ship of non-Arab League countries, and method of with- 
drawal. 


Ill 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


ARAB ECONOMIC UNITY AGREEMENT 

The Economic Unity Agreement between the member states of the Arab League was draw up in Cairo on June 6th, 1962, 
and subsequently came into effect on April 30th, 1964. The Agreement was signed in 1962 by Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, 
Syria and U.A.R., in 1963 by Iraq and Yemen, and in 1968 by Sudan. It has been ratified by Kuwait (1962), U.A.R. (1963), 
Iraq, Jordan and Syria {1964), Yemen (1967) and Sudan (1969). The Unity Council held its first meeting in Cairo on 

June 3rd, 1964. 

The Agreement is summarized below. 


OBJECTS 


Preamble 

The Governments of the member-states of the Arab 
League, desirous of organizing between them and unifying 
their relations on bases accommodating to the natural 
and historical ties between them, and for the purpose of 
creating the best conditions for the growth of their economy, 
for promoting their riches, and for ensuring the prosperity 
of their peoples, have agreed on creating a complete 
unity between them, to be achieved gradually with the 
maximum possible speed ensuring the transition to the 
desired situation without causing harm to their essential 
interests. 

Article 1 

The main objective of the Agreement is to attain 
complete Arab Economic Unity. The Arab State will thus 


have a unified, integrated, proportionate Arab economy 
guided by one single economic policy for all the component 
parts. The member-states and their nationals are guaran- 
teed equality in the following: 

(i) Freedom of movement of persons and capital. 

{2) Freedom of exchange of domestic and foreign 
goods and products. 

(3) Freedom of residence, work, employment, and 
exercise of economic activities. 

(4) Freedom of transport and transit and of using means 
of transport, ports and civil airports. 

(5) Rights of ownership, of making one’s ivill, and of 
inheritance. 


METHODS 


Article 1 

The Arab states are required to work for accomplishing 
he following: 

(1) The Arab states should be made one customs zone 
subject to a single administration. Customs tariffs, 
legislations, and regulations applied in these states should 
be standardized. This is to be achieved by gradual abolition 
of customs duties between the Arab states for ensuring 
the exchange of Arab-made goods and the eventual 
removal of duties altogether. In addition customs duties 
should be adjusted between the Arab states so as to 
arrive at standard rates in respect of the outside world. 
In this way, the Arab states would be converted into one 
market where both home-produced and imported goods 
could move without being subject to any duties other 
than those imposed in respect of the outside world. 

(2) The Arab states should work for standardizing their 
import-export policies and all relevant regulations. It is a 
prerequisite for the creation of one Arab market to have 
import-export policies and regulations unified and co- 
ordinated. 

(3) Standardizing transport and transit systems. As 
the means of transport wll enjoy freedom of movement 
between all parts of the Arab homeland, they should 
necessarily become subject to standard regulations. 

(4) Trade agreements and payments a^eements with 
outside countries are to be concluded collectively by the 
Arab states. The creation of one Arab market makes it 
necessary to have such agreements concluded jointly. 
Relations with the outside world will be unified. 

{5) Policies related to agriculture, indust^ and internal 
tr.ade should be co-ordinated. Economic legislation should 
be standardized in a manner ensuring equal terms to all 


nationals of the contracting countries in respect of work in 
agriculture, industry, or any other calling. The co- 
ordination of these policies and legislations is an inevitable 
sequence to the creation of the United Arab Market where 
Arab nationals are to be guaranteed the right of taking up 
any profession or any economic activity anywhere in the 
Arab ■world. 

(6) Steps should be taken to co-ordinate labour and 
social legislation. In so far as Arab workers are to enjoy 
the freedom of working anywhere they please in the Arab 
homeland, it is necessary to make them all subject to one 
labour law and to the same social security rules. 

(7) (a) Steps should be taken to co-ordinate legislation 
concerning government and municipal taxes and duties 
and all other taxes pertaining to agriculture, industry, 
trade, real estate, and investments in a manner ensuring 
equal opportunities. 

(6) Measures should be taken to prevent the duplication 
of taxes and duties levied on the nationals of the contracting 
countries. 

(8) The monetary and fiscal policies and all relevant 
regulations of the contracting countries should bo co- 
ordinated before the standardization of eurrency. 

{9) Standardizing the methods of the classification of 
statistics. 

(10) All necessary measures should be taken to ensure 
the attainment of the goals specified in Articles 1 and 2 ol 
the Agreement. 

It is however possible to by-pass the principle of 
standardization in respect to certain circumstances and 
certain countries — this being made with the approval of 
the Arab Economic Unity Council. 


IIS 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


ORGANIZATION 


Articles 3-10 

Article 3 provides for the establishment of a body -with 
the name of "The Arab Economic Unity Council”. This 
Council will have its centre in Cairo and will be composed 
of a full member from each of the contracting parties. 
Decisions are taken by a two-thirds majority. Each state 
has one vote. 

The Council has been vested -^vith all necessary powers 
for implementing the rules of the Agreement and its 
protocols, for running the subsidiary committees and 
establishments and for appointing members of stafi and 
experts. 

Branching from the Unity Council are a number of 
permanent and provisional committees. 

The permanent committees are; 

(1) The Customs Committee, whose task will be to 
handle customs technical and administrative affairs and 
transit affairs. 

(2) The Monetary and Financial Committee. This 
Committee will undertake the handling of affairs pertaining 
to monetary matters, banking taxes, duties and other 
financial affairs. Two Sub-Committees have been formed; 

(0) Sub-Committee on Financial and Taxation Affairs; 

(6) Sub-Committee on klonetary Aifairs. 

{3) The Economic Committee. It will be the duty of 
this Committee to handle matters pertaining to agriculture. 


industry, trade, transport, communications, labour and 
social affairs. Five Sub-Committees have been formed; 

(a) Agricultural Growth Sub-Committee; (6) Industrial 
Co-ordination and Mineral Wealth Development Sub- 
Committee; (c) Planning and Trade Co-ordination Sub- 
committee; (d) Planning and Transport and Communica- 
tions Co-ordination Sub-Committee; (e) Social Affairs Sub- 
Committee. 

The Council and its subsidiaries enjoy financial and 
administrative autonomy. The Council will have a special 
budget to which the member-states will subscribe at the 
rate of their subscriptions to the budget of the Secretariat- 
General of the Arab League. The Council has been entrusted 
with the tasks of formulating regulations and legislations 
aiming at the creation of a unified Arab customs zone and 
at co-ordinating foreign trade policy. The conclusion of 
trade agreements and of payments agreements has been 
made subject to the approval of the Council. The Council 
is also entrusted with the task of co-ordinating economic 
g^o^vth, laying down programmes for the attainment of 
common economic development plans, co-ordinating 
policies for agriculture. Industry and external trade, 
working out transport and transit regulations and unifica- 
tion of regulations on labour and social security, and 
harmonizing financial and monetary jiolicies with the 
purpose of standardizing currency. It will also formulate 
all other legislation necessary for the achievement of the 
purposes of the Agreement. 


IMPLEMENTATION 


Articles 11-20, Protocols 

The implementation of the Agreement Is to take place 
in successive stages and in the shortest possible time. The 
Council has been required to draw up a practical plan for 
the stages of implementation and to define the legislative, 
administrative and technical measures necessary for each 
stage taking into consideration the appendix concerning 
the necessary steps for the realization of Arab Economic 
Unity, which is attached to the Agreement and constitutes 
an integral part of it. Article 15 stipulates that any two or 
more of the contracting parties have the right to conclude 
agreements for economic unity wider than that provided 
for under the Agreement. 

The Council shall exercise its powers in accordance 
resolutions which it %vill pass, which will be executed by 
the member-states in accordance with their constitutional 
rules. 

The Governments of the contracting parties have pledged 
not to promulgate any laws, regulations or administrative 
decisions of a nature which might conflict with the 
Agreement or its Protocols. However, the contracting 
P^ies have been given the freedom, under the Agreement s 
first Protocol, to conclude bilateral economic agreement, 
for extraordinary political or defensive purposes, with 
outside parties, provided that such bilateral agreements 
contain nothing prejudicial to the objectives of this 
Agreement. 

,, ^0 Agreement’s Second Protocol places limitations on 
the powers of the Arab Economic Unity Council. In the 
c<Wse of an initial period not exceeding five years (but 
can be renewed for up to ten years) the Counci 
IS required to study the necessary steps for co-ordinating 


the economic, financial and social policies and for the 
attainment of the following objectives; 

(o) The freedom of the movement of persons and the 
freedom of work, employment, residence, ownership, 
making one’s will, and inheritance. 

(6) Giving unrestricted and unqualified freedom to the 
movement of transit goods without any restrictions in 
respect of the type or nationality or the means of transport. 

(c) Facilitating the exchange of Arab goods and Arab 
products. 

(d) The freedom of exercising economic activities — it 
should be understood that this should cause no harm to 
the interests of some of the contracting parties at this 
stage. 

(e) The freedom of using ports and civil airports in a 
manner guaranteeing activation and development. 


At its first session held in Cairo from June 3rd— 6th, I 964 > 
the Economic Unity Council decided to interpret the time 
periods suggested in the Second Protocol in such a manner 
^ to speed up the accomplishment of the various phases. 
Thus the Council considered the five-year period proposed 
as a maximum limit for the completion of the necessary 
studies. The Council also resolved to benefit from the rule 
established in Article 4 of the Protocol, which provided 
for the following; 

"Two parties or more can, if they so desire, agree on 
ending the introductory stage or any other stage, and move 
directly to comprehensive economic unity.” 



THE ARAB LEAGUE 


The Council has therefore begun by studying the 
practical steps to be taken for the achievement of economic 
unity. It was decided that the Arab Common Market 
project should be accomplished as quickly as possible. A 
Technical Committee was assigned fvitb the study of the 
subject, and its detailed report was debated and approved 
by the Council at its second meeting on August 7th, 
1964. 

The resolution passed at that meeting called for exemp- 
ting from customs duties all agricultural and animal 
products as well as natural resources and industrial goods 
exchanged between the members of the Arab Market. This 
exemption will be either complete or gradual. It was also 
resolved that, in the case of gradual exemption, the rate 
should be ten per cent in respect of industrial goods and 
twenty per cent for agricultural products, to be efiective 
from the beginning of 1965. 


The Arab Common Market came into operation on 
January ist, 1965, with U.A.R., Iraq, Syria, Jordan and 
Kuwait as members. However, the Kuwait National 
Assembly voted against ratification of the Agreement 
in July 1965. The four remaining members of the Council 
met again in Amman in November 1965. 

In mid-1966 the Economic Unity Council adopted a 
resolution calling for the creation of an Arab Payments 
Union. The purpose of the projected Union is to reduce or 
eliminate non-tariff restrictions, imposed by national 
governments for balance of payments reasons. 

In May 1968 at a meeting of the Economic Unity 
Council it was agreed that free movement of industrial 
products between member states should be achieved by 
1971, and tariffs on agricultural products were to be 
completely abolished during 1969. 


114 



ASIAN AND PACIFIC COUNCIL— ASP AC 

Set up June 1966 to foster solidarity and to further regional co-operation among Asian and Pacific countries. 


Australia 
China (Taiwan) 
Japan 


MEMBERS 

Korea, Republic of 

Malaysia 

New Zealand 


Philippines 

Thailand 

Viet-Nam, Republic of 


OBSERVER 

Laos 


ORGANIZATION 


ASIAN AND PACIFIC COUNCIL 

Composed of the Foreign Ministers of member countries; 
meetings held to date have been at Seoul, Republic of 
Korea, in June 1966, at Bangkok, Thailand, in July 1967. 
at Canberra, Australia, in July/ August 1968, at Tolcyo, 
Japan, in 1969, and at Wellington, New Zealand, in June 
1970 - The next meeting will be at Manila, Philippines, in 

1971. 

®Mretsri#t! Provided each year by the government of 
whichever member country is venue for the next 
Ministerial Meeting — at present the Government of 
the I’hilippines acts as a clearing house for information 
and services the Standing Committee. 

STANDING COMMITTEE 

Composed of accredited ambassadors of the participating 
countries; convenes regularly between Council meetings for 
consultations to carry forward the decisions of the Council, 


e.g. the examination of proposed projects in the economic 

cultural and social fields. 

Chairman (1970-71): The Philippines Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs, Gen. Carlos Romulo. 

PROJECTS 

Registry of Scientific and Technical Services: Canberra, 
Australia; opened 1968; Dir. J. R. Wolfe. 

Cultural and Social Centre: Seoul, Republic of Korea; 
commenced operations 1968-69; Dir. Byung Kyu 
Kang. 

Economic Co-operation Centre: Bangkok, Thailand; 
established 1970; expected to commence operations in 
1971 - 

Food and Fertiliser Technology Centre: Taipei, Taiwan; 
opened 1970; Dir. Hai Fan Chu. 

Maritime Co-operation Scheme: Tokyo, Japan; the first 
meeting was held in November 1970. 


AIMS 


^SPAC is a consultative association of nine countries of 
fhe Asian and Pacific region, membership being open to 
other countries in the region. The organization aims to 
foster greater co-operation and solidarity among members 
sad to assist the development of their national economies, 
f^o-operation is envisaged in the political, economic, cul- 
^ral and social fields. Ministers, in the communique re- 
leased after the Third Ministerial Meeting, affirmed their 
uetermination to uphold the foUoiving principles and 
objectives: 

I- Mutual respect for national sovereignty, political in- 
dependence and territorial integrity, 
e. Attainment of equality, freedom and justice for all. 


3. Pursuit of peace and settlement of disputes by peace- 
ful means and respect for the rule of law. 

4. Realization of a regional community where peace, 
order and progress are ensured. 

5. Emphasis upon the self-reliance of the Asian and 
Pacific peoples based on their sense of a common 
destiny and regional solidarity. 

6. Promotion of close co-operation in economic, social 
' and cultural fields in order to further tte development 

of a prosperous community of Asian and Pacific 
nations. 

7. Strengthening of collaboration wth other nations and 
existing international and regional organizations. 


115 



ASIAN AND PACIFIC COUNCIL 


ASPAC MINISTERIAL MEETINGS 


The Second Ministerial Meeting, held in Bangkok, 
accepted as ASPAC Projects a Registry of Experts' Services 
(later renamed Registry of Scientific and Technical Services) 
based in Canberra, Australia and a Cultural and Social 
Centre in Seoul, Republic of Korea. 

At the Third Ministerial Meeting the Registry of Experts’ 
Services was officially opened, and an international agree- 
ment was signed establishing the ASPAC Cxdtural and 
Social Centre. The meeting considered proposals for the 
establishment of a Food and Fertiliser Technology Centre 
and an Economic Co-ordination Centre for the Asian and 
Pacific Region. It was agreed that a Standing Committee 
should examine the proposal for a non-permanent Study 
Group to study existing economic agencies in the area 
ivith a view to determining the field of ASPAC activities 
in trade and economic development. 


The Fourth Ministerial Meeting established Bangkok as 
the seat of the Economic Co-operation Centre. 

At the Fifth Ministerial Meeting economic and political 
developments in the Region were discussed, and hopes 
expressed for a settlement of outstanding problems and 
the continuance of economic gro'ivth. The Ministers urged 
the cessation of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons 
in the Asian and Pacific Region which had continued 
despite repeated protests from ASPAC member countries. 
The agreement setting up the Econmiie Co-operation 
Centre was signed. The proposal for an ASPAC Maritime 
Co-operation Scheme was referred to the Standing Committee 
for detailed consideration as was the proposal for an ASPAC 
Youth Volunteer Programme. 


lie 



ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK— AsDB 


Commercial Center, P.O.B. 126, Makati, Rizal, D-708 Philippines 

Telephone; 88-87-81. 


Sponsored by the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), the Bank commenced operations 
in December, ig66. Members: 21 regional and 14 non-regional countries. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

All powers of the Bank are vested in the Board which 
may delegate its powers to the Board of Directors except 
in such matters as admission of new members, changes in 
the Bank’s authorized capital stock, election of Directors 
and President, amendment of the Charter. One Governor 
and one Alternate Governor appointed by each member 
country. The Board meets at least once a year. 

Chairman: Hon Sui Sen (Republic of Singapore). 

Vice-Chairmen: Lennart Klackenberg (Sweden), Ngu- 
VEN Van Dong (Republic of Viet-Nam). 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Responsible for general direction of operations and 
exercises all powers delegated by the Board of Governors. 
Composed of ten Directors elected by the Board of 


Governors, seven representing regional member countries 
and three non-regional member countries. Each Director 
serves for two years and may be re-elected. The President 
of the Bank, though not a Director, is Chairman of the 
Board. 

Chairman of Board of Directors and President ( 1966 - 71 ): 

Takeshi Watanabe (Japan). 

Vice-President: C. S. Krishna Moorthi (India). 

ADMINISTRATION 

Departments: Operations, Projects, Treasury, Administra- 
tion. 

Offices: Secretary, General Counsel, Economic, Financial 
Adviser, Internal Auditor and Information. 

Secretary: Douglas C. Gunesekera (Ceylon). 

General Counsel: Lewis Carroll (U.S.A.). 


AIMS 


To foster economic growth and co-operation in the 
region and to accelerate the economic progress^ of the 
developing countries of the region, either coliectively or 
individually, by: 

Promoting investment of public and private capital 
for development purposes in the ECAFE region. 

Utilizing the available resources fo'r financing develoi> 
™6nt, giving priority to those regional, sub-regional and 
national projects and programmes which will contribute 
most effectively to the harmonious economic growth o 
the region as a whole, and having special regard to the 
needs of the smaller and less developed member coun 
tries. 

Meeting requests from members in the region to assist 


in the co-ordination of development policiM and plans 
with a view to achieving better utilization of tlieir 
resources, making their economies more complementary, 
and promoting the orderly development of their foreign 
trade, in particular, intra-regional trade. 

Providing technical assistance for the preparation, 
financing and execution of development projects and 
programmes, including the formulation of specific pro- 
ject proposals; providing technical assistance ^so on the 
functioning of existing institutions or the creation of new 
institutions, on a national or region^ basis, in such 
■fields as agriculture, industry and public administration. 

Co-operating with UN, its subsidiary agencies and 
other international organizations concerned with the 
investment of development funds in the region. 


117 



ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 

ACTIVITIES 

(up to October igyo) 

LOANS 


Recipient 

Project 

Amount 
(million U.S. ?) 

Ordinary Resources 

Ceylon 



Central Bank of Ceylon 

Modernization of tea factories 

2.000 

Ceylon 

Walawe Development 

0.885 


Colombo Port tanker berth 

2.600 

Republic of China (Taiwan) 



Chinese Petroleum Corporation 

D.M.T. Manufacture 

10.200 

Taiwan Aluminium Corporation 

Plant expansion 

2.670 

Taiwan Metal Mining Corporation 

Copper Fabrication Plant 

1. 150 

Republic of China 

Feasibility study of North-South Freeway 

0.400* 


Deep-sea fisheries development 

10.000 


HuMien Harbour Development 

0.990 


Taipei-Yangmei Freeway 

18.000* 


Taipei Elevated Railway 

0.540 

Republic of Korea 


Korea Cold Storage Co. 

Cold storage 

7.000 

Korea Express Co. 

Transportation and stevedoring 

7.500 

Medium Industry Bank 

Financing small and medium industry 

10.000 

Republic of Korea 

Seoul-Inchon Expressway 

6.800 

Mala3reia 

Andong dam multi-purpose development 

0.500 

Penang water supply 

7.200 


Bukit Mendi and Bukit Goh Palm Oil Mills 

' 2.800 


Kuching Port expansion 

5.000 


Sarawak electricity supply 

3.100 

Pakistan 

Besut agricultural development 

0.900 


Industrial Development Bank 

Financing small and medium industries 

ro.ooo 

Pakistan Industrial Credit and 


Investment Corporation 

Rice milling 

3.120 

Philippines 


Philippines National Bank 

Reloan to Private Development Corporation of 


the Phihppines 

5.000 

Singapore 



Development Bank of Singapore 

Financing industry 

10.000 

Jurong Town Corporation 

Thailand 

Industrial Finance Corporation of Thailand 

Wharves expansion 

8.310 

Financing industrial enterprises 

15,000 


Sub-Totai. 

151.265 

Special Funds Resources 



Cambodia 

Phnom Penh High Voltage Transmission 

1.670 

Ceylon 

Walawe Development 

7.705 

Indonesia 

Tadjum irrigation 

0.990 


Sawit Sebarang Oil Palm Estate 

. 2.400 

Laos 

Pusri Fertilizer plant expansion 

. ro.ooo 

Tha Ngon Agricultural Development 

0.973 

Malaysia 

Besut Agricultural Development 

3.300 

NepM 

Air transport development 

6.010 

Philippines 

Cotabato irrigation 

2.500 

Western Samoa 

Faleolo airport and road 

2.400 


Sub-Total 

37-948 


Grand Total 

189.213 


• The loan for the feasibility study of the North-South Freeway is refinanced in the Taipei-Yangmei Freeway Project 


118 











ASIAN DEVELOPIIENT BANK 


TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROTECTS 


Country Project 

Afghanistan Small-scale irrigation 

Kabul industrial park 
Sectoral planning study of agriculture 
Kajakai Gate project — preparation 
and preliminary study of flood 
control scheme 

Cambodia High voltage transmission project 

Ceylon Ceylon Fisheries Corporation 

Walawe irrigation/land development 
project 

Republic of China Feasibility study on North-South 
Freeway 

Indonesia Food grain production 

Rural Credit Survey 
Advisors to Ministry of Agriculture 
Sawit Sebarang oil palm estate 
Feasibility study on Sempor Dam 
Modernizing Development Bank 
West Sumatra power supply 
. Java Teak Project 

Republic of Korea Agriculture and Fishery Development 
Corporation 


Country Project 

Republic of Korea Andong Dam Multi-Purpose Develop- 
(cont.) ment Project 

Laos Integrated agricultural development 

Tha Ngon agricultural development 
Malaysia Oil palm products marketing study 

Feasibility study: Kuala Lumpur- 
Karak Highway 

Nepal Advisors to Agricultural Development 

Bank (ist and 2nd phase) 

Air transport system development 
Royal Nepal Airlines Corpn. re- 
organization 

Philippines Water management (ist and and 

phase) 

Fisheries port: Manila North Harbour 
Livestock, fish and poultry marketing 
Thailand Accelerated rural development pro- 

gramme (ist and 2nd phase) 
Agricultural development programme 
Industrial evaluation system 
Republic of Development financing institutions 

Viet-Nam Rural banking system 

Western Samoa Airport and road development 


SURVEYS AND RESEARCH 
The ADB has completed an Asian Agricultural Survey 
to provide a basis for the Bank’s fut^e operations in the 
region's agricultural development. It is also undertaking a 
Regional Transport Survey in South-East Asia, and a 
study of the major problems of economic development of 
South-East Asia in the 1970s. 

The Bank is also associated with the Asian Vegetable 
Reseatek and Development Centre Project and a study of 
the legal problems in the flow of credit and provision of 
security for development purposes in the region. 







ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 


FINANCIAL STRUCTURE 


Capital: The AsDB has an authorized capital of 
U.S. $1,100 million, of which $1,004 million has been sub- 
scribed. Each member is to pay one-half of its subscribed 
capital in five equal, annual instalments; one-half of each 
instalment is required to be paid in gold or convertible 
currency and the other half may be paid in local currency. 
The other half of the subscribed capital rvill remain as 
callable shares as a credit backing for the Bank's 
obligations. 


Country 

Subscriptions 
( million U.S. $) 

Regional Members: 


Afghanistan .... 

4.78 

Australia ..... 

85.00 

Cambodia ..... 

3 - 5 t> 

Ceylon ..... 

8.52 

China (Taiwan) .... 

16.00 

Fiji ...... 

1,00 

Hong Kong .... 

8.00 

India ...... 

93 - 00 

Indonesia ..... 

25.00 

Japan ..... 

200.00 

Korea, Republic . . . ' . 

30.00 

Laos ...... 

0.42 

Malaysia ..... 

20.00 

Nepal ..... 

2.16 

New Zealand .... 

22.56 

Pakistan 

32.00 

Philippines ..... 

35-00 

Singapore 

5-00 

Thailand ..... 

20.00 

Viet-Nam, Republic 

12.00 

Western Samoa .... 

0.06 


624.00 


Ordinary Funds: Composed mainly of subscribed capital 
and borrowings. Ordinary Fund operations are mainly 
direct loans to governments, national development banks, 
public and private entities, international agencies, for 
particular development projects in such fields as industry, 
agriculture, power, transport and communications. 


Country 

Subscriptions 
(million U.S. %) 

Non-Regional Members: 


Austria ..... 

5.00 

Belgium ..... 

5-00 

Canada ..... 

25.00 

Denmark ..... 

5-00 

Finland ..... 

5-00 

France ..... 

25.00 

German Federal Republic 

34.00 

Italy ...... 

20.00 

Netherlands .... 

II. 00 

Norway ..... 

5-00 

Sweden ..... 

5.00 

Switzerland .... 

5.00 

United ICingdom .... 

30.00 

U.S.A 

200,00 


380.00 

Total .... 

1,004.00 


Special Funds; The Bank has established Special Funds 
for concessional lending with contributions from member 
countries and from its own resources. The Japanese 
Government has contributed $20 million to the Agricul- 
tural Special Fund, and $50 million to the Multi-Purpose 
Special Fund; the Government of Canada has also made 
available $25 million to the Multi-Purpose Special Fund 
in five annual instalments. Denmark has made a $2 million 
interest-free loan to the Agricultural Special Fund, and 
the Netherlands has contributed Si.I million to the 
Agricultural Special Fund and also to the Multi-Purpose 
Special Fund. The United Kingdom has contributed 
$14.4 million to the Multi-Purpose Special Fund. AsDB 
has set aside $r4.6 million from its capital for concessional 
lending. The Technical Assistance Fund has received con- 
tributions from Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Federal 
Republic of Germany, India, Japan, New Zealand, 
Pakistan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the U.S.A. 


120 



ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS- 

ASEAN 


Thailand, to accelerate economic progress and to increase the stability of 
the Soutt-East Asian region. ASEAN replaces the Association of South-East Asia (ASA), composed of Malaysia, 
Jrnuippmes and Thailand, and is assuming responsibility for various projects formerly under ASA, 


MEMBERS 

Indonesia Philippines Thailand 

Malaysia Singapore 


ORGANIZATION 


MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE 

Composed of the Foreign hlinisters of member states; 
first meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, in August, 1967; 
wcond held in Djakarta, Indonesia, during August 1968; 
the third held in Cameron Highlands. Malaysia, in Decem- 
er 1969 and the fourth in Manila, Philippines, in December 

1970. 


STANDINC COMMITTEE 

Meets once a month betiveen Ministerial meetings for 
consultations; at present operating in Kuala Lumpur, 
Mala5rsia. 


PERMANENT COMMITTEES 

Committee on Food Production and Supply including 
Fisheries: Djakarta, Indonesia. 

Committee on Shipping: Bangkok, Thailand. 

Committee on Communications and Air Traffic Services: 

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Corrunittee on Civil Air Transport: Singapore. 

Committee on Commerce and Industry: Manila, Philip- 
pines. 

Committee on Transport and Telecommunications: Kuala 
Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Ad Hoc Committee on Science and Technology: Djakarta, 
Indonesia. 


AIMS 


T 

, ® ^^celerate the economic gro-svth, social process and 
j development in the region through joint en- 

to spirit of equality and partnership in order 

s eng^en yjg foundation for a prosperous and peaceful 
oununity of South-East Asian nations. 

re2i^ P^°®ote regional peace and stability through abiding 
^ct for justice and the rule of law in the relationship 
eountries of the region and adherence to the prin- 
«Ple3 of the United Nations Charter. 

g promote active coUahoration and mutual assistance 
g , of common interest in the economic, social, 

ural, technical, scientific and administrative fields, 
provide assistance to each other in the form of train- 


ing and research facilities in the educational, professional, 
technical and administrative spheres. 

To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization 
of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their 
trade, including the study of the problems of international 
commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation 
and communication facilities and the raising of the living 
standards of their people. 

To promote South-East Asian studies. 

To maintain close and beneficial co-operation with 
existing international and regional organizations with 
similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even 
closer co-operation among themselves. 


121 



ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS 
PRINCIPAL PROJECTS OF ASEAN 


ASEAN is to take over various projects that were 
operated or envisaged by ASA; the principal projects of 
ASA were: 

Economic Co-operation and Development. The establish- 
ment of an Organization for Asian Economic Co-operation 
was agreed in principle and steps were taken to intensify 
trade among member countries by relaxing or eliminating 
regulations and restrictions on the free flow of trade. 
Efforts were also made to increase trade between the region 
and the rest of the world. A multilateral agreement on 
commerce and navigation was being prepared, and the 
private sector was to play a greater part in promoting 
economic development and developing industry. 

Joint Research and Technology. Joint research pro- 
grammes had been formulated and study tours organized. 
There was a wide exchange of technical experts and train- 
ing facilities were made available for nationals of other 
member countries. An ASA Research Centre was to have 
been established in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Education. Exchanges of teachers and students and in- 
creased facilities for teaching the language, history and 


geography of member countries. Accreditation and equiva- 
lence of degrees were being studied to facilitate exchanges 
in higher education. 

Transport andT ourism. The Malaysian and Thai national 
airlines have pooled services and it was planned that the 
Philippines join the pool at a later date. A project for a 
joint airline to operate supersonic aircraft was under 
discussion. The possibility of a U.S. $250 million Asian 
Shipping Line is being studied under a joint agreement 
between ASEAN countries, signed in June 1968. A mini- 
mum fleet of 600,000 d.w.t. is envisaged to maintain 
services to U.S. A. and Europe as well as within the region. 
In 1962 a through train service between Kuala Lumpur and 
Bangkok was inaugurated and further rail links are to be 
established. Visas had been abolished for officials and visa 
fees waived for nationals of ASA countries. Tourism was 
actively encouraged under ASA, and ASEAN members are 
jointly studying tourist promotion. 

Cultural Exchanges. Tours by theatrical and danw 
groups, holding of art exhibitions, and exchange of radio 
and television programmes. Aims and visual aids. 


THIRD ASEAN MINISTERIAL MEETING 


Held 16-18 December 1969 in Cameron Highlands, 
Malaysia. Major decisions were the approval of 98 projects 
in fields ranging from tourism to telecommunications; 
agreement to set up an ASEAN fund with initial con- 


tributions of U.S. $i million from each member; agree- 
ment for co-operation in the mass media and cultural 
activities. It was also decided not to enlarge the member- 
ship of the organization for the time being. 


122 



BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS— BIS 


7 Coniralbahnsirasse, CH 4002 Basic, Switzerland 


The Bank for International Settlements was founded in 1930. It aims to promote co-operation of central banks; 
to provide additional facilities for international financial operations; and to act as Trustee or Agent in regard to 

international financial settlements entrusted to it. 


ORGANIZATION 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Chairman of the Board and President of the Bank: Dr. J. 
ZijLSTRA (Netherlands). 

Direciers: Baron Ansiaux (Belgium), M. J. Babincton 
Smith (United Kingdom), Dr. Guido Carli (Italy), 
Henri Deroy (France), Dr. Leonhard Gleske 
(German Federal Republic), Dr. Karl Klasen (German 
Federal Republic), Dr. Donato Menichella (Italy), 
Sir Leslie O’Brien (United Kingdom), Dr. Edwin 
Stopper (Switzerland), Olivier Wormser (France), 
Per Asbrink (Sweden). 

Alternates: Dr. Paolo Baefi or Prof. Francesco Masera 
(Italy), Bernard Clappier or Marcel Th£ron 
(France), Dr. Otmar Emminger or Johannes TOn- 
geler (German Federal Republic), C. J. Morse or R. 
G. Raw (United Kingdom), Cecil de Strycker 
(Belgium). 

^e administration of the Bank is vested in a Board 
which is at present composed of the Governors or Presi- 
dents of the central banks of Belgium, France, the German 
Federal Republic, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, 


Switzerland and the United ICingdom, and five members 
nominated by certain of the Governors. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 
General Manager: (vacant). 

Economic Adviser, Head of the Monetary and Economic 
Department: Dr. Milton Gilbert (U.S.A.). 

Secretary-General, Head of Department: Dr. Antonio 
d’ Aroma (Italy). 

Head of the Banking Department: Dr. H. H. Mandel 
(German Federal Republic). 

Managers: D. H. Macdonald (United Kingdom), Georges 
Janson (Belgium), Dr. Antonio Rainoni (Italy). 

Legal Adviser; Henri Guisan (Switzerland). 

The authorized capital of the Bank is 1,500 million gold 
francs, divided into 600,000 shares of 2,500 gold francs 
each. At the end of the financial year 1969-70, 448,325 
shares were in issue, paid up as to 25 per cent of nominal 
value. 


functions 


^e operations of the Bank conform with the monetary 
policy of the member central banks. 

The Bank may in particular: 

Buy and sell gold coin or bullion for its own account or 
for the account of central banks. 

2. Hold gold for its own account under earmark in cen- 
tral banks. 

3. Accept the custody of gold for account of central 
banks. 

4 ' Make advances to or borrow from central banks 
Rgainst gold and short-term obligations of prime 
liquidity or other approved securities. 


5. Discount, rediscount, purchase or sell with or without 
its endorsement short-term obligations of prime 
liquidity, including Treasury bills and other such 
Government short-term securities as are currently 
marketable. 

6. Buy and sell exchange for its own account or for the 
account of central banks. 

7. Buy and sell negotiable securities other than shares 
for its own account or for the account of central 
banks. 

8. Discount for central banks bills from their portfolio 
and rediscount vdth central banks bills taken from its 
own portfolio. 


123 



BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS 


9. Open and maintain current or deposit accounts with 
central banks. 

10. Accept deposits from central banks on current or 
deposit account. 

11. Accept deposits in connection with trustee agreements 
that may be made between the Bank and governments 
in connection with international settlements. 

12. Act as agent or correspondent of any central bank or 
arrange with any central bank for the latter to act as 
its agent or correspondent. 

13. Enter into agreements to act as trustee or agent in 
connection with international settlements. 

14. Enter into special agreements with central banks to 


facilitate the settlement of international transactions 
between them. 

The Bank shall be administered with particular regard 
to maintaining its liquidity, and for this purpose shall 
retain assets appropriate to the maturity and character of 
its liabilities. Its short-term liquid assets may include bank 
notes, cheques payable on sight drawn on first-class banks, 
claims in course of collection, deposits at sight or at short 
notice in first-class banks, and prime bills of exchange of 
not more than ninety days' usance, of a kind usually 
accepted for rediscount by central banks. 

Note: The Bank acts as Agent of OECD under the Euro- 
pean Monetary Agreement and as Depositary under an 
Act of Pledge concluded with the European Coal and Steel 
Community. 


statement of account 

(as at September 30th, 1970) 

In gold francs (units of 0.29032258 . . . grammes fine gold — Art. 4 of the Statutes 


Assets 


% 

Gold 

4.156.943.227 

20.1 

Cash on hand and on sight a/c 
with banks 

45,170,117 

0.2 

Treasury bills 

720,215,176 

3-5 

Time deposits and advances ■ . 

12,834,320,528 

62.2 

Securities at term . 

2,903.131,736 

14. 0 

Miscellaneous 

680,230 


Total . 

20,660,461,014 

100.0 


Liabilities 


' % 

Authorized cap.: 1,500,000,000 
Issued cap.: 1,120,812,500 

viz. 448,325 shares of which 
25% paid up . . ■ . 

280,203,125 • 

1.4 

Reserves .... 

242,8611487 

1.2 

Deposits (gold) 

5,554,922,234 

26.8 

Deposits (currencies) 

13.877.532,973 

67.2 

Notes ..... 

561,853,403 

2.7 

Miscellaneous 

94,416,792 

0.5 

Provision for building purposes 

48,671,000 

0.2 

Total . 

20,660,461,014 

. 

100.0 


124 


BENELUX 


39 rue de la R£gencc, 1000 Brussels 
Telephone: 13.86.80. 

The Treaty of Benelux Economic Union came into force on November ist, i960. Its aim is the economic union 

of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. 

MEMBERS 

Belgium The Netherlands Luxembourg 

ORGANIZATION 


THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS OF THE 
ECONOMIC UNION 

The Committee of Ministers consists of not less than 
three Ministers and generally speaking the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade, Economic Affairs, 
Agriculture, Finance and Social Affairs of the three 
countries. Resolutions in the Committee of Ministers 
must he carried unanimously, but an abstention will 
not be considered as a negative vote. It supervises 
the application of the Benelux Economic Union 
Treaty and ensures that the aims specified therein are 
pursued. To this end, the Committee of Ministers can 
take decisions, establish conventions, make recom- 
mendations and issue directives. The Committee may 
also set up Working Parties to which it may delegate 
certain of its powers, 

THE CONSULTATIVE 
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL 

Permanent Secretary: M. Hondeqoin, Palais de la Nation, 
Brussels i. 

The Consultative Inter-Parliamentary Council con- 
sists of forty-nine members, twenty-one each from the 
Netherlands and Belgian Parliaments and seven from 
Luxembourg Parliament. It was set up by a Conven- 
hon which entered into force in September i 95 ^- This 
Council may deliberate and communicate to the three 
Governments its views on problems of direct concern 
to the Economic Union, including cultural relations, 
foreign policy and the standardization of laws. The 
Interparliamentary Council receives an annual report, 
jointly established by the three Governments, on 
each of the above problems. These reports are 
published. 

the council of ECONOMIC UNION 

Chairmen: Prof. G. Brouwers (Netherlands), B. Vaes 
(Belgium), A. DOhr (Luxembourg). 

The Council of Economic Union consists of three 
chairmen, one from each member country, and _o 
the presidents of Committees; presidents of the Special 
Committees may be co-opted on to the Council when 
cir special fields are under discussion. 

The Council is responsible for ensuring the execu- 
tion of the decisions of the Committee of Ministers 


and for making proposals to the Committee of Min- 
isters; for co-ordinating the w'ork of the Committees 
and Special (Committees; for giving them directives 
and for transmitting their proposals to the Committee 
of Ministers. 

COMMITTEES AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

There are eight Committees: Foreign Economic 
Relations; Monetary and Financial; Industrial and 
Commercial; Agriculture, Food and Fisheries; Customs 
and Taxation; Transport; Social; Movement and 
Establishment of Persons. 

There are nine Special Committees: Co-ordination 
of Statistics; Comparison of Government Budgets; 
Public Tenders; Public Health; Retail Trade and 
Handicrafts; Movement of Persons (control at exter- 
nal frontiers); Territorial Planning; Tourism; Ad- 
ministrative and Judicial Co-operation. 

THE SECRETARIAT-GENERAL 
Secrofary-GenBral: Dr. C. D. A. Baron van Lynden. 
Deputies: E. R. Van Der Aa, E. Leick. 

The Secretary-General is always of Netherlands 
nationality and is assisted by one Belgian and one 
Luxembourg Deputy Secretary-General. They are 
appointed by the Committee of Ministers and are 
directly responsible to the Working Group of the Com- 
mittee of Ministers for the administration of the 
Union. The Budget of the Secretariat for 1970 was 
49,410,000 Belgian Francs to which Belgium and the 
Netherlands each contributed 48.5% and Luxem- 
bourg 3%. 

JOINT SERVICES 

The Committee of Ministers may establish Joint 
Services to improve the functioning of the Economic 
Union, and determine their tasks, operational layout 
and working methods. Up to now no joint services 
have been established. 

THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL 

The Arbitration Tribunal is composed of six persons 
(two from each member country) appointed by the 
Committee of Ministers. Their function is to settle any 
disputes that may arise from the working of the 
Union. 


125 



BENELUX 


THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVISORY COUNCIL 

President: A. H. M. Albregts. 

The Economic and Social Advisory Ck)uncil consists 
of twenty-seven members and twenty-seven deputy 
members from representative economic and social 
organizations, each country supplying one third of the 
number. It may offer advice on its own initiative or 
prepare considered opinions when requested to do so 
by the Committee of Ministers. 


COLLEGE D’lMPULSION 

Chairman: A. de Schrijver. 

Secretary: P. Van Der Meiren. 

The College d’ Impulsion, a body which is intended 
to provide an independent stimulus to the activities 
of the Union, was established in 1969 for one year and 
subsequently prolonged for the same period. It con- 
sists of six members (two from each member country) 
and is responsible for proposing the most appropriate 
measures for an integral achievement in the applica- 
tion of the Union Treaty. 


IMPORTANT EVENTS 


1921 Economic and Customs Union between Belgium 
and Luxembourg. 

1943 London Monetary Agreement. 

1944 London Customs Convention. 

1948 Customs Union came into force; agreement on 
unifying customs formalities. 

1949 Pre-Union Agreement. 

1950 Agricultural Protocols. 

1953 Hague Protocol on co-ordination of economic 
and social policy; Commercial Protocol. 

1954 Agreement on liberalization of capital move- 
ments. 

1955 Agreement on the setting-up of a Consultative 
Inter-Parliamentary Council. 

1956 OEEC recognised Benelux as a single unit in 
inter-European trade; Labour Convention; 
Protocol on tenders and purchases. 

1958 Treaty of the Benelux Economic Union signed. 


i960 Benelux Treaty came into force, together with 
the Labour Treaty. 

1962 Liberalization of road transport. 

1963 Convention on free movement and establish- 
ment in the three countries came into force. 

1965 Treaty on the establishment of a Benelux 
Court signed. 

1966 Treaty on reciprocal assistance for the per- 
ception of the turnover tax came into force. 

1967 Treaty on extradition and legal aid in criminal 
affairs came into force. 

1969 Inter-govemmental Conference which decided 
on the total abolition of border control between 
the three countries. 

1970 The Committee of Ministers at the level of 
chiefs of government confirmed the above 
decision, to be implemented between January 
ist, 1971, and January ist, 1972. 


HISTORY 


During the later war years the govemments-in- 
exile of Belgium, the Netterlands and Luxembourg 
began to lay plans for an economic and customs union 
of their countries. Their efforts crystallized in the Lon- 
don Monetary Agreement of October 21st, 1 943. A firm 
exchange value was needed between the Belgian franc 
and the Dutch florin; the pre-war gold parity of 16.52 
Belgian francs to one Dutch florin was agreed on, as 
well as a scheme of reciprocal credits between the two 
countries. There was also agreement on the need for 
continual consultation and for the co-ordination of 
such measures as each country felt compelled to take 
in their respective capital markets. 

The London Customs Convention of September 5th, 
1944, marked a further step forward. The principle 
was established of reciprocal tariff abolition, to lead in 
the first place to a "tariff community", which in its 
turn would be a preliminary step towards a full 
customs, and eventual economic union. Methods of 
procedure were established and three committees set 
up — the Administrative Customs Committee, the 
Administrative Foreign Trade Committee and the 
Committee for Trade Agreements. A tentative tariff 


list was drawn up, and provision made for withdrawa 
at one year’s notice. 

In the last months of the war Holland was devas- 
tated, whereas Belgium and Luxembourg emerged 
almost unscathed. A combination of factors brought 
economic prosperity to Belgium immediately after the 
war, and because of this discrepancy in recovery rates 
the envisaged Customs Convention could not be 
applied immediately. In March 1947 the first Hague 
Protocol was signed; the Customs Convention %vas 
pven its final form and a General Secretariat estab- 
lished in Brussels. The Customs Union came into force 
on January ist, 1948. 

OPERATING THE UNION 

A further step forward was made by the Pke-Union 
Agreement of October 15th, 1949. Among other pro- 
visions, three stand out as particularly important; 
these laid down the principles of progressive liberaliza- 
tion of exchange trade betvveen the three partners, the 
systematic co-ordination of commercial and monetary 
policies with regard to other countries and the prepara- 
tion of a unified system of foreign trade negotiation. In 


126 



BENELUX 


spite of these advances, Benelux ran into diflaculties in 
tie following year, 1950, largely arising from the war 
in Korea, to which the economies of Belgium and 
Luxembourg on the one hand and of the Netherlands 
on the other reacted sharply and differently. In the 
Netherlands the deficit in payments and gold reserves 
increased; in Belgium and Luxembourg gold reserves 
rose and the pa3anents surplus grew to such a size as 
to be unhealthy. Wages and prices in the Netherlands 
were still at that period abnormally low; in the other 
two partners they rose. 

In 1951 and 1952 the whole Benelux structure was 
in danger of breakdown, but was saved by the 
strenuous efforts of the three Governments, which 
were put into concrete and effective form by the 
important Hague Protocol of July 24th, 1953. 
Commercial Protocol of December gth. 1953, and the 
agreement on the liberalization of capital movements 
of July 8th, 1954. The Hague Protocol of July 1953 
embodied agreements on the stabilization and adjust- 
ments of wages and rents in the three partners and the 
recognition of the principle that social legislation must 
be co-ordinated in order to avoid excessive differences 
between social charges which might adversely afiect 
cost prices and the competitive positions of the three 
countries. The Commercial Protocol was complement- 
ary to this agreement. It laid down the guiding aim of 
maximum trade combined with maximum freedom, 
but emphasized the necessity of consultation in the 
case of export promotion, as well as joint action 
whenever complications arose with trade partners who 
refused reciprocity. 

A convention providing for the free movement of 
labour was signed on June 7th, 1956, which was 
clarified and expanded by a further agreement on 
March 20th, 1957, while a protocol defining the pro- 
cedure to be followed with regard to public tenders 
and government purchases was signed on July 6th, 
1956, and came into force on August 29th, 1958. 

1956, 96.5 per cent of the trade between the 
^ee partners was free, and of the remaining 3.5 
cent, 3.33 per cent was accounted for by food and 
agricultural products. Agriculture, as in all plans 
Such as Benelux, had proved to be the most intransi- 
gent problem. In this sphere the Netherlands have a 
superior position, with a large export trade and low 
costs. In Belgium and Luxembourg the position is 
reversed, with a high import rate and high costs. Some 
price equalization duties are charged on Netherlands 
Agricultural products exported to Belgium and 
Luxembourg. These duties are levied by the Nether- 
mnds Government, of which half are handed over to 
^Igium and Luxembourg for the development und 
jroprovement of their agriculture and half are retained 
by the Netherlands and devoted to the rationalization 
of their own agriculture. 


SINGLE TRADING UNIT 

One of the most significant dates in the 
^nelux is January 26th, 1956. On that date 
Jrganisation for European Economic Co-operation 


announced that henceforth Belgium, Luxembourg and 
the Netherlands were to be regarded as one country 
for all purposes of inter-European trade. In January 
1955, O.E.E.C. had raised its compulsory trade 
liberalization requirements to 90 per cent between 
member countries; the Benelux Governments pre- 
sented a unified single list appljring to all three of 
them and covering 95.6 per cent of their imports from 
other member countries. Consequently, O.E.E.C. 
could now regard the three as one. 

ECONOMIC UNION TREATY 

The Benelux Treaty was signed in February 1958, 
and came into force in November i960. By the 
Treaty, all trade agreements with outside countries 
were to be concluded by Benelux as an entity from 
January 1961. By November 1963, all tenders issued 
by national, provincial or local authorities were to be 
made accessible to tenders of all three countries. By 
November 1970. all obstacles to the free flow of goods 
between the three countries, including agricultural 
produce, were to be eliminated. 

The Benelux Economic Union’s main aims are to 
raise prosperity by co-ordinating national economic 
policies, by pursuing a common foreign trade policy, 
and permitting the free movement of persons, goods, 
capital and services. Unlike EEC the Benelux Econo- 
mic Union is not a supra-national institution. Its 
institutions are based on those which grew up 
empirically within the Benelux Customs Union. 

RESULTS 

Co-operation between the Benelux countries has 
resulted in the area becoming the first completely free 
labour market. Capital movement as well as services 
have been made almost completely free. A number of 
restrictions still exist as to the free movement of 
goods. Strenuous efforts are being made towards the 
abolition of these restrictions through the harmoniza- 
tion of national legislation, through a Convention on 
mutual recognition. 

There is continuous co-ordination of economic, 
financial and social policies and the adoption and 
pursuit of a common policy on economic relations 
with third countries and on relative payments. 


PRIVATE ORGANIZATION 

Belgo-Netherlands-Luxembourg Rapprochement Commifice 
(Comit6 Benelux) : 40 rue du Congrfes, 1000 Brussels; 38 
Nassauplein, The Hague; 8 avenue de I’Arsenal, Luxem- 
bourg; f. 1945; a private organization to stimulate co- 
operation between the Benelux countries; organization: 
Jntef7ttiiional CotnvtUiee of delegates from the three 
national committees; Pres. L. C. Ameye (Belgium), 
V. G. M. Marijnen (Netherlands), A. Huss (Luxem- 
bourg); Secs. J. Chabert (Belgium), E. C. de Mooij 
(Netherlands), L. F. Lemmer (Luxembourg); publ. 
Noiivelles Benelux (every two months — ^French and 
Dutch). 


127 


BENELUX 


THE TREATY OF ECONOMIC UNION 


The Treaty consists of loo Articles and is valid in 
the first instance for fifty years. 

I. Definition of Principles 

The main aim of the Economic Union is to raise the 
prosperity of the people by realizing the free mutual 
movement of persons, goods, services and capital, the 
co-ordination of national economic policy and the pur- 
suance of a common foreign trade policy. 

All nationals of the three member countries are free to 
move anywhere within the territory of the Union and to 
enjoy in the other two countries the same rights and 
privileges as are accorded to the nationals of those coun- 
tries, with regard to freedom of movement, residence and 
establishment, the exercise of economic and professional 
activities, capital transactions, labour conditions, social 
provisions, dues, taxes and legal protection. Trade between 
the three countries is freed from all import dues and from 
all restrictions of a qualitative, quantitative or currency 
nature. This free intercourse must neither be unduly 
impeded by non-economic or non-financial measures, 
although controls and statistical inspections at frontiers 
will not be considered as restrictions within the meaning 
of the Treaty. Capital movements are also free and ex- 
change of services are subject to the same principles as that 
of merchandise. Any distortion of competitive conditions 
we forbidden, lest they should impede the development of 
mutual free trade. 

The three governments engage themselves to consult 
jointly on matters of economic policy in order to create the 
necessary conditions for full economic integration. Further- 
more, they rvill also consult each other in order to determine 
the Union’s policy at international meetings and in all 
matters concerned with regional economic integration or 
matters relating to foreign countries, in so far as these 


matters affect the purposes of the Union. There will also be 
a common policy with regard to foreign trade and payments 
and a common tariff in respect of import and other 
duties. 

The Economic Union does not include a monetary union, 
but certain monetary rules are laid down, particularly that 
policy with regard to rates of exchange must be formulated 
by consultation. It is further provided that should the vital 
interests of a member country be in danger, the Committee 
of Ministers may deviate from the provisions of the 
Treaty. 

2. Institutions of the Union 

These are listed as the Committee of Ministers, the 
Consultative Inter-Parliamentary Council, the Council ol 
Economic Union, the Committees and Special Committees, 
the Secretariat-General, the Joint Services, the Arbitration 
Tribunal and the Economic and Social Consultative Council 
[see the section on Organization above). 

3. Special Provisions 

This section elaborates certain principles laid down in 
Part I, and also de-limits certain fields in which the 
Committee of Ministers may take binding decisions and 
further provides that the principles of the Treaty shall be 
effected by special agreement in certain cases. 

4. General Provisions 

The main provisions of this part are that the scope of the 
Treaty is limited to the territories of the member countries 
in Europe, though the interests of Belgian and Netherlands 
overseas territories should be safeguarded in foreign trade 
agreements; and that the Treaty should be valid for a 
period of fifty years, subject to tacit extension by periods 
of ten years, unless it is revoked by any member county 
on one year’s notice before the end of the running period. 


128 



BENELUX 


STATISTICS 

AREA AND POPULATION 



Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Total 

Area (sq. km.) . 
Population (Dec. 1969) 

30.507 

9,660,000 

33.808 

12,956,000 

2.586 

338,000 

66,901 

22,954,000 


AGRICULTURE 

PRINCIPAL CROPS 
(’ooo metric tons) 



1968 

1969 


Belgium 

Netlierlands 

Luxembourg 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Wheat 

839 

679 

40 

861 

677 

47 

Rye . 

87 

239 

5 

73 

207 

4 

Barley 

574 

390 

47 

557 

389 

53 

Oats . 

314 

318 

34 

283 

322 

44 

Potatoes 

1.566 

3.015 

59 

1.478 

2.369 

62 

Sugar Beet . 

1,108 

5.128 

— 

4.217 

5.002 

— 

Mangolds . 

3.303 

963 

55 

3.204 

854 

52 


LIVESTOCK, 1969 
{’000) 



Horses 

Cattle 

Sheep 

Pigs 

Poultry 

Belgium . 



81 

2.839 

102 

2,780 

23.419 

Netherlands 



57 

4.277 j 

554 j 

4.155 

49.131 

Luxembourg 

- 

• 

I 

191 

4 

90 

394 


ANIMAL PRODUCTS 1969 
('000 metric tons) 


i 

Milk 

Butter 

Cheese 

Eggs* 

Meat 

Belgium .... 


98 

34 

224 

683 

Netherlands 


II 2 

260 

250 

i 902 

Luxembourg . 

IH 

7 

I 

4 



•1,000 metric tons=i7 million eggs 


s 


129 


































BENELUX 


INDUSTRY 



Unit 

1968 

1969 

Belgium 

Nether- 

lands 

Luxem- 

bourg 

Belgium 

Nether- 

lands 

Luxem- 

bourg 

Coal .... 

’000 metric tons 

14,806 

6,663 

■■■ll 

13,200 

5,567 

— 

Coke .... 

It II II 

7*243 

2,931 


7,240 

2,032 

— 

Crude Petroleum 

II II II 

— 

2.147 



2,020 



Gas (Manufactured) 

’000 cu. metres 

39* 

131.9* 

I5.942t 

42 

196.1* 

19,037 

Electricity 

million kWh 

25,060 

31,847 


27,630 

35,252 

2,120 

Pig Iron 

'000 metric tons 

10.371 

2,821 


11,211 

3,461 

4,872 

Steel .... 

II II II 

11.573 

3,707 


12,837 

4,713 

5,521 

Leather 

It 11 II 

2.3 

2.9 


2-5 


— 

Paper .... 

II II II 

655 

1,255 


701 

1,362 

— 

Cotton Yam . 

II II II 

87 

57 


91 

55 

— 

Yams of Wool and Hair . 


73 

15 


81 

16 

— 

Yam of Artificial Fibre . 

It II II 

17 

36 


15 

37 

— 

Cement .... 

II II II 

5.740 

3,436 

191 

6,269 

3,296 

207 

Bricks .... 

million 

1.367 

2,040 

— 

1,298 

2,023 

— ‘ 

Shoes .... 

'000 pairs 

13.074 

21,100 

““ 

12,664 

20,100 



* 1,000 cal. t I cu. metre rated at 4,250 K. cal. 


EXTERNAL TRADE 

(million Belgian francs) 



Imports 

Exports 

1948 

149.764 

100,504 

1954 

228,339 

194.479 

1955 

254.034 

225,813 

1956 

293,220 

246,271 

1957 

315,497 

253.930 

1958 

280,798 

257,561 

1959 

305,343 

283,617 

i960 

353,482 

321,275 

1961 

385.188 

332,921 

1962 

408,949 

362,338 

1963 

45S.789 

398,187 

1964 

537,172 

461.477 

1965 

576,457 

520,902 

1966 

631,068 

552,204 

1967 

650,088 

589,044 

1968 

739,992 

680,004 

1969 

. 880,584 

834,648 



130 



















BENELUX 


PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES 


(million Belgian francs) 



1968 

1969 

Imports 

Exports 

Imports 

; Exports '■ ‘ 

Food Products . . . . 

86,274 

109,261 

101,295 

127,681 

Meat and Meat Products ..... 

5.380 

30,493 

5.953 

.^* 5,414 

Dairy -Products . ... 

4.443 

20,066 

5,373 

21,537 ‘ ' 

Fruit and Vegetables ..... 

14.968 

20,731 

18,345 

25.949 ■ ' 

Raw;Materials ........ 

94.170 

44.204 

104,181 

' 50,187 

Wood ........ 

13.292 

S05 

. 15,430 

982 

Textile Fibre ....... 

18,636 

9,910 

120,131 

11.263 

Metal Ore and Waste ..... 

24,840 

7,886 

25.942 

8.575 

Fuel and Mineral OU ...... 

78,624 

37,981 

89.839 

49,305 

Chemical Products ...... 

56.294 

76,234 

67,136 

91,134 

Manufactured Articles ..... 

166,711 

220,552 

202,136 

271,945 

Rubber Articles ...... 

4.381 

3,848 

5.720 

4.430 

Paper ........ 

13.140 

10,209 

16,290 

13,450 

Textiles ... 

28,914 

47.549 

36,323 

58,773 

Clothing 

14.737 

6,673 

19.463 

10,014 

Silver, Platinumiand Jewels (non-ferrous metals) 

40.074 

36,100 

44.819 

.4,3,, 776 

Non-precious Metals (Iron andjSteel) 

27,002 

72,921 

34,833 

9,2,181 

Metal Articles i . 

17.572 

14.129 

21,098 

17 ,‘l ;31 

Scientific and Professional Instruments 

11.613 

10,516 

14,091 

13.233 

Vehicles '. . ■ . 

62,389 

42,963 

82,246 

62,321 

Non-electric Machinery ..... 

73.686 

47,511 

87.777 

'58,322 

Electric Macbinery 

1 

39.132 

40,360 

49.299 

48,996 


PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
(million Belgian francs) 



1968 

19 

69 

Imports 

! Exports 

Imports 

Exports 

Argentina . . . . , • • 

Australia . . . . • •; 

Austria 

Congo (Democratic Republic) . •: 

Canada 

Denmark 

Finland 

'France' • ^ • • . 

German Federal Republic 
■ German Democratic Republic 

Iran . ^ . 

Kuwait and Iraq ... ... 

Norway ( . 

Sweden . . ' . . . . • 

Switzerland .... 

United Kingdom . 1 . . ' • 

U.S.S.R.; . 

; U.S.A.. ; . . 

' Venezuela . . . . , • 

7,857 

3,803 

4,441 

17,058 
■ 9,196 

5,853 

6,446 

93,713 

209,155 

3,532 

7.305 

38,985 

7.729 

15,493 

4,986 
19,664 
• 11,798 

55,579 

6,006 

85,163 

3.393 

‘ 1,592 
: 3,742 

6,655 ■ 

4,289 

5 ; 536 ' 

9,791 

3.776 

119,678 

201,404 

2,112 

3,071 

35.495 

5.957 

1,746 

7,565 

18,585 

16,708 

65,737 

4.708 

60,316 

2,426 

8.755 
' 5,347 

5,150 

22,472 
9.851 
, 5,659 
7,431 

122,090 

262,526 

4,508 

10,440 

45,020 

9,935 

13,075 

6.197 

23.509 

13.485 

65,991 

6,333 

91,657 

2,708 

2.978 

4,027 

7,207 

5.978 

6,316 

13,195 

5,002 

163,306 

263,165 

2,592 

3,097 

46,214 
7,076 
2.263 
9,868 • 

■ 22,582 
20,335 ; 

. 58,221 

■ 5.341 ; 

57,168 
2,233 ’• 


131 











BENELUX 


TRADE WITHIN BENELUX 
(million Belgian francs) 



From the Nether- 
lands TO Belgium 
AND Luxembourg 

From Belgium and 
Luxembourg to 
THE Netherlands 


From the Nether- 
lands TO Belgium 
and Luxembourg 

From Belgium and 
Luxembourg to 
THE Netherlands 

1948 

7,189 

19,087 

1962 . 

33,679 

52,542 

1955 • 

19.035 

29,011 

1963 • 

37.819 

57,479 

1958 

21,408 

35,265 

1964 . 

44,030 

67.833 

1957 • 

24,467 

37,047 

1965 . 

48,267 

73,197 

1958 

24,626 

32,355 

1966 . 

52,481 

76,074 

1959 

27.335 

36,145 

1967 . 

54.224 

76,890 

i960 

29.466 

41,519 

1968 . 

60,814 

83,523 

1961 

32,310 

48,663 

1969 . 

71,225 

97,277 


TRANSPORT 

RAILWAYS 



Million Ton-kms. 

Million Passenger-kms. 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Luxembourg 

1963 . 

6,780 

4,093 

651 

9,009 

mmm 

221 

1964 . 

6,862 

3,885 

671 

9,042 


231 

1965 . 

6,698 

3,522 

622 

8,975 


229 

1966 . 

6,173 

3,272 

567 

8,708 


229 

1967 . 

6,082 

3,235 

572 

8,534 


254 

1968 . 

6,632 

3,274 

641 

8,178 


251 

1969 . 

7,370 

3,433 

725 

8,238 


253 


INLAND WATERWAYS 
Traffic within Benelux (’ooo tons) 


SHIPPING 


Ocean-going Ships 


Entering Benelux 


Ports 


Number 

'000 Tons 

1962 

63,413 

132,665 

1963 

64.370 

137.338 

1964 

69,866 

146,907 

1965 

71,208 

151,896 

1966 

70,298 

159,312 

1967 

71,535 

187,457 

1968 

44,249 

187,040 

1969 

44,257 

208,531 



Belgium 

Netherlands 

1963 

22,777 

62,603 

1964 

26,356 

77,012 

1965 

25,778 

82,229 

1966 

26,455 

81,015 

1967 

27,108 

92,654 

1968 

28,168 

94,771 

1969 

29,213 

90,496 


CIVIL AVIATION 



Million 

Passenger-kms. 

'ooo To 

N-KMS. 

Sabena 

KLM 

Sabena 

KLM 

1963 . 

1,346 

2,561 

44.277 

138,000 

1964 . 

1,626 

3.001 

52,164 

160,500 

1965 • 

1,785 

3.342 

64,887 

207,700 

1966 . 

1,654 

3,848 

68,775 

237,400 

1967 . 

1.954 

4,288 

92,000 

255,700 

1968 . 

1,977 

4,537 

125,015 

316,900 

1969 . 

2,206 

4,763 

177,709 

375,000 


PUBLICATIONS 

Benelux Texles de Base. Benelux Bulletin. Economical and Statistical Bulletin (quarterly). 
Yearly Budget Comparisons. What is the Significance of Benelux? 


132 






































CARIBBEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION— CARIFTA 

Georgetown, Guyana 

The Caribbean Free Trade Association, established by Anti^a, Barbados and Guyana in January 1967, aims at 
a gradual reduction of customs barriers and the free interchange of labour forces within the region. 


Antigua 

Barbados 

Belize 

Dominica 


MEMBERS 

Grenada 

Guyana 

Jamaica 

Montserrat 

ORGANIZATION 


St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla 
St. Lucia 
St. Vincent 
Trinidad and Tobago 


In August 1967, technical experts met in Georgetown, 
Guyana, to discuss the measures required to bring about 
regional economic integration in the Caribbean, and the 
governments of Antigua, Barbados and Guyana agreed to 
establish a Caribbean Free Trade Area. The meeting 
reconunended that CARIFTA should form the basis of a 
wider free trade area and during 1968 a further eight 
members were admitted. It was decided that on July ist, 
1968, all import duties and quantitative restrictions should 
be removed on all products trade among Caribbean 
member countries. 

The Agreement signed in May 1968 aims at promoting 
trade expansion and diversification 'within the area, as well 
M encouraging the economic development of member 
countries. To achieve these goals, it pro'vides for the 
immediate removal of all tariSs on trade among members, 
with the exception of certain manufactured goods included 
in a special Reserve List. The more-developed member 
countries, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Guyana and 
Jamaica, will remove duties on imports from CARIFTA of 
these products over a five-year period. The Agreement also 
provides for incentives for the establishment of industry 
within the region and for agricultural development through 
protection from external competition. The Agricultural 
Marketing Protocol lists 21 commodities which may not be 
imported from sources outside the free trade area until all 
mtemal supplies have been exhausted. 

At the meeting held in May 1968 it was also decided to 
establish a Caribbean Development Bank {see below). 

The summit conference held in Port-of-Spain in Feb- 
mary 1969 reaffirmed the decision to site the Bank in 
Barbados, in spite of Jamaica’s opposition to the proposal. 

Initial discussions on the establishment of a common 
external tariff also took place. Arrangements were made 
for the following studies to be carried out: rationalization 
of agriculture (CARIFTA Secretariat): establishment of 
mdustries on the smaller islands and regional pof^^y °f 
incentives (ECLA); foreign investment (University of the 
"cst Indies, Jamaica). 

^lize, formerly British Honduras, was accepted for 
membership in June 1970. The Ministers of Education and 
representatives of the Universities decided on the establish- 
ment of an Examinations Council {see below) in June ^ 97 °- 
in June 1970 the Inaugural Meeting of the Statistical 
'-o-ordinating and Advisory Committee {see below) was 


held. It has been decided that members wdll introduce the 
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature throughout the area with 
effect from January ist, 1971. 

Secretary-General: William G. Demas. 

CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 
The Bank, inaugurated in January 1970 in Nassau, 
began operations early in 1970 with an equity capital of 
$50 million. Regional governments are to hold 60 per cent 
of the Bank’s capital, and the remaining 40 per cent is to 
be provided by non-regional governments — Canada, and 
the United Kingdom. The regional members of the Bank 
include all CARIFTA member countries plus the Bahamas, 
British Honduras, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman 
Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Colombia applied 
to join the Bank in July 1970. 

The aims of the Bank are to stimulate economic growth 
and development of the Caribbean region by assisting 
regional members in the co-ordination of their development 
programmes, mobilizing additional financial resources 
from within and outside the region, providing technical 
assistance, promoting public and private investment in 
development projects. A proposed $20 million soft-loan 
fund will provide resources for approved infrastructure 
projects. 

President: Sir Arthur Lewis. 

STATISTICAL CO-ORDINATING AND 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE (SCOAC) 

Committee of Commonwealth Caribbean countries estab- 
lished by the Sixth Conference of Heads of Government in 
Jamaica, April 1970. Aims to reach agreement on use by 
CARIFTA territories of a common classification for col- 
lecting and reporting trade statistics. The Inaugural 
Meeting of the Committee was held at the Caribbean 
Regional Secretariat in Guyana, June 1970. 

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL 
At a meeting in Barbados in Juno 1970 CARIFTA 
Ministers of Education and representatives of the Univer- 
sities in the region decided on the establishment of an 
Examinations Council for the setting, conduct and 
administration of examinations at secondary level for the 
Commonwealth Caribbean area. 


133 



CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET—CACM 

Established in i960 under the aegis of the Organization of Central American States (ODECA). 

MEMBERS 

■ ' Costa Rica Guatemala 'El Salvador Honduras Nicara^a ' ' 


ORGANIZATION 

Secretary-General: (vacant). 

Banco Centroamericano do Integracidn Econdmica (BCIE) 

(Central American Bank for Economic Integration): P.O. 
Box 772, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; f. i960, started 
operations 1961; capital $60 million; available resources, 
including loans S249.3 million; to finance public and 
private development projects, particularly relating to 
industrialization and infrastructure. Meeting of Board 
of Governors, January 1969, decided • to ■ increase 
capital subscription of Bank tp,S6o million,:to ,be con- 
tributed in equal parts by. each, member country. Pres. 
Dr. Enrique Ort^z C. (Honduras); Vice-Pres. Rodolfo 
Silva (Costa Rica); Sec. Antonio Membreno M.; publ. 
Annual Report. 

"Up to the end of December 1969 the BCIE 'had 
granted loans amounting to U.S. $19^ 'million', ' which 
were allocated as follows: ‘ 

.'1 ...-•II..;' '■ 

Percentage . .. 

Country of Total 

Guatemala ,16.90', , 

’ El Salvador ,. . . , '20.09 ' 

Honduras . .. ' 24.42 , : , , , 

Nicaragua . . , , .?o.ii ' .. . 

Costa Rica . '. 18.48 

> ... .100.00' 

' FUNCTIONS 

The Central American Common Market was established • classification; uniform tariffs now apply to '871 per cent 
under the Tratado Multilateral de Libre Comercio e- of these items and the others are to be equalized .over a 
Integracidn Econdmica Centroainericana and ,tha 'Tratado ■ five-year period. Intra-regional trade has increased from 
de Integracidn Econdmica Centroaraericana. It -visualises §34 million in i960 to $249 million in' 1969, ; ; ' ' ' '' 

the eventual elimination of all tariffs and barriers between It. is expected that there will- be a common' customs 

members) ■ and the establishment of a common external administration by 1970 and further goals include a unified 
tariff for the rest of the world. So far practically all internal fiscal policy, a regional industrial policy and co-ordinated 

barriers have been removed and agreement has been regional ' policies in public health;, labour,- education, 

reached on 98 per cent of the items in the regional customs transport and agriculture. , • 

. • ' t, ) • . i • . , , , . ■ • ' - 

■ CENTRAL AMERICAN INTEGRATION * , ' 

1952 Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, .Honduras and 1958' Agreement on the Central American A^eement for 

Nicaragua established the Central American Econo- Industrial Integration signed. . . • 

mic Co-operation Committee (CCE) to: . Multilateral treaty on Central American, Free Trade 

1. Establish a common market. and Economic Integration signed, providing free 

2. Integrate industrial deVeiopmdht. ' ■ trade for products representing'one-third of inter- 

3. Co-ordinate their agricultural economies; >' . Central American trade. ' . . 

1954 Establishment of . Central -. lAmerican Advanced ' 1958 Studies of problems of roads, railways, shipping; air 

. School for Public Administration, San Josd, Costa . transport, finance, weights and measures, statistical 

Hica. , ■ . i , ,'i . co-ordination and demography. . — ■ 

1956 Establishment of Central Aihericari Research Insti- Panama became a member of the Central American 

tute for Industry (ICAITI) in Guatemala City. ' ' Economic Co-operation Committee. 

134 


CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC COUNCIL 

(Consejo Econ6mico Centroamericana — CEC) 
Created by the General, Treaty of Central American 
Economic Integration, the Council consists of the Ministers 
of Economy of the member states and meets as often as 
necessary or at the request of one of the contracting parties 
in one of the five capitals. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

(Consejo Ejecutivo del Tratado General-:— CE) 
Consists of one government delegate and one alternate 
from each member state. Meetings are 'convened by the 
Permanent Secretariat or at the request of the, contracting 
parties. Its function is to implement the measures necessary 
for the fulfilment of the terms of the General Treaty, which 
provides for the gradual realization of a Central American 
Customs Union. . ' 

PERMANENT SECRETARIAT 

(Secretaria Permanente de Integracidn Econdmica Centro- 
americana — SIECA) 

The Permanent Secretariat was set up as the adrdinis- 
trative arm of the Economic Council and the Executive 
Council. It supervises the correct implementation of the 
legal instruments of economic integration and carries out 
rele-vant studies. ' • •• 

4a Avenida 10-25 Zona 14, Guatemala City, Guatemala 


CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET 


1959 Draft agreement drawn up for the establishment of 
a customs union. 

Proposals for (i) establishment of a telecommunica- 
• ’ tions centre, (2) juridical unification, (3) common 
marketing information, (4) central tourist organiza- 
tion. 

1960 General Treaty on Central American Economic 
Integration signed between El Salvador, Guatemala 

' and Honduras, aiming to establish a Central 
American customs code and uniform tariff legis- 
lation. 

1961 Central American Bank for Economic Integration 
(BCIE) set up. 

Equalization of import duties completed for go per 
cent of the items to be subject to the Common tarifi. 
Central American Uniform Customs Code was 
drafted. 

1962 Costa Bica acceded to General Treaty. 

Equalization of import duties extended to 95 per 
cent of the items to be subject to the Common 
tarig. 


Central American Agreement on Tax Incentives to 
Industrial Development signed. 

1963 Signing of Protocol to the Regime for Integration 
Industries and the special system pertaining to 
tariffs for the promotion of production activities. 

1965 Ministers of Economic Affairs agree on a Central 
American policy for investment. 

1966 Decision taken on special treatment for the bal- 
anced development of Honduras within the inte- 
grated economy. 

1969 Decision by Governors of Central American Bank 
for Economic Integration to set up a Guarantee 
Fund with a capital of $40 million, to be subscribed 
entirely by members of the Bank. 

Signing of agreement establishing the Central 
American Fund for Monetary Stabilization. 

1970 Recommendation by the Consejo Monetario Centro- 
americano to increase reciprocal credits granted 
through the Cdmara de Compensacidn Centro- 
americana with a view to improving the positions of 
Honduras and El Salvador in particular. 


INSTITUTIONS 


Uni6n Moneiaria Ceniroamcricana {Central American 
■ Monetary Union): Banco Central de Reserva de El 
Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador; since 1952 the 
.Central Banks of the five Republics had been meeting 
to discuss monetary, exchange and credit aspects of 
■their respective . economies. In 1961 the Central 
, America Clearing House was founded. An agreement 
for the establishment of the Central American Monetary 
Union became effective for the five Republics in March 
':i964. ' ; 

. iponsejo Monetario Centroamericano {Central American 
Monetary Council): Composed of the Presidents of 
the Central Banks of El Salvador, Guatemala, 
^Honduras and Nicaragua and the Manager of the 
, Central Banlibf Costa Rica. Pres. Lie. Ojiar Dengo 
■ (Costa Rica) ; Exec. Sec. Lie. J orge GonzAles dee 
. Valle (Guatemala). 

ComiUs de Consufta 0 de Accidn {Consulting and Worhing 
Committees): 

Comiti de PolUica Monetaria (Monetary Policy 
Committee). . 

Comiti de Politico Camhiaria y de CompensactW 
(Exchange and Clearing Policy Committee). 

Comiti de Operaciones Financieras (Financia 

' • Committee).. _ o /i- 

‘ ■ Comiti de Estudios Juridicos (Juridical Studies 

• ■ Committee). 

. . The Monetary Council will create other committees 
it becomes necessary. 

’ Secrelarla E jecutiva (Executive Secretariat) : Its functions 
- are- to prepare the technical studies which ® 

necessary, and to co-ordinate the activities ^ ® 

different committees. Rotative seat, at presen m 
San Salvador. 

Secrelary-Genera/: Lie. Alvaro Castro Jenkins. 

Cimara de Compensacidn Centroamericana 

American Clearing House): Tegucigalpa; f. 1961 
joined Central American Monetary Union in 1904. 


capital $10 million; operations 1968 $222.6 million; 
banking operations based on the Central American 
peso, at par with the U.S. dollar. Pres. (1968-70) 
Carlos H. AlpIrez (Guatemala). 

Federacidn de Cimaras de Comercio del Isimo Centro- 
amcricano {Federation of Central American Chambers of 
Commerce): f. 1961; for planning and co-ordinating 
industrial and commercial interchanges. Rotative seat, 
at present c/o Camara de Comercio, Industrias y 
Agricultura de Panama, Aptdo. 74, Panama 1, R.P. 

Fcderacidn de Cfimaras y AsociacionesIndusirialesdeCenfro- 
america (FECAICA) {Federation of Industrial Chambers 
and Associations in Central America): Edificio Canteros 
772, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; established in 1959 by 
the Chambers of Industry of the CACM countries to 
promote commerce and industry, principally by inter- 
change of information. 

Fcderacidn de Bancos do Centroamerica y Panamd {Federa- 
tion of Bankers' Associations of Central America and 
Panama): f. 1965 to co-operate in carrying out the 
integration movement. Rotative' seat, at present in 
Guatemala.' ’ 

instituto Centroamericano de Investigacidn y Tecnologla 
Industrial {Central American Institute of Research and 
Industrial Technology— ICAITI): Avenida Reforma 
4-47 Zona 10, Guatemala City, Guatemala; f. 1956 by 
the five Central American Republics, with assistance 
from the United Nations, to contribute to the expansion 
and improvement of industry in the region. Dir. Dr. 
Manuel Noriega Morales (Guatemala); Gen. Deputy 
Dir. Dr. Gabriel Dengo. 

Institute Centroamericano de Administracidn de Empresas 

{Central A meriedn Institute for Business A dministration) : 

. Apdo. Postal 2485, Managua, Nicaragua; established 
in- July 1963 as a management training school by 
countries of the CACM to promote commerce and 
studies.' ■ ■ ’ .. .. 


135 



CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET 


Instituto Ccntroamericano de Admlnistracidn Pdblica 

(Central American Institute of Public Administration) 
(formerly ESAPAC): San Jos6, Costa Rica; f. 1954 by 
the five Central American Republics, with assistance 
from the United Nations, with a view to improving 
Public Administration; Panama joined later. Trans- 
formed into an Institute in 1967; operates as a project 
under the United Nations Development Programme 
and the six governments of the Central American 
Isthmus; aims to support economic integration and 
development in the region. Dir. Wilburg Jimenez 
Castro (Costa Rica). 

Consejo Superior Univcrsitario Centroamericano (Superior 
Council for Central American Universities — CSUCA): 
Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jos^, Costa Rica; 
f. 1948; mems.; Univs. of San Carlos de Guatemala, 
El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Nat. Univs. of 
Honduras, Nicaragua; Sac.-Gen. Sergio RamIrez 
Mercado; pubis. Noticias del CSUCA, Repertorio 
Centroamericano (quarterly). 


Instituto de Nutricidn de Centro America y Panamd (Insti- 
tute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama — 
INCAP): Carretera Roosevelt, Zona ii, Guatemala 
City, Guatemala; f. 1949; regional ofBce of the World 
Health Organization (WHO). 

Corporacidn Centroamericana de Servicios de Navegacidn 
A^rea (Central American Air Navigation Service Cor- 
poration — COCESNA) : Aptdo. Postal 660, Tegucigalpa, 
Honduras; f. i960. 

Secretarla de Integracidn Turistica Centroamericana— 

SITCA (Secretariat for the Integration of Tourism in 
Central America): Aptdo. 2138, Managua, Nicaragua; 
f. 1963; Sec.-Gen. Ricardo A. Porras. 

Comisidn Tdcnica de las Telecomunicaciones de Centro- 
america (COMTELCA) (Technical Commission for Tele- 
communications in Central America): Managua, Nica- 
ragua. 


TREATIES, AGREEMENTS AND FUNDS 


TREATIES 

TRATADO MULTILATERAL DE LIBRE COMERCIO 
E INTEGRACI6N ECONOMICA 
CENTROAMERICANA 

Signed in Tegucigalpa in 1958 by all members of ODECA, 
except Costa Rica who joined in 1962. For the equalisation 
of Customs duties between the members. All duties were 
removed from 237 groups of regionally produced commodi- 
ties when the Treaty came into force and will be extended 
to include all regionally produced goods in the next ten 
years. 

TRATADO DE INTEGRACIGN ECONGMICA 
CENTROAMERICANA 

Signed in 1959 by all members of ODECA except Costa 
Rica who joined in 1962. In July 1962 the members signed 
agreements establishing uniform tariffs on more than 95 
per cent of all products entering the area. 

TRATADO DE ASOCIACIGN ECONGMICA 

Signed in February i960 by El Salvador, Guatemala 
and Honduras, and came into force in April i960. Tariffs 
were then removed on 95 per cent of all goods traded 
between the members, and most remaining tariffs had 
been removed by June 1966. At a later stage restrictions 
on the movement of capital and labour will be removed. 

TRATADO DE INTERCAMBIO PREFERENCIAL 
y DE LIBRE COMERCIO 

Signed by Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama in 1961 
and ratified in 1962, to speed economic integration through 
tariff reductions between members. 

OTHER AGREEMENTS 

Convention on Integrated Industries: signed June 1958; 
provides that special monopoly status be given to an 
individual enterprise in each industry, to be established in 
one member country wth a view to exporting to the rest. 


The operation of this convention has been limited and, to 
date, only two integration industries have been set up-^ 
tyre factory in Guatemala and an insecticides plant in 
Nicaragua. 

Special System of Promotion of Productive Industries: 

signed January 1963, this system uses tariff regulations to 
encourage projects requiring heavy investment, ivith the 
limitation that such projects must produce at least half 
the total of the regional demand. 

Convention of Uniform Fiscal Incentives for Industrial 

Development: signed in July 1962, the Convention provides 
for a wide range of benefits to be applied to various 
categories of industries in Central America. 

Agreement to establish the Central American Monetapr 
Union: signed by the Governors of the Central Banks in 
1964. The Monetary Union is not yet effective; it involves 
the alignment of foreign exchange and monetary policies, 
and the operation of a common currency (Central American 
peso at par with the U.S. dollar). 

Treaty on Telecommunications: signed in April 1966 by 
Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, and by* 
Costa Rica in January 1967. 

FUNDS 

Guarantee Fond: set up 1969 by the Governors of 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration. Capital 
of 540 million subscribed entirely by members of the Bank. 

Fondo Centroamericano de Estabilizacidn Monetaria. 

(Central American Fund for Monetary Stabilization): 
agreement signed on October ist, 1969, by Presidents oi 
the five Central American Central Banks to provide short- 
term financial assistance to members facing -temporary' 
balance-of-pay'ments difficulties. Capital to bo subscrib^ 
equally by the five members: U.S. ?20 million. Initial 
shares of $1 million each subscribed January 2nd, I97°- 
Additional funds ivill be sought from international sources. 
Mems.: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua,. 
Costa Rica, 


13G 


CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET 


STATISTICS 

AREA 
(sq. km.) 


Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

50,900 

20,000 

108,889 

112,088 

118,358 


POPULATION 



Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

1966 

1968 (est.) 

1.587.230 

1,634.000 

3.095.323 

3,266,000 

4.717.284 
4,864 ,000 

2,445,440 

2,413,000 

1,625,518* 

1,842.000 


* December 1964. 


INTRA-REGIONAL TRADE 
{’000 Central American Pesos)* 

El Salvador 


Costa Rica 



Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

16,168 

15.933 

5.354 

12,050 

14.243 

17.640 

5.771 

13.586 

8,982 

8,030 

6,478 

14,229 

8,450 

7.514 

7,403 

12,742 

Total CACM 

49.505 

51.220 

37,719 

38,109 


Guatemala 



Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

^sta Rica . 

El Salvador 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

8,030 

30,750 

7,129 

3,528 

7,514 

33,242 

6,034 

4.591 

15,933 

34,813 

14.198 

12,965 

17,640 

38,165 

17.752 

12,883 

Total CACM 

49,437 

51,381 

77,909 

86,440 



Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Costa Rica . 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 
Nicaragua . 

8,982 

34.813 

14,829 

7,088 

8,450 

38,165 

7,327 

6,238 

16,168 

30,750 

22,929 

14,869 

14,243 

33,242 

12,415 

11,856 

Total CACM 

65,712 

60,180 

84,716 

71.756 


Honduras 



Imports 

Exp 

CRTS 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Costa Rica . 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Nicaragua . 

6,478 

22,929 

14,198 

4,811 

7.403 
12,415 
17,752 

6.403 

5,354 

14.829 

7,129 

4,109 

5,771 

7.327 

6,034 

4,738 

Total CACM 

48,416 

43.973 

31,421 

23,870 


Nicaragua 


.1 " 

Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Costa Rica . 

El Salvador 
Guatemala . 
Honduras . 

14,229 

14,869 

12,965 

4,109 

12,742 

11,856 

12,883 

4,738 

12,050 

7,088 

3,528 

4,811 

13.566 

6,238 

4.591 

6,403 

Total CACM 

46,172 

42.219 

27,477 

\ TT Q < 

30,798 


* I Central American peso ($CA)=U.S. $1. 
137 





























CENTRAL COMMISSION FOR THE NAVIGATION 

OF THE RHINE 

Palais du Rhin, Strasbourg, France 

Set up by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to ensure free movement of trafiQc and equal river facilities for vessels 

, of all nations on the Rhine. 

MEMBERS 

Belgium German Federal Republic Switzerland 

France Netherlands United Kingdom 



ISIap shows sections of the Rhine and its main tributaries navigable by ships of 1,000 tons or more. Also shown is the 
proposed Main-Danube Waterrvay e.’cpected to be completed by the late 1980s. 

138 




CENTRAL COIMMISSION FOR THE NAVIGATION OF THE RHINE 


ORGANIZATION 


COMMISSION 
Chairman: Yves Dev adder. 

General. The overall function of the Commission is to 
enable member Governments to co-ordinate inland 
waterway policy and to supervise the application of the 
Convention {see below). It meets twice a year (occasionally 
more often) in full session. Each member state provides 
between two and four commissioners with one or two 
substitutes. Decisions are taken by unanimous agreement. 


ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRE FOR 
SOCIAL SECURITY 

Set up to apply the 1950/1961 Agreement on social 
security of Rhine boatsmen. Members: Belgium, France, 
German Federal Republic, Netherlands, Switzerland. 

TRIPARTITE COMMISSION FOR 
LABOUR CONDITIONS 

Set to apply the 1954/1963 Agreement on labour 
conditions of Rhine boatsmen. Members: Belgium, France, 
German Federal Republic, Netherlands, Switzerland. 


SECRETARIAT 

Socrclary-General: R. Doerflinger (France). 

Deputy Secretary-General: H. Watermann (German 
Federal Republic). 

Chief Engineer: O. Schoppe (German Federal Republic). 


FUNCTIONS 


Navigational Security. The Commission draws up and 
executes rules for navigational signals and routes, for the 
eonstruction and loading of boats, for minimum numbers 
of crew and for carrying of dangerous goods. 

Customs. Customs regulations have been simplified and 
standardized. 


Court of Appeal. A Chamber of Appeal judges for 
criminal and civil cases involving Rhine traffic. 

Hydrology. The Commission gives navigational approval 
to plans of bridge and barrage construction, and assesses 
other hydro-technical projects. 

Research. The Commission undertakes study voyages 
from time to time. 


CONVENTION 


Signed at Mayence in 


1816. Revised at Mannheim in 1868 and at Strasbourg in 1963- 


MAIN I 

I- Freedom of navigation for vessels and crews of all 
nations without technical, fiscal, customs, professiona 
or administrative hindrance. 

Equality of treatment for all flags. 

3. Freedom of transit for all merchandise with or without 
warehousing or trans-shipment. 

4- All import, export and transit facilities available for 
other forms of transport to be accorded also to Rhme 
transport. 

5* The claiming of special rights for a vehicle or its cargo 
leased on the fact of navigation to be forbidden. 

5. Customs formalities for direct transit to be limited to 
the presentation of a declaration, the closure of hows 
or guardianship. 


7. States to be obliged to open free ports and places of 
loading and unloading. 

8. Rules relating to vessel security, navigation police and 
transport police to be standardised and extended. 

9 States to be obliged to maintain the waterway, to 
co-ordinate hydro-technical works and to eUminate 
all technical hindrance. 

10. Special jurisdiction in the riparian states, with com- 
petence fixed by the Convention and' the right of 
parties to have recourse either to the Central Com- 
mission or to a national court. 

11. All interested parties have the right to lay complaints 
before the Central Commission. 



CENTRAL COMMISSION FOR NAVIGATION OF THE RHINE 


BUDGET 

The budget is fixed annually and member states make an equal contribution. 


ASSOCIATED BODY 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE RHINE SHIPS REGISTER 
89 Schiedamsevest (P.O.B. 947), Rotterdam, Netherlands 

Founded in 1947 for the classification of Rhine ships, the publication of a register and the 
unification of general average rules. Associated with the Central Commission. 

Director: G. de Valk (Netherlands). 


MEMBERS 

Shipowners and associations, insurers and associations, shipbuilding engineers, average 
adjusters and others with a commercial Interest in Rhine Traffic. 


140 



CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION— CENTO 

Old Grand National Assombly Building, Ankara, Turkey 


The Central Treaty Organization aims to provide mutual security and defence for member countries and seeks the 
peaceful economic development of the region through co-operative effort. CENTO replaced the Baghdad Pact 

Organization after the withdrawal of Iraq in March 1959. 


MEMBERS 

Iran Pakistan Turkey United Kingdom 


The United States is a member of the Organization's Military, Economic, and Counter-Subversion 
Committees, and signed bilateral agreements of military and economic co-operation with Iran, 
Pakistan and Turkey in Ankara in March 1959. 


ORGANIZATION 


THE COUNCIL 

Ministerial Level: Meets normally once each year in 
rotation at CENTO country capitals. Attended by Pnme 
Ministers, Foreign Ministers or senior Cabinet Ministers. 

Deputies Level: Meets regularly in Ankara under 
permanent Chairmanship of the Secretary-General. 
Attended by Ambassadors resident in Ankara, and a senior 
representative from the Turkish Ministry of Foreign 
Afiairs. The United States is represented at the Council 
meetings, both at Ministerial and Deputy level, by an 
observer who participates fully in the discussions. 

Committees of the Council: Military Committee, Counter- 
Subversion Committee, Liaison Committee, Economic 
Committee, Council for Scientific Education and Research. 

permanent military deputies group 

The Military Committee is represented in Ankara by the 
Permanent Military Deputies Group comprising five senior 


officers of the rank of Lieutenant-General or its equivalent. 

COMBINED MILITARY PLANNING STAFF 
Chief of Staff: Maj.-Gen. R. H. Anthis, U.S.A.F. (United 
States) ; has international staff of officers from all three 
services of the five member nations of the Military 
Committee. 

TRAINING AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES 

CENTO Institute of Animal Reproduction: Set up 1961 
at Malir, West Pakistan, with equipment and an Adviser 
provided by the United Kingdom. 

CENTO Scientific Co-ordinating Board: P.O.B. 1828. 
Teheran; f. 1966; operates regional scientific programmes 
for Council of Scientific Education and Research; Scientific 
Sec. Dr. M. L. Smith. 

Regional Research Centre for Virus Diseases: f. 1962 at 
the Razi Institute in Teheran with equipment valued at 
£ 50.000 supplied by the United Kingdom. 


SECRETARIAT 

Eski Bfiyiik Millet Meclisi Binasi, Ankara, Turkey 
c ronpral* HE. Torgut MenemencioSlu (Tur- 

Sccretary-GeneraU^H^L^^ is divided into four divisions: 

Sell and Administration, Economic, Public Rela- 
tions, and Security, 


141 



CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION 



• ! , | ; iMap. shows projected Turkey Iran road and rail developments. For progress to date see'below. ' ■ 



ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 


Pakistan-Iran road link joining Karachi, Lasbella, Quetta, 
Zamdah, and Kerman in progress.. 

Pakistan-Iran road link joining Lasbella, Pishin and 
Bandar Abbas in progress. 

Turkey-Iran road link joining Bagi^li, Rezaiyeh and 
Tabriz-Toheran main road at Zanjan completed, 

Turkey-Iran road link joining Cizre, Hakkari and Bagijli 
under construction. 

Turkey-Iran rail link (including a ferry across Lake Van) 
joining Mu^, Tatvan, Khoy and Sharafkhaneh under 
construction. Mu^-Tatvan section ’ completed I 9 h 4 : 
remainder scheduled for completion by 1971. 

Pakistan-Iran rail link joining Bad to Zahidan and 
Quetta under construction. 

Development of the ports of Trabzon and Iskenderun; 
Trabzon project completed in 1963. First stage of 
Iskenderun project finished in 1969. 


CENTO Airway; 'U.S.A. and the United Kingdom have 
contributed considerable amounts towards, improved 
navigational arid other aids for regional air traffic. Now 
virtually completed. 

High-frequency radio telecommunication links between 
London and key regional stations, i.e. Istanbul, 
Ankara, Teheran, Karachi and Dacca. First stage 
. completed in 1964: in full operation 1968. 

Ankara-Teheran-Karachi microwave links project, in- 
volving 88 relay stations and 13 air navigation stations, 
opened 1965, completed ig66. Teheran Control Centre 
opened 1969.’ 

Development of public health in tlie CENTO region — 
eradication of malaria, control of smallpox, teaching 
of preventive medicine, environmental sanitation, 
hospital administration, health education, family 
planning, etc. 


142 




CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION 


Scientific co-operation — development of science and tech- 
nology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. CENTO 
Scientific Co-ordinating Board provides courses and 
undertakes research. 

Agriculture: increeised production, development policy, 
banking and credit, forestry, pest control, land classifi- 
cation and soil survey, irrigation systems. 

Animal production and health: improved annual breeding 
and control of virus and parasitic diseases of livestock. 

Advisory Group on Minerals Development: covering work 
on border geological surveys, training in geological 
mapping techniques, stratigraphic surveys and investi- 
gations of possible exploitation of phosphate deposits. 


Technical Assistance Programme: training fellowships in 
specialized subjects in all three countries, visits and 
tours of experts, worldng and travelling seminars and 
conferences of experts, financed by the Multi-lateral 
Technical Co-operation Fund (MTCF) at current level 
of U.S. $315,000 per year. 

A Senior Industrial Development Advisor was, appointed 
in 1970 to examine industrial developfi^enjt' in Pakistan 
and Turkey. 

SECRETARIAT BUDGET ' 
(1970-71) 

U.S. $1,000,000 (approx.) 


RECORD OF EVENTS 


■955 Turkey and Iraq signed Baghdad Pact, February. 
United Kingdom acceded to the Pact, April. 
Pakistan acceded to the Pact, September. 

Iran acceded to the Pact, November. 

Intematidnal Secretariat established, December. 
■95® United States joined Econoinic and Counter- 
Subversion Committees, of the . Pact. 

■958 Pact’s Headquarters and stafi moved to Ankara. 
■959 Bilateral defence agreements signed between the 
United States, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran, March. 
Iraq tvithdrew from the Pact, March. 

Opening of, Nuclear Centre in Teheran. June. 

Name, of Organisation changed to CENTO, August. 
■960 Establishment of new Permanent Military Deputies 
Group in Ankara, January'. 

Development Loan Fund agreed to loan $6 milnon 
to Turkey to help build Turkcy-Iran Raihvay. 

■961 First stage of High-Frequency Telecommunication 
link opened beriveen London, Istanbul, Ankara an 
Teheran, June. 

Contract for $16,490,000 awarded by U.S. ^vem- 
ment to build microwave telecommunications 

system. 

1962 Visit to CENTO Headquarters of Vice-President of 
the United States, Mr. Lyndon Johnson, August. 
Visit to CENTO Headquarters of His Imperial 
Majesty the Shahanshah of Iran, October. 

>963 CENTO project for the development of the TurMsh 
port of Trabzon completed, aided by a grant 01 
£180,000 from the United Kingdom. 

■9®4 United States Development Loan Fund agr^d to 
loan over $18 million to meet foreign exchange 
requirements for completion of CENTO ur ey 
Iran railway. CENTO Permanent Military 1 - 

communication System linking Ankara, Teheran 


Rawalpindi officially inau^rated^' fit 'iedst, of oyer 
$2 million provided by U.S. ,, United , Kingdom 
announced increased financial aid to, CENT, O:. from 
April 1965 £i million annually. First section of 
Turkey-Iran railway. Mu? to Tatvan (100 km.) 
completed and put into service. . , . , ,■ 

1965 CENTO Microwave Telecommunications' system 

banded over for operation . to, governments of 
Turkey, Iran and Pakistan (June).'- •/. . • 

1966 CENTO Microwave TelecommunicatioW ; System 

officially dedicated (April). . is,,.- , r-, 

Section of CENTO Turkey-Iran- Road,. between 
Sivelan (Turkey) and Rezaiyeh (Iran) officially 
dedicated (June). 

1967 CENTO Conference on National' and- .Regional 
Agricultural Development Policy; - '-1 o'-.. 

1968 CENTO Conference on Earthquake Hazard Mini- 
mization met in Ankara, and called for the establish- 
ment of an Association for Earthquake Studies 

(J»j>y)- 

CENTO Family Planning Study Tour visited family 
planning centres and clinics in a round the world 
tour (November-December). 

1969 Decision to set up an Industrial Development Wing 
■within the CENTO Secretariat (Alay). An Industrial 
Planning Board ivill act as co-ordinator for technical 

The^lnnah Post-Graduate Medical Centre in 
Karachi was adopted as a CENTO-supported 
regional institution (May). 

Reduction achieved in telegraph and telephone 
rates over the CENTO Microwave System. 

1970 Seventeenth session of Council of Ministers held in 
Washington (May). 


143 



CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION 


PACT OF THE CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION 

(February 24th, 1955) 


Article i 

Consistent with Article 51 of the United Nations 
Charter the High Contracting Parties will co-operate for 
their security and defence. Such measures as they agree to 
take to give effect to this co-operation may form the subject 
of special agreement with each other. 

Article 2 

In order to ensure the realization and effect application 
of the co-operation provided for in Article 1 above, the 
competent authorities of the High Contracting Pmties 
\vill determine the measures to be taken as soon as the 
present Pact enters into force. These measures will become 
operative as soon as they have been approved by the 
Governments of the High Contracting Parties. 

Article 3 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to refrain from 
any interference whatsoever in each other’s internal 
affairs. They will settle any dispute between themselves in 
a peaceful way in accordance \vith the United Nations 
Charter. 

Article 4 

The High Contracting Parties declare that the disposi- 
tions of the present Pact are not in contradiction with any 
of the international obligations contracted by either of 
them -with any third state or states. They do not derogate 
from, and cannot be interpreted as derogating from, the 
said international obligations. The High Contracting 
Parties undertake not to enter into any intemationsd 
obligation incompatible with the present Pact. 

Article 5 

This Pact shall be open for accession to any member state 
of the Arab League or any other state actively concerned 


with the security and peace in this region which is fully 
recognized by both of the High Contracting Parties. 
Accession shall come into force from the date of which the 
instrument of accession of the state concerned is deposited 
with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iraq. 

Any acceding State Party to the present Pact, may con- 
clude special agreements, in accordance -ivith Article i, 
with one or more states Parties to the present Pact. The 
competent authority of any acceding State may determine 
measures in accordance with Article 2. These measures 
will become operative as soon as they have been approved 
by the Governments of the Parties concerned. 

Article 6 

A Permanent Council at Ministerial level will be set up 
to function within the framework of the purposes of this 
Pact when at least four Powers become parties to the Pact. 

The Council will draw up its own rules of procedure. 


Article 7 

This Pact remains in force for a period of five years 
renewable for other five-year periods. Any Contracting 
Party may withdraw from the Pact by notifying the other 
parties in writing of its desire to do so, six months before 
the expiration of any of the above mentioned periods, in 
which case tte Pact remains valid for the other Parties. 


Article 8 

This Pact shall be ratified by the Contracting Parties 
and ratifications shall be exchanged at Ankara as soon as 
possible. Thereafter it shall come into force from the date 
of the exchange of ratifications. The three texts of the Pact 
in Arabic, Turkish and English are equally authenbe 
except in the case of doubt when the English text shall 
prevail. 


144 


THE COLOMBO PLAN FOR CO-OPERATIVE 
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AND 

SOUTH-EAST ASIA 


12 Melbourne Avenue, P.O. Box 596, Colombo, Ceylon 


Set op in 1950 by the British Commonwealth and subsequently joined by South-East Asian countries, Japan 

and the United States. 


Afghanistan 

Bhutan 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Ceylon 

India 


Australia 

Canada 


MEMBERS 
Within the Area 
Indonesia 
Iran 

Korea, Republic of 

Laos 

Malaysia 

Maldives, Republic of 

Outside the Area 
Japan 

New Zealand 


Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Singapore 

Thailand 

Viet'Nam, Republic of 


United Kingdom 
United States 


Asia Productivity Organisation 
International Bank for Reconstruction and 
(World Bank) 

United Nations Economic Commission for 
Far East (ECAFE) 

United Nations Development Programme 


OBSERVERS 

Commonwealth Secretariat 

Development International Labour Organisation 

Asian Development Bank 
Asia and the GATT/UNCTAD 

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 


ORGANIZATION 


THE CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 

The Consultative Committee, consisting of representa- 
tives of member governments at Ministerial level, is the 
senior directing body of the Colombo Plan. It meets once a 
year, in difierent countries. Reports submitted by member 
countries are discussed and the Committee provides the 
central co-ordinating body for Capital Aid and Technical 
Co-operation Schemes. All members take part on equal 
terms and the meetings are attended by representatives of 
the Observers (above) and the Colombo Plan Bureau in 
an advisory capacity. 


THE COUNCIL FOR TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 
IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA 

President: Abdoel Hamid (Indonesia). 

The Colombo Plan Council for Technical Co-operation, 
which holds sessions in Colombo several times a year is a 
forum for consultation on the general principles within 
which Technical Co-operation operates, subject to the 
general direction of the Consultative Committee. It serves 
as a co-ordinating and receiving body. It has also been 
charged by the Consultative Committee with the responsi- 
bilities of carrying out information activities on the 
Colombo Plan as a whole. It is composed of representatives 
of Member Governments, who are generally their diplo- 
matic representatives in Colombo, but at timra from 
representatives sent for that purpose. The executive arm 
of the Council is the Colombo Plan Bureau. 


the COLOMBO 

Director: Brig.-Gen. A. B. Connelly (Canada). 

Adviser on Intra-Regional Training: Irshad H. Khan 
(Pakistan). 

Principal Information Officer: L. P. Goonetilleke 
(Ceylon). 

Information Officer: Bvung Hak Lee (Republic of Korea). 
Rogional Adviser on Population: Dr. John Edlefsen 
(U.S.A.). 


PLAN BUREAU 

The functions of the Bureau are: 

1. Maintaining a record of technical assistance (experts, 
training places, equipment), capital assistance given 
and received under the Colombo Plan together with 
statistics on costs. 

2. Preparing periodic progress reports on the scheme 
and on the Colombo Plan at such intervals as the 
Council may require. 


145 



THE COLOMBO PLAN 


3. Circulating among member countries general noti- 
fication of the availability of training facilities, 
experts and equipment within the region. 

4. Promoting intra-regional training through the holding 
of seminars and colloquia. 

5. Stimulating increased knowledge of, and interest in, 
the Colombo Plan and support for its aims and 
objects in member countries and elsewhere through 
the production and issue of publications and mass 
media material. 


6. Encouraging the spread of information on population 
control. 

7. Providing assistance to host countries in the organi- 
zation and administration of Consultative Committee 
meetings where requested; and providing assistance 
to co-operating countries in such other matters as 
may be requested. 

8. Representing the Colombo Plan at meetings where 
its representation is required ' and' representing the 
Bureau as a participating body in the Consultative 
Committee Meetings of the Colombo Plan. 


CO-OPERATION AND CAPITAL 


FORMS OF CO-OPERATION 

By the supply of experts and the provision of technical 
training to students from South and South-East Asia and 
the supply of special equipment for training and research. 

From 1950 to December ig6g, 65,544 trainees and 
students had received technical training and 12,989 
experts and equipment to the value of $450-9 million had 
been provided. 

During 1969, 6,68r students received training; 964 
experts were sent out; value of equipment supplied was 
S54.12 million; total value of co-operation activities from 


the inception of the Plan to December 1969 was over 
$1,369 million, of which 18 per cent was spent on trainees 
and students, 49 per cent on experts and advisers and 33 
per cent on technical and research equipment. 

Of the 6,681 training places provided in 1969, the United 
States is the major donor country, providing 2,893 places, 
i.e. 43 per cent of the total. Other major donors are Japaq 
(989), United Kingdom (928) and Australia (744). 

Thailand was the largest recipient of training and 
student awards during 1969 with 1,264 awards; followed 
by India (660), Indonesia (607) and 'Viet-Nam (564). 


TECHNICAL AID 
(U.S. $'ooo) 


Supplying Country 

1969 

Trainees 

Experts 

Equipment 

Other 

Total 

Australia .... 

4.S75-5 

1,287.4 

966.1 

— 

7,129.0 

Britain ..... 

3,861 .0 

2,734.0 

1,146.0 

1,000.0 

8,742.0* 

Canada . 

3,317.1 

1,925.9 

46.7 

56.7 

5,346.4 

Ceylon ..... 

0.8 

■ — 

— 

— 

0.8 

India ..... 

404.5 

122.8 

20.6 

— 

547-9 

Japan ..... 

2,026.0 

5 . 300*0 

3.637.8 

— 

10,963.8 

Korea ..... 

53-0 

0.3 

— 

— 

53-3 

Malaysia .... 

5-4 


— 


5-4 

New Zealand .... 

1,031.0 

687.0 

15.0 


1,733-0 

Pakistan .... 

97-9 

— 

0.2 

— 

98.1 

Philippines .... 

4-2 

— 

— 

— 

4-2 

Singapore .... 

48.7 

— 

— 

— 

48.7 

Thailand .... 

7-1 

35.7 

— 

— 

42.8 

U.S.A 

12,376.0 

82,559.4 

48,284.5 

— 

143,219.9 

Total 

28,108.2 

94,652.5 

54,116.9 

1.056.7 



* The figures supplied by Britain do not add exactly due to rounding procedures used.'^ 



14 G 
















THE COLOMBO PLAN 


FLOW OF FUNDS FROM COLOMBO PLAN DONOR COUNTRIES 
(Total Net Official Disbursements, in S U.S. million) 



1966 

•Total 

Exclud- 

ing 

1967 

Total 

Exclud- 

ING 


- 


1968 




N.Z. 

N.Z. 

Australia 

Canada 

Japan 

N.Z.* 

U.K. 

U.S. 

Total 

Afghanistan . 

Bhutan 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Ceylon . 

India . 

Indonesia 

Iran . 

Korea .■ . .. , 

Laos . • . j 

Malaysia . . 

Maldives 

Nepal . ' 

Pakistan . ' 

Philippines . 

Singapore..*.., 
Thailand- .; , 

Viet-Nam 

Regional and ' 

. General ; ' 

31-54 

0.05 

14.30 

1-31 

24.77 

997-82 

78.76 
2.08 
• igy.go 
■ 61.38 

25-93 
, 0-41 

,11.21 
ioo.'og 

' 54-83 

* •• .1.44 
' ■ 29.23 
:.-502.26, 

1 •** 

25-91 

0.01 

9-49 

1-33 

35-04 

1,056.85 

160.61 

17.80 

250.11 

63.64 

17.46 

0.30 

12.30 

383-32 

94-57 

6-45 

52-27 

451-94 

0.06 

0.11 

1.32 

0.31 

1 .07 
4.60 
7.04 
0.01 
0.74 

1-50 

4-33 
0.02 
0.18 
1.97 
1.07 
0.62 1 
2.72 
2.78 . 

2.75 

0.01 

0.03 

0.06 

0.20 

3-53 

78.50 

0.90 

0.47 

0.26 

6.29 

0.01 

0.01 

27.86 

8.46 

0.60 

1.48 

2.84 

3.00 

0.16 

10.44 

0.55 

5-11 

66.68 

83-72 

0 - 35 
43-97 

3-10 

1 - 54 

0.08 

41.66 

27.76 

0.38 

4.91 

0-53 

0.02 

O.OI 

0.03 

O.OI 

0.03 

0.16 

0.08 

0.03 

0.02 

0.70 

. O.OI 

0.02 

0.02 

0.13 

0.18 

0*39 

0.39 

0.79 

0.21 

0-34 

0.01 

8.63 

65-31 

2.64 
2.82 
0.20 
3-12 

9-58 

0.07 

0-53 

17-30 

0 - 33 

1 - 97 
0.91 

1 .04 

10.28' 

§ 1 8 1 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 M 88 1 §8 8 

15-46 

0.15 

14.19 

1.08 

36.37 

793-25 

220.38 
46.18 
241.41 
54.00 
, .44.44 

, O.Il 

0.82 

341-81 

77-75 

■ 3-75 
66.41 

■ 442.58 

50.82 

'. ' Total' 

..... j M i i 

2 , 3 ^y. 3 i 

2,639.40 

33-20 

134-51 

'290.94 

.3-02 

125.29 

1,864.00 

2,445-90 


^<1968 data.’shotvn for New Zealand represents disbursements in the fiscal year ended March 31, 1969, 


TOTAL CAPITAL AND TECHNICAL AID, 1951-1968 



Millions 

Australia ; 

Britain • . 

Canada 

Japan . ' '' 

New Zealand .’ 
United States 

■ -.x : 

AS246.7 

£5^9 

$i,ogo 

$1,756.1 

NZ$34.8 

523,323 


Capital aid takes the form of grants and loans for national 
projects; commodities included foodgrains, fertilizers, con- 
sumer goods, machinery and equipment. 

From 1950 to 1968 external assistance from the .main 
group of donor countries (comprising Australia, Canada, 
Japan, New Zealand, U.K., and U.S.A.) amounted to 
approximately $27,500 million, including technical assist- 
ance, capital aid and commodities. 

The value of aid contributed in 1968 was about U.S. 
$2,400 million. 


PUBLICATIONS 


ne Colombo Plan -Newsleiler. 

Annual Report of the Consultative Committee. 

Annual Report of the Council for Technical Co-operation. 
^Vhat is the Colombo Plan? (1967, 1968, 1969). 

Report on Training Faciiities at the Technician Level in 
South and South-East Asia. 

Handbook of Training Facilities at the Technician Level in 
South and South-East Asia (3rd edition, 1968). 

Horizons Nouveaux (French). 


Special Topic Reports: 

Increasing Agricultural Production in the Colombo Plan 
Area (1967). 

Export Promotion in the Colombo Plan Region (1968). 
Commemorative Volume to mark the igth meeting of the 
Colombo Plan Consultative Committee in Seoul, Korea 
(1968). ^ ■ 

Commemorative Volume to mark the looth Session of the 
Colombo Plan Council for Technical Co-operation in 
South and South-East Asia. 

Passage to Opportimity. 

Colombo Plan Wall Sheet (1964, 1968). 

Colombo Plan Calendar (1965, 1967, 1968, 1969). 


147 






















COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 

Provides for increased power generation and flood control in the Columbia River basin. 


SIGNATORIES 

Canada U.S.A. 

ORGANIZATION 


Canada: Canadian Entity; cjo British Columbia Hydro and 
Power Authority, 970 Burrard St., Vancouver 1, 
British Columbia; responsible for the representation of 
Canadian interests in the implementation of the Treaty, 
and for the construction and operation of the three 
treaty projects; Chair. Hon. Ray Wili-istok. 

U.S.A.: United States Entity: c/o Bonneville Power 
Administration, P.O.B. 3621, Portland, Oregon 97208; 
responsible for U.S. interests in the operation of the 
treaty provisions; Chair. Henry R. Richmond. 
Columbia Storage Power Exchange; P.O.B. 1709, East 
Wenatchee, Washington; a non-profit corporation 
organized in 1964 to act as the single purchaser of the 
Canadian Entitlement to downstream power benefits 
of the Columbia River scheme; represents over forty 
bodies in the northwest U.S.A. 


Joint Bodies: Permanent Engineering Board; composed of 
four representatives, two from each country: keeps 
under surveillance progress of the treaty projects; 
reports on any deviation from operation plans; assists, 
if requested, in reconciling technical or operational 
differences that may arise between the Entities. 
International Joint Commission: differences arising 
under the Columbia River Treaty which Canada and 
the United States of America cannot solve may be 
referred by either to the International Joint Commis- 
sion for decision. This Commission, established under 
a Britain-United States treaty signed January nth, 
1909, and ratified by Canada in 1911, is composed of 
six members (three appointed by the President of the 
United States and three by the Government of Canada). 
The Commission reports to the Secretary of State for 
External Affairs of Canada and to the Secretary of 
State of the United States. 


THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN 


The Columbia River flows 498 miles from its source in 
British Columbia to the Canadian-U.S. border and a 
further 745 miles through northwestern U.S.A. to the 
PcUjific. With its tributaries, of which the Snake and 
Kootenay rivers are the largest, it drains an area of 259,000 
square miles. Of this total, 85 per cent is in the U.S.A. 
The basin’s annual discharge of 180 million acre feet and 
the steep descent from the Rocky mountains to sea level, 
combine to create the greatest hydro-electric potential in 
North America. Eleven main stream dams have been built 
on the United States section of river, six by federal and 
five by non-federal U.S. agencies. Until the commencement 
of the Columbia Treaty projects no dams had been built 
on the Canadian section. The extreme seasonal variations 
of the flow had, therefore, consistently caused flooding 
during the period of maximum flow in late spring and early 
summer and a shortage of power during the period of 
minimum flow in autumn and winter. The Treaty provides 
for the construction of three storage dams in British 
Columbia to eliminate this flooding and improve the flow 
of the river, enabling the eleven do^vnstream dams in the 
U.S.A. to produce an additional capacity of 2.8 million 
kilowatts as well as protecting life and property from 
annual flooding. The additional installed generating 
capacity of the Columbia basin vdthin Canada alter 
development will amount to 5 million kilowatts. 


In 1944, the Governments of Canada and the U.S.A'. 
requested the International Joint Commission to deter- 
mine whether the development of the water resources of 
the Columbia River basin would be practical and ad- 
vantageous to both countries. The International Joint 
Commission established the International Columbia River 
Engineering Board to undertake these investigations, and 
the Board submitted its report in 1959 indicating suitable 
sites for the construction of storage reservoirs. Also >n 
1959. the Commission submitted a special report recom- 
mending the principles for calculation and apportionment 
of benefits that would result from the co-operative develop- 
ment of the basin. During i960 and 1961 direct negotiations 
were conducted between the Governments of Canada and 
the U.S.A. concerning the selection, construction and co- 
operative use of specific projects. These negotiations led 
to the signing of the Treaty in January ig6i. Canada con- 
cluded agreements in 1963 and 1964 with British Columbia 
(the oivner of the Canadian water resources) on the 
respective responsibilities of each government in the 
development of the Columbia River. International 
negotiations continued until January 1964, when Canada 
and the U.S.A. approved an important protocol, which 
modified the 1961 Treaty and in addition confirmed the 
sale for thirty years of the Canadian Entitlement to 
do'wnstream power benefits. 


COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 


PROJECTS 


Three storage reservoirs to be built and operated" in 
Canada; 

Duncan: on Duncan River; completed July 31st, 1967; 
Storage 1.4 million acre feet. 

Arrow: on Columbia River; completed October 1968; 
Storage 7.1 million acre feet. 

Mica: on Colombia River; to be completed by April ist, 
1973; Storage 12 million acre feet; ultimate generating 


capacity 2.5 million kilowatts; generating plants will also 
be built downstream from Mica at Do^vnie, Revelstoke and 
Murphy, with a combined capacity of 1.9 million kilowatts. 

The U.S. A. has exercised the option to build and operate 
one storage reservoir: 

Libby: on Kootenai River; to be completed by 1974; 
Storage 5 million acre feet; Capacity 840,000 kilowatts. 


FINANCE 


The three Canadian dams are financed by revenue from 
the U.S.A., derived as follows; 

Canadian Entitlement Purchase; Canada sold, for a 
period of thirty years from the completion of each project, 
her half-share of the additional downstream power pro- 
duced by the treaty projects. The sum of $253.9 million in 
U.S. funds received from the sale was transferred by 
Canada to the Government of British Columbia to be used 
for constructing the three dams. 


Flood Control Benefits: As the storage reservoirs come 
into operation, U.S.A. will pay Canada a total of $64.4 
million in U.S. funds for flood control benefits, and 
additional amounts if further flood control is required. By 
October 1968, $63.2 million had been paid on account of 
Duncan and Arrow projects. 


COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY 

Signed January 1961 and ratified September 1964. 


Article I. Interpretation: technical terminology. 

Article II. Development by Canada: 15.5 million acre 
feet of storage to be provided by Canada. 

Article III. Development by the United States of 
America Respecting Power. 

Article TV. Operation by Canada: Canada to operate 
storage for sixty years, and to operate additional storage 
when requested. 

Article V. Bntitlement to Downstream Power Benefits: 
Canada entitled to half these benefits. 

Article VI. Payment for Flood Control. 

Articles VII, VIII, IX. Downstream Power Benefits: 
Detemunation, Disposal, Variation. 

Article X. East-West Standby Transmission: Canadian 
costs. 

Article XI. Use of Improved Stream Flow. 

Article XII. Kootenai River Development: U.S.A. 
Siven option to build Libby Dam; each country to retain 
benefits accruing from this dam. 

Article XIII. Diversions: limitation of diversion of 
waters that alters the flow within the Columbia River 
basin at the U.S.-Canadian border. 


Article XIV. Arrangements for Implementation: 
U.S.A. and Canada each to designate entities to formulate 
and carry out the operating arrangements. 

Article XV. Permanent Engineering Board. 

Article XVI. Settlement of Differences: differences to 
be referred to the International Joint Commission, and 
after three months to a tribunal of three members; 
decisions of either body to be definitive and binding. 

Article XVII. Restoration of Pre-Treaty Legal Status: 
upon termination of the Treaty, the Boundary Waters 
Treaty, 1909, shall apply to the Columbia River basin. 

Article XVIII. Liability for Damage. 

Article XIX. Period of Treaty: Treaty to remain in 
force at least sixty years. 

Article XX. Ratification. 

Article XXI. Registration with the United Nations. 

PROTOCOLS 
Signed January 1964. 

Modify and clarify technical provisions and contain 
terms of the sale of Canada’s entitlement to downstream 
povrer benefits. 


149 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


Her Majesty’s Dominions of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Sierra Leone, Jarriaica, 
Trinidad and Tobago, ’Malta, Barbados, Mauritius, Fiji and all Dependent Territories. 

Territories under Her Majesty’s protection — -Protectorates and Protected States. • • , , 

The Republics of India, Pakistan, Ghana, Cyprus, Tanzania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, '■ Singapore, 

Malawi, Botswana, Guyana, Gambia. ■ ■ . • ' ' ■ • ’ 

Independent Monarchies; The Federation of Malaysia, Kingdom of Lesotho, Swaziland, Tonga, Western Samoa. 


INDEPENDENT COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES 



Area 
' (sq. miles) 

• Population 

Date of 

•Independence ' 

United Kingdom 

94 » 2 I 2 

54,774,100 



Canada ..... 

3,851,809 

20,334,000 

■1867 

Australia .... 

2,967,909 . 

11,928,889 

1900 , 

New Zealand .... 

103.736 

2 , 725.’643 

1901 

Island Territories . 

194 

26,059 


India ..... 

1.173.963 

523,893,000 

Aug. 15, 1947 

Pakistan ..... 

365.529 

93,720,613 

Aug. 14, 1947 

Ceylon ...... 

25.332 

11,504,100 

Feb. 4, 1948 

Ghana ..... 

92,100 ‘ 

7,945,000 

Mar. 6, 1957 

Malaysia ..... 

130,000 

9.558.000 

Aug. 31, 1957 

Cyprus . . . . 

3.572 

■614,000 

Aug. 16, i960 

Nigeria . . . ... 

365,669 

55,670,000 . 

Oct. I, i960 

Sierra Leone . . ... 

27.925 

2,183,000 ' 

■■'April 27,' 1961 

Tanzania . . ' : 

363,708 

■ 12,231,342 

Dec. 9,- 1961 ■' 

Western Samoa' 

1,090 

131.379 

Jan. 1, 1962 

Jamaica . ... . .. 

4,400 • 

- -1,859,871 

Aug. 5, 1962 

Trinidad and Tobago 

1,980 

974,000 

Aug. 31, 1962 

Uganda ...... 

93.981 , 

7,740,000 

O.ct. 9, 1962 

Kenya . . , ' . 

224,960 

9,643,000 

Dec.- 12, 1963 ■ 

Malawi ..... 

45.747 ' 

•4, 042, 4X2 

• Tulv 6. 1964 

Malta . . • . • . 

I 2 I 

323.591 

Sept. 21, 1964 

Zambia . . . .... 

.•■,290,600 

. 3.894.636 

■ Oct. 24, 1964 

Gambia . ; , , . 

4.003 

315.486 

Feb. 18, .1965 

Singapore ... 

V 224 

1,956,000 

.Aug. 9, 1965 

Guyana ..... 

83,000 

675,000 

May 26, 1966 

Botswana . ■ . . ■ 

220.000 

576,000 

Sept. 30,- 1966 . 

Lesotho . ■ . 

. 11,716 

976,000 

Oct. - 4, 1966 

Barbados .... 

166 

, 248,000 

Nov. 30, 1966 

Mauritius .... 

808 

782,044 

Mar. 12, 1968 

Swaziland .... 

6,705 

395,138 

Sept. 6, 1968 

Tonga ..... 

270 

85,000 ' 

June 4, 1970 

Fiji ..... 

7.095 ■ 

476,727 

Oct. 10, 1970 


Nauru became a special member of, the Commonwealth in November 1968; it will have 
the right to participate in functional activities but will not be represented at Meetings of 
Commonwealth Heads of Government. 


150 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


DEPENDENT TERRITORIES . 



Form of 
Government 

Area 
( sq. miles) 

POPUEATION 

Central Africa; 




Rhodesia (Southern) 

Colony in rebellion 

150,820 

5,070,370 

Far East: 




Brunei .... 

Protected State 

2,226 

130,000 

Hong Kong .... 

Colony and Leased 
Territories 

398 

3,716,400 

Indian Ocean: 




British Indian Ocean Territory 

Colony 

150-200 

1,500 

Seychelles .... 

Colony 

156 

49,981 

Mediterranean: 




Gibraltar .... 

Colony 

2 

25,281 

Atlantic Ocean: 




British Antarctic Territory 

Colony 

472,000 

85* 

Falkland Islands . 

Colony 

4,700 

2,140 

Falkland Islands Dependencies 

Dependency 

1,520 

182 

St. Helena .... 

Colony 

47 

4,8.11 

Ascension .... 

34 

1,363 

Tristan da Cunha 


38 

271 

West Indies and Bermttda; 


5.380 


Bahamas .... 

Colony 

145,896 

. Bermuda .... 

Colony 

21 

49,092 

British Honduras . 

Colony 

8,866 

122,000 

British Virgin Islands . 

Colony 

67 

8,895 

Cayman Islands . 

Colony 

100 

8,853 

Leeward Islands: 

Antigua . ; . • 

Associated State 

I7I 

60,000 

Montserrat 

Colony 

39 

14,468 

St. Christopher, Nevis, 


138 


Anguilla * . 

Associated State 

59,000 

Turks and Caicos Islands 

Colony 

166 

6,770 

Windward Islands; 

Associated State 


68,000 

Dominica , . . ♦ 

305 


Associated State 

133 

98,773 


Associated State 

238 

100,000 

St. Vincent 

Associated State 

150 

92,000 

WesterJi Pacific: 

Colony 


98 

Pitcairn Islands 


Western Pacific High Commis- 
sion: 

British Solomon Islands 

Protectorate 

11,500 

148,000 

Gilbert and Ellice Islands . 

Colony 

369 

55,05° 

New Hebrides 

Anglo-French 

Condominium 

.5,700 

68,000 


• Temporary Base personnel. ’ 


151 






THE COMMONWEALTH 


Education Division : 

Assistant Secretary-General: Dr. y. K. Lule. 

Director: Dr. James Makaj. 

Assistant Director: Chong Seck Chim. 

International A /fairs Division 

Director: W. Peters. 

Assistant Directors: E. C. Anyaoku, D. W. Sagar, Mrs. S. 
Kochar. 

Establishment and Finance Division 
Director: M. Rahman. 

Information Division 

Director: D. Kerr. 

Technical Assistance Headquarters Group 
Technical Assistance Officers: A. B. Pusar, Prof. E. C. 
Dommen, J, B. Kaboha, Ikhtiar Ue Mulk. 

Legal Division 

Director: T. Kellock. 

Medical Division 

Director: Dr. V. Kyaruzi. 

The following organizations are administered by the 
Commonwealth Secretariat: 


Commonwealth Secretariat Education Division: Marl- 
borough House, Pall Mall, London, S.W.i; formerly the 
Commonwealth Education Liaison Unit which was 
integrated into the Commonwealth Secretariat in 
April 1967; the Unit was formed in i960 on the 
recommendation of the First Commonwealth Education 
Conference, July 1959, to assist the Commonwealth 
Education Liaison Committee in the task of matching 
educational needs and educational resources in Com- 
monwealth countries; Assistant Sec.-Gen. for Education 
Dr. Y. K. Lule; Dir. J. Maraj. 

Commonwealth Secretariat Commodities Division: 10 

Carlton House Terrace, London, S.W. 1 ; formerly knoivn 
as the Commonwealth Economic Committee; f. 1925 as 
the Imperial Economic Committee, became oiBcial body 
in 1933 to provide economic and statistical services on 
subjects affecting Commonwealth production and 
trade, until it was integrated into the Commonwealth 
Secretariat in 1966; Dir. D. K. Srinivasachar; pubis. 
Commodity Series (annual). Intelligence Service Series 
(quarterly and monthly). 

MARLBOROUGH HOUSE 

Marlborough House came into use as a Commonwealth 
centre in 1962, to serve as a centre for Commonwealth 
meetings in London. In addition to the Secretariat, it 
houses offices for Prime Ministers and their accompanying 
delegations and staffs, the Commonwealth Foundation and 
an Information Centre; 


FOREIGN AND COMMONWEALTH OFFICE 

Do^vning Street, London S.W.i, England 


In Au^'st 1966 the Commonwealth Office was formed 
by the merging of the Colonial Office and the Common- 
wealth Relations Office, its functions being to advise the 
Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs on all aspects 
of Commonwealth relations, communicate on his behalf 
with other Commonwealth Governments and with the 
Commonwealth Secretariat, keep in touch with and advise 
other United Kingdom Government departments on 
Commonwealth policy, provide information to the British 
press and public about Commonwealth activities, and deal 
generally rvith matters affecting members of the Common- 
wealth both as a group and as individuals. 

In October 1968 the Foreign Office and Commonwealth 
Office were amalgamated into a single office, the Foreign 


Secretary becoming Secretary of State for Foreign and 

Commonwealth Affairs. 

Secretary of Slate for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs: 
Sir Alec Douglas-Home. 

Overseas Development Administration: Eland House, Stag 
Place, London, S.W.i; established 1964 as Ministry of 
Overseas Development to promote the progress of the 
developing countries, both members and non-members 
of the Commonwealth. In October 1970 the Con- 
servative government abolished the Ministry and 
transferred its functions to the Foreign and Common- 
wealth Office. 

Minister for Overseas Development in the Foreign and 
Commonwealth Office: The Rt. Hon.. Richard V/ood. 


154 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


COMMONWEALTH CO-OPERATION 


STERLING AREA 

MEMBERS 


Commonwealth 


United Kingdom and 
Dependent Territories 
Australia 
New Zeal^d ' 

India 

Pakistan 

Ceylon 

Ghana 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Cyprus ■ 

Tanzania 

Jamaica 

Trinidad and Tobago 
Uganda ' ■ ' 

Malaysia 


Kenya 

Malawi 

Malta 

Zambia 

Gambia 

Singapore 

Guyana 

Botswana 

Lesotho 

Barbados 

Western Samoa 

Swaziland 

Mauritius 

Fiji ' 

Tonga 


NONrCOMMONWEALTH 

South Africa Libya 

South West Africa Kuwait 

Iceland Bahrein 

Irish Republic Qatar 

Jordan (including West Bank Trucial Oman States 
and East Jerusalem) 

Note: Canada alone in the Commonwealth is not a membi 
of the Sterling Area. Rhodesia's membership was su: 
pended in November 1965. Burina withdrew froi 
membership in October 1966. 


The Sterling Area consists of those . countries whose 
currency exchange rates are fixed in relation to the pound 
sterling and who finance the bulk of their foreign trade in 
sterling. The 'United Kingdom dependencies have, their 
currencies statutorily linked with sterling, and the' other 
independent members of the Sterling Area normally hold 
the bulk of their foreign exchange reserves arid a pro- 
portion of their statutory reserves in sterling. Since 
ccefnber 1958' sterling has been freely tranrierable and 
convertible into dollars and in February 1961 it became 
ully convertible under the terms of Article' 8. of the 
International Monetary Fund; 

To a large extent the central banks of the member 
Wunbies pool their gold and dollar earnings in London, 
orming a central reserve upon which they draw at need. 


NATIONALITY AND CITIZENSHIP 

In 1947 a Commonwealth Conference agreed on a 
general scheme for defining citizenship, whereby the 
Wizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies would be 
cnted as one, and every Commonwealth country would 
j’ccognize as British subjects (or Commonwealth citizens) 
nth its orvn citizens and the citizens of other Common- 
w^lth countries. Naturalization of aliens would automatic- 
y confer the status of British Subject or Commonwealth 
^ izen and be recognized throughout the Commonwealth. 
Wot every country of the Commonwealth has enacted this 
Wuse and where action has been taken there .have been 

ouferences in form. ' 


There is considerable difference between countries in the 
practical effects of possessing common status. In'.. the 
United Kingdom British subjects hold full franchise rights, 
are entitled to membership of both Houses of Parliament 
and the Privy Council and admission to professions closed 
to aliens. In other Commonwealth countries, the rights of 
a British subject not originally a citizen of that country 
are more limited. Only Canada, Australia: (with certain 
exceptions), and New Zealand grant franchise rights. 
Admission to the professions is generally open to all British 
subjects, whether nationals of the country .or not. 

MIGRATION 

Immigraiion to the United Kingdom is mainly from the 
older Dominions, the West Indies, Cyprus, India, Pakistan 
and West Africa. The end to free entry of Comilionwealth 
citizens was brought about by the Commonwealth Immi- 
grants Acts of 1962 and 1968, which restricted entry, using 
a voucher system, to those having evidence of employment 
prospects or means to support themselves; restrictions can 
also be imposed on medical or security grounds. An 
Immigration Appeals Tribunal was set up in 1969. There is, 
in practice, no immigration control over travel from the 
non-Commonwealth country of Ireland. Further changes 
in the position may be made in 1971 under the new 
Conservative Government, which is introducing a Con- 
tinuation order prolonging the previous legislation. ' "' 

Emigration from the United Kingdom is directed mainly 
towards the older countries of the Commonwealth, Canada, 
Australia and New Zealand. Entry into Canada for United 
Kingdom citizens has, since 1961, been restricted to'thoso 
having assured jobs or satisfactory prospects of employ- 
ment; for other Commonwealth citizens each case is 
considered on its merits but coloured persons must have 
a sponsor. Australia allows unrestricted entry for;United 
Kingdom citizens, . but under her "All-White Policy" no 
coloured ■ person is permitted to take up permanent 
residence; New, Zealand amended her legislation in J961, 
so that all persons, including United Kingdom subjects, 
require an entry permit. 

RECIPROCAL SOCIAL SECURITY 

No overall scheme of Social Security exists covering the 
whole of the Commonwealth. The following , reciprocal 
schemes are in operation; . , 

United, Kingdom-Australia and United Kingdom-New 
Zealand: old age, -widowhood, orphanage,, sickness, 
hospitalisation, invalidity and unemployment benefits; 
family allowances. , - • • - ■ 

United Kingdom-Canada: unemployment and retirement, 
benefits; fainily' allowances. 

United Kingdom-Malta: old age, widowhood, orphanage,, 
sickness, unemployment and industrial injuries benefits. 

• United Kingdom-Cyprus: old age, widowhood, orphanage; 
sickness, maternity, unemployment and death benefits. ■ 

ECONOMICS AND TRADE 

Since 1959 official economic co-operation has been 
co-ordinated in the Commonwealth Economic Consultative 
Council. The Council generally meets at the level of Finance 


155 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


Ministers each year before the meetings of the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. In 1966 there was also a 
meeting of the Council at the level of Commonwealth 
Trade Ministers, at which it was decided to instruct the 
Commonwealth Secretariat to explore the feasibility of a 
Commonwealth Market Development Fund to assist 
developing member countries in the technique of export 
promotion, A conference was accordingly held in Nairobi 
in May 1967 on co-operation in planning. Commonwealth 
assistance and trade promotion. 

A Commonwealth conference on the problems facing the 
tourist industry in member countries was held in Valetta in 
November 1967. 

Economic Conferences 
1952 London 

1958 Montreal (Trade and Economics) 



Meetings of 

Finance Ministers 

1949 

London 

1961 

Accra 

1952 

London 

1963 

London 

1954 

Sydney 

1965 

Jamaica 

1955 

Istanbul 

1966 

Montreal 

1956 

Washington 

1967 

Port of Spain 

1957 

Mont Tremblant, 

1968 

London 


Quebec 

1969 

Bridgetown 

1959 

London 

1970 

Cyprus 

i960 

London 




COMMONWEALTH PREFERENCE 
Commonwealth Preference is a system of tariff preferences 
operating between most of the Commonwealth territories. 
Preference is granted by levying a customs duty on all 
imports from foreign countries and a lower rate or none on 
imports from the Commonwealth. • , 

The present system dates from the Imperial Economic 
Conference, Ottawa, 1932. By the 1947 UN General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) existing imperial 
preferences were retained but no new ones were permitted. 
Commonwealth countries have also obtained certain 
exemptions from GATT tariffs. 

In recent years the scope of Commonwealth Preference 
has been reduced by some countries, but it continues to be 
an important trade factor. In 1957 about four-fifths of 
manufactured goods imports from the Commonwealth to 
the United Kingdom enjoyed tariff preference, while in 
1961 about half of United Kingdom exports to the Com- 
monwealth were accorded preference. 

COMMONWEALTH SUGAR AGREEMENT 
An Agreement was concluded in 1951 between the British 
Government and Commonwealth sugar industries and 
exporters, providing for a U.K. commitment to buy 
specified quantities of sugar at prices negotiated as being 
reasonably remunerative to efficient producers, and for the 
orderly marketing in the U.K., New Zealand and Canada 
of supplies in excess of the negotiated price quotas from 
the exporting countries. 

Exporting countries at present adhering to the Agree- 
ment, which has been extended to the end of 1974, are 
Australia, British Honduras, East Africa, Fiji, India, 


Mauritius, Swaziland and the West Indies and Guyana. 
(The Rhodesian quota has been placed in suspense until 
the return of constitutional rule). 

Talks on the future of the Agreement in the advent of 
Britain joining the European Common Market were held 
in 1967, and a new Agreement signed in December 1968. 

ECONOMIC AID 

Intra-Commonwealth aid programmes in operation 
include the Special Commonweffith African Assistance 
Plan (SCAAP), Commonwealth Education Co-operation, 
Overseas Service Aid and similar schemes, the Colonial 
Development and Welfare programmes, Australian South 
Pacific Technical Assistance Programme and the Australian 
International Awards Scheme. The Commonwealth is 
associated with non-Commonwealth countries in the 
Colombo Plan, Caribbean Technical Assistance, Indus 
Basin Development Fund, British Council, the economic 
sector of SEATO and the Indian General Scholarship 
Scheme. In addition there are a number of other pro- 
grammes related to specific countries. The flow of official 
aid in the Commonwealth in 1966 amounted to £22(1.1 
million. 

Official financial aid and technical assistance from the 
United Kingdom to developing countries of the Common- 
wealth is made through the following agencies: 

Overseas Development Administration {see above: Foreign 
and Commonwealth Office). 

Commonwealth Development Corporation— CDC: 33 Hill 
Street, London, WiA 3AR. Established 1948 as^ the 
Colonial Development Corporation, to assist the British 
Colonies in the development of their economies (since 
expanded to cover developing countries anywhere in 
the world). Chairman: Lord HowicK or Glendale, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.V.O. 

Commonwealth Development Finance Company Ltd.— 
CDFC: r Union Coiui:, Old Broad Street, London, 
EC2N lEA, England. Established 1953 to provide 
financial assistance on a commercial basis for sound 
industrial development in Commonwealth countries. 
In 1969 policy modified so as to place major emphasis 
on providing equity capital, and territorial scope 
widened to include countries outside the Common- 
wealth, but where such operations would serve British 
or Commonwealth interests. Chairman: Sir George 
Bolton, k.c.m.g.; Man. Dir. B. Berkoff. 

EDUCATION 

Education Conferences 
1959 Oxford 

1962 New Delhi 

1964 Ottawa 

1968 Lagos 

1971 Canberra 

Association of Commonwealth Universities: 36 Gordon 
• Square, London, WCiH oPF; f. 1913 as the Univer- 
sities Bureau ot the British Empire; holds quinqucnmal 
Congresses and other meetings in the intervening years; 
publishes factual information about universities and 
access to them; acts as a general information centre 
and provides an advisory service for the filling of 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


university teaching staff appointments overseas; sup- 
plies secretariats for the Commonwealth Scholarship 
Commission in the United Kingdom, the Marshall Aid 
Commemoration Commission and the Kennedy Mem- 
orial Trust; Mems.: 190 Universities and University 
Colleges; Chair. (1969-70) Dr. K. L. Shrimali; Vice- 
Chair. (1969-70) Sir Charles Wilson; Hon. Treas. 
1969-70) Sir Douglas Logan; Sec.-Gcn. Dr. Hugh 
Springer; pubis, include Commonwealth Universities 
Yearbook, Higher Education in the United Kingdom: A 
Handbook for Students from Overseas (jointly with the 
British Council), United Kingdom Postgraduate Awards, 
Compendium of University Entrance Requirements for 
First Degree Courses in the United Kingdom, Reports of 
Commonwealth Universities Congresses. 

Commonwealth Education Liaison Committee: Marlborough 
House, Pall Mall, London, S.W.i; f. 19591 provides a 
forum to consider schemes of educational aid agreed 
upon at the Commonwealth Education Conferences; 
Sec. Dr. James JMaraj. 

League for the Exchange of Commonwealth Teachers; 

124 Belgrave Road, London, S.W.i; f. 190J, present 
title 1963 (formerly League, of the British Common- 
wealth and Empire); promotes educational exchanges 
for a period of one year between Commonwealth 
teachers; Dir. Christopher Bell. 


AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 


The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux: Famham House, 
Famham Royal, Bucks.; f. 1929: Lliree Institutes and 
eleven Bureaux, all of which except one Institute are 
in Great Britain and each of which is concerned with a 
particular branch of agricultural science. They deal 
respectively ivith entomology, mycology, biological 
control, agricultural economics, animal breeding and 
genetics, animal health, animal nutrition, dairy science 
and technology, forestry, helminthology, horticulture 
and plantation crops, pastures and field crops, plant 
breeding and genetics, and soils. The Institutes and 
Bureaux act as clearing houses for the interchange o 
information of value to research workers in agncultur 
science throughout the Commonwealth and increasing y 
throughout the world. Review Conferences and Special 
Conferences on entomology and plant pathology arc 
held periodically. In collaboration with the Institut ur 
Dokumentationswesen, Institute of Food Technologis s 
and the Centrum voor Landbouivpublikaties on T-an 
houwdocumentatie, the Bureaux are also responsible 
for the International Food Information Service. an. 
W. G. Alexander, c.b.b. (U.K.); Vice-Chan. '• 
Seignoret (Trinidad and Tobago), Dr. V. Armstrong 
(New Zealand); Sec. Sir Thomas Scrivenor, p-*’- •’ 
pubis. Abstract fournals, culled from other scientinc 
journals (circ. 30,000); list of research workers m 
agriculture, animal health and forestry in the Common- 
wealth and the Republic of Ireland; monograpns o 
particular subjects. 


Commonwealth Forestry Association: The Royal Common- 
wealth Society, Northumberland Avenue, n , 
W.C.2; f. 1921; collects and circulates informa 
relating to forestry and the commercial utilisa o 
forest products, and provides a means of commu 
bon between forestry organisations in the Comm 



wealth; Chair. Sir Arthur Gosling, k.b.e., c.b.; 
Vice-Chair. Prof. M. V. Laurie, o.b.e,, m.a.; Editor 
and Sec. E. W. March, m.a. 

Standing Committee on Commonwealth Forestry: 25 Savile 
Row, London, WiX 2AY, England; set up folloiving 
the Second Empire Forestry Conference held in Canada 
in 1923, (i) to take appropriate follow-up action on all 
Conference resolutions, (ii) to provide continuity be- 
tween one Conference and another, and (iii) to provide 
a forum for discussion on any forestry matters of 
common interest to member governments which ma}-- 
be brought to the Committee's notice by any member 
country or organization; mems. about 50; Chair. J. A. 
Dickson; Sec. Miss M. J. Eden; pubis, reports and 
papers. 

CIVIL AVIATION 

Many pooling arrangements exist between Common- 
wealth airlines, notably to Australia, Africa and across the 
Atlantic. 

Conferences 

1946 Wellington 1950 Montreal 

1947 Montreal 1951 London 

1948 London 1953 London 

1956 London 

Commonwealth Air Transport Council: Broadway Build- 
ings, 54 Broadway, London, S.W.i, England; f. 1945 to 
keep under review the development of Commonwealth 
civil air communications. Mems,: governments of 
Commonwealth Countries; Sec. Mrs. V. Purnell. 

Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Research Council: 

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex; 
f. 1946; encourages and co-ordinates aeronautical 
research throughout the Commonwealth; Sec R. W. G. 
Gandy. 

LAW 

English Common Law forms the basis of most of the 
judicial systems of the Commonwealth. Exceptions are the 
Canadian province of Quebec and the Island of Mauritius, 
where French law is the basis; Ceylon and Rhodesia, 
where Roman-Dutch law is the basis; and the Moslem 
countries of South Asia and Africa, where the legal code 
is in part based on Moslem civil law. There is a right of 
appeal to the Privy Council from some countries, including 
Australia and New Zealand. 

There have been three Commonwealth and Empire Law 
Conferences, in London (i955). « Ottawa (i960), in 
Sydney (1965). At the 1965 Conference, major discussion 
centred on the possibility of establishing a Commonwealth 
Court of Appeal, to which all members of the Common- 
wealth, without exception, would have recourse. 

At a meeting of Law Ministers of 20 Commonwealth 
countries in May 1966, agreement was reached on new 
laws to govern the extradition of fugitive offenders. 
At present, the Imperial Fugitive Offenders Act, 1881, lays 
doivn that political asylum may not be granted by an 
independent member of the Commonwealth to a citizen of 
another independent member. This Act has been applied 
in the United Kingdom in the cases of Chief Enahoro 
(Nigeria) in 1963, and of Kwesi Armah (Ghana) in 1966. 



THE COMMONWEALTH 


SCIENCE 

Conferences are held on specialized subjects. 

Scientific Conferences 

1946 London 1958 London (Telecommunications) 

1952 Canberra/ 1958 London (Nuclear Science) 

' Melbourne 1962 London (Satellites) 

1952 London 

Commonwealth Scientific Committee: Africa House. Kings- 
way, London, W.C.2; f. 1946 by the British Common- 
wealth Scientific Official Conference to ensure the fullest 
collaboration between the civil science organisations of 
the- Commonwealth; Chair. Dr. R. N. Gonzalez; Sec. 
and Scientific Adviser to the Commonwealth Sec.-Gen. 
Dr. R. Glen; Assistant Sec. E. D. A. Davies.. 

Commonwealth Scientific Liaison Offices: Africa House, 
Kingsway, London, W.C.2; f. 194S; to keep member 
countries in touch with scientific developments in 
Britain and stimulate the exchange of scientific 
information: Sec. E. D. A. Davies. 


ATOMIC ENERGY 

The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority co- 
operates wth Commonwealth countries as follows: 


Australia: 


Canada: 

India: 

Pakistan: 


Extended collaboration through information 
exchanges and visits under an agreement 
signed in 1961. 

Annual meetings between British and Canadian 
nuclear scientists. 

Close contacts maintained, including exchange 
of information and materials. 

Co-operation in the building of new labora- 
tories at Rawalpindi. Collaboration through 
information exchanges and visits. 


MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 

Conferences are held bn specialised subjects,' 
Medical Conferences 


1949 

- Saskatoon 

1962 

Colombo 

1950 

• -Brisbane 

1964 

London 

1952 

Calcutta ' 

■ 1965 

Edinburgh 

1955 

Toronto 

1966 

Karachi 

1959 

London 

1968 

Sydney 

1961 

Auckland 

1968 

Kampala 

monwealth Medical 

Association: c/o 

British Medical 


Association, .Tavistock Square, London, W.C.ip.f, 1962 
at the seventh British Commonwealth Medical Con- 
ference, to promote within the Commonwealth the 
interests of the medical and allied sciences; to maintain 
the honour and traditions of the profession; to effect 
the closest possible links between its members; to 
disseminate news and information of interest. Mems.! 
medical associations in Australia, Canada, Ceylon, Fiji, 
Ghana, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaya, New Zealand, 
Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Tanzania, United 
ICingdom; Pres. Prof. A. A. Sandoshan (Malaysia), 
' Dr. Gwee Ah Leng (Singapore); Vice-Pres; Prof. 
D. E. C. Mbkie (U.K.): Hon. Sec.-Treas. Dr. Derek 
Stevenson (U.K.); pubis, newsletters. 


RADIO, TV AND PRESS • 

CoNFERENcfes ' 

1945 London (Radio) i960 Nery Delhi (Radio) . j 
1952 London (Radio) 1961" India/PakistanJPreM) 
t955 Australia (Press) 1963, Mphtreal (Radio) 

1956 Sydney, (Radio) , 1965'. , West Indies (Press) 

1959 London (Radio) 1968 .Neiy Zealand (Radio) 

Commonwealth Press Union: Bouverie House, 154 Fleet 
Street, London, E.C.4, England; f. T909 to promote 
. the welfare of the Commonwealth press; to-give effect 
to the opinion of members on-, all matters affecting the 
freedom -and interests ■ of .the ■, press, by opposing 
measures likely to affect the.freedom.of-.the press, by 
seeking improved reporting, and: .telecommunications 
facilities, by promoting training measures; to organise 
conferences; to promote understanding; .to preserve the 
principles of .the Union. Mems.: over 600 newspapers, 
news agencies, periodicals in 32 countries; Chair. The 
Hon. Gavin Astor; Sec. Lt.-Col. T. Pierce-Goulding, 
M.B.E., C.D.; pubis. Annual Report^ The 'CPU Quarterly. 

Commonwealth Broadcasting .Conference:. Broadcasting 
House, London, WlA lAA, England; f. . 1945; the Con- 
ference is a standing’ association of the national public 
service broadcasting organizations which are responsible 
for the planning and pres.enta(iph of the broadcast 
programmes of both independent and still dependent 
Commonwealth countries; it meets, every two or three 
years to promote the pooling and sharing of e.xporience 
and resources. In 1965 it established a perrhanent Study 
• Group on Training; At •the'‘'Eiglitli''Cphfercncc in 
Jainaica, 1970, it was -agreed ‘that where necessary 
"task forces" should' be set -iip' where the larger and 
more established members could' give -advice and 
expertise to the developing organizations.' The Ninth 
Conference will meet in Nairobi, Renya; in 1973:' Sec. 
Alva Clarke. ■-'■ '' 

, ■ . ■ • .1 -I * ; 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

. A common-user system of cable', radio - and satellite 
communications linksmost Cbmmdn’wealth'countries, witli 
extensions providing a world-wide network. Besides broad- 
band cables across the Atlantic ' and 'Pacific and from 
Australia to Singapore-Malaysia '^ia New Guinea. and 
Hong Kong, there arc satellite serviced 'connecting Aus- 
tralia, Britain, Canada, East Africa, ■' Hoiig Kong and 
Malaysia with various countries’. 'ln" addition, HF radio 
systems, microwave and ■ tropospheric scatter' systems, 
provide communications in different parts of the hot'itprk 

' Conferences " ' ■ • 

1945 London , 1962 ' ' London 

1958 London , 1965-6,6. London 

Commonwealth Telecommunications Council: f. 1967 ^ 

advise' Partner Governments and. the nationalized 
telecommunications' organizations on matters relating 
to external telecommunications: systems. Mems.,; 21 
representing 23 Partner Governments and i represent- 
ing British Overseas Territories and Associated States. 
Commonwealth Telecommunications Bureau: eS.Pall Mall. 

London, S.W.t; f. 1968 to servo, the Commonwealfh 
■ Telecommunications Organisation under the direction 
of the Council; Gen. Sec. S. N, Kalra. ' • 


158 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


COMMONWEALTH ORGANIZATIONS 


Association of Commonwealth Students (ACS): 29 Queen 
.Street, Edinburgh, EH2 iJX; f. April 1967 at meeting 
of National Unions of Students of 27 Commonwealth 
countries: aims "to assist participants to co-operate in 
promoting action on issues of common concern to their 
members and to assist in the exchange of students 
between these countries, provided that this will not 
limit the sovereignty of any participants; and to assist 
students in non-Commonwealth countries where 
•appropriate”; activities devoted primarily to "issues of 
educational and welfare concern"; General Conference 
once every three years elects seven-member Consulta- 
tive Committee and a President who is Executive 
Officer; Pres. A. K. P. Kludze (Ghana); Sec. Wii.i.rAM 
Roe (U.K.). 

British Council: 65 Davies St., London, WiY 2AA; f. 1934 
to promote a wider knowledge of Britain and the 
English language abroad and to develop closer cultural 
'.relations, with other countries; Chair. Lord Fulton, 
LL.D., D.LIIT. ■ 

Commonwealth Arts Festival Society: c/o 122 Wigmore 
St., London W.i; f. 1961 to organize the first Festival 
in 1965; aims at revealing the importance and diversity 
of the cultural traditions which exist in Commonwealth 
countries; Chairman of the Board of Directors Lord 
Balfour of Inchrye; Dir.-Gen. Ian Hunter; Admin. 
Sec. Katharine Drower. 

Commonwealth Association of Architects: 66 Portland 
Place, London, , W.i;, f. 1964 as an association of 
twenty-four societies of architects in various Common- 
wealth countries. Objects; collaboration on professional 
and educational matters; to provide member societies 
with advice and 'assistance; and to facilitate the recip- 
rocal recognition' of professional qualifications through 
a Commonwealth Board of Architectural Education; 
to provide a clearing' house for information on archi- 
tectural- practice,- and .to encourage collaboration on 
research. A conference was held in Lagos, 1969.' on the 
problems of smaller national professional institutes and 
the contribution of a Commonwealth association. Next 

• Conference: Australia, 1971. Regional Conferences were 
held in 1968 in Barbados, -Nairobi, and Ceylon, and in 

I ^69-70 in Kampala .and Hong Kong; Pres. J. R- 

• Bhalla (India);- .Vice-Pres. - M. Collard (Australia), 
Sec. T. C. Colchester, c.m.g.; pubis. Handbook (every 
two years). List of Recognized Schools of Architecture, 

'■ 'Conference Reports. ■ ■ 

Commonwealth Collections of Micro-organisms: Africa 
. House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; f. 19471 to foster 
. maintenance and expansion of existing culture collec- 
tions in the Commonwealth, to make more fully available 
; ; ?®r Soneral use the cultures contained in them and to 
Oncourage the establishment of such new collections as 
may be necessary; Chair.' Dr. S. T. Cowan; Sec. Dr. 
■ -J. ;M. Shewan. 

Com^monwealth Committee on -Mineral Processing; Warren 
' 'Spring Laboratory, Stevenage, Herts.; f. i960; to eScct 
' ' close co-operation in mineral processing, especially the 
^ ‘ ''•filization anfl-beneficiation of low-grade' ores; Chair. 


Dr. A. J. Robinson; Sec. A. R. Tron, b.sc., f.g.s., 
A.M.I.M.M.; publ. Commonwealth Mineral Processing 
News (annually); Directory of Research in Mineral 
Processing in the Commonwealth (biennially). 
Commonwealth Committee on Mineral Resources and 
Geology: c/o Commonwealth Geological Liaison Office, 
Africa House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; f, 1948 to 
promote collaboration and the exchange of information; 
Chair. Dr. K. C. Dunham; Sec. R. H. Thyer. 
Commonwealth Consultative Space Research Commiftee: 
c/o The Royal Society, 6 Carlton House Terrace, 
London, S.W.i; f. i960 to foster co-operation in space 
research and serve as a centre for information exchange; 
Chair. Sir Harris JIassey, f.r.s.; Exec. Sec. Sir David 
Martin, c.b.e., f.r.s.e. 

Commonwealth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institu- 
tions: 44 Portland Place, London WiN 4BR; convenes 
successive Mining and Metallurgical Congresses within 
the Commonwealth, or in the country of any Consti- 
tuent Body, as a means of promoting the development 
of the mineral resources of the Commonwealth and of 
fostering throughout the Commonwealth a high level 
of technical efficiency and professional status; to serve 
as an organ of intercommunication and co-operation 
between Constituent Bodies, and for the promotion 
and protection of their common interests; Chair. Sir 
Ronald L. Prain, o.b.e.; Hon. Sec. B. W. Kerrigan. 

Commonwealth Correspondents’ Association; 2-3 Salisbury 
Court, London, E.C.4; f. 1939 to safeguard rights and 
interests of Commonwealth press representatives in 
London; Pres. S. Kabadi (India). 

Commonwealth Countries League; women’s organization 
f. 1925 to secure equality of liberties, status and oppor- 
tunites between women and men and to promote 
mutual understanding throughout the Commonwealth 
countries; Pres. Mrs. Alice Hemming; Gen. Sec. Mrs. 
G. Davies, 61 Aberdare Gardens, London, N.W.6; 
pubis. Quarterly Newsletter, Annual Conference Report. 

Commonwealth Engineering Conference: c/o The Council of 
Engineering Institutions, 2 Little Smith St., London, 
S.W.I, England: f. 1946; the Conference meets periodic- 
ally to provide an opportunity for Presidents- and 
Secretaries of Engineering Institutions of Common- 
wealth countries to exchange views on collaboration; 

• last meeting held in India in November 1969; Sec. 
M. W. Leonard. 

Commonwealth Foundation: Marlbprough House, Pall 
Mall, London, S.W.i; f. 1965 to administer a fund 
for promoting interchanges between Commonwealth 
organisations in professional fields; the Foundation is 
■ an autonomous body and aims at achieving^ fuller 
representation at professional conferences, facilitating 
new' meetings and professional -visits, stimulating the 
flow of professional information, helping to set up 
national institutions where thSse 'do not. exist,, and 
promoting Commonwealth-ivide associations to reduce 
tendencies to centralize on the United Kingdom; Co'fn- 
monwealth Governments subscribe on .an agreed, scale 
..to .the dund,. which, is open to private contributions; 


159 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


funds committed to date: /1.2 million; Chair. Dr. 
Robert Gardiner; Dir. G. W. St. J. Chadwick, c.m.g. 

Commonwealth Friendship Movement: Kingscliife House, 
139-G Marine Parade, Brighton 7, Sussex, England; 
f. i960 to disseminate among teachers and children a 
knowledge of the peoples of the Commonwealth and 
other countries through correspondence; age-group 
9-18; Chair. Geoffrey Johnson Smith; Dir. Miss 
Stella Monk, m.b.e. 

Commonwealth Industries Association Ltd.: 60 Buckingham 
Gate, London, S.W.i; f. 1926 as the Empire indus- 
tries Association, merged with the British Empire 
League in 1947: present title 1961; aims to strengiiien 
the Commonwealth by means of mutual preferential 
trade, investment, migration and technical and scien- 
tific co-operation; Chair. The Rt. Hon. Robin Turton, 
M.C., ALP.; Hon. Treas. Lt.-Col. R. F. Wright; Dir. 
Edward Holloway; Sec. Miss H. Packer; Publ. The 
Monthly Bulletin. 

Commonwealth Institute: Kensington High Street, London, 
W.8; f. 1887 as the Imperial Institute, present name 
1958; a centre for public information and educational 
services, the Institute houses a permanent exhibition 
designed to express the modem Commonwealth in 
visual terms; Dir. K. J. Thompson, c.m.g. 

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association: c/o Houses of 
Parliament, London, S.W.i; f. 1911 to facilitate 
exchange of visits and information between Common- 
wealth parliamentarians; organization: General Council 
of members from independent and dependent countries, 
over 90 Branches throughout the Commonwealth; 
Chair. Hon. Peter Howson (Australia); Sec.-Gen. 
R. V. Vanderfelt, O.B.E.; Pubis. The Parliantentarian 
(quarterly). Report on World Affairs (quarterly, 
incorporating Report on Foreign Affairs). 

Commonwealth Producers’ Organization, 25 Victoria St., 
London, S.W.i; f. 1916; promotes the interests of 
producers in the Commonwealth and the development 
of reciprocal trade. Members in r8 countries. Chair. 
Sir Ronald Russell, m.p.; Exec. Dir. S. Stanley- 
Smith; Pubis. Commonwealth Producer (bi-monthly). 

Commonwealth War Graves Commission: 32 Grosvenor 
Gardens, London, S.W.i; f. 1917 (as Imperial War 
Graves Commission); provides for the permanent care 
and marking of the graves of members of the Common- 
wealth Forces who died during 1914-18 and 1939-45 
wars; maintains over a million graves in some 140 
countries and commemorates by name on memorials 
more than 750,000 who have no known grave or who 
were cremated; members: Australia, Canada, India, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, United King- 
dom; the Commission’s work is directed from the Head 
Office in London, to which Regional and Area Offices are 
responsible; a number of agencies have been established 
by agreement with the Governments of certain Com- 
monwealth countries and South Africa; Pres. H.R.H. 
The Duke of Kent, g.c.m.c., g.c.v.o.; Dir.-Gen. W. J. 
Chalmers, c.b.e. 

Cotton Research Corporation: 12 Chantrey House, Eccleston 
St., London, S.W.i, England; f. 1921. Function: to 
provide advice and carry out research on cotton 


growing, mainly for African countries, whose contribu- 
tions supplement the Corporation’s oivn income from 
an initial British Government endowment. Chair. Sir 
Geoffrey Nye, k.c.m.g., o.b.e.; Dir. M. A. Choyce, 
O.B.E.; Asst. Dir. and Sec. M. H. White; pubis. Cotton 
Growing Review (quarterly), Annual Report, Progress 
Reports from Experimental Stations (annual). 

Council for Volunteers Overseas: 26 Bedford Square, 
London, WClB 3HU; established 1964 as an advisory 
body for overseas service, it assists in the promotion of 
the programme for sending volunteers to developing 
countries. Mems.: 21 invited members, ii representa- 
tives of voluntary bodies, 5 ex-volunteers and 3 
observers; Pres. Lord Hunt; Sec. Philip Zealey. 

Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce: 75 

Cannon Street, London, E.C.4; f. 1911, reconstituted 
i960, to promote trade within the Commonwealth and 
with third parties, and to promote commercial training 
and information exchange; holds biennial Congresses 
and smaller bilateral trade conferences each year with 
individual countries or regions; nearly 350 mems.; Pres. 
Rt. Hon. Malcolm J. Macdonald, o.m.; Chair. Capt. 
J. Jeffery, o.b.e., q.c.; Dir. W. J. Luxton, c.b.e.; 
Sec. H. E. Nichols. 


Institute of Commonwealth Studies: 27 Russell Square, 
London, WCiB 5DS, England; f. 1949 to promote 
advanced study of the Commonwealth; provides a 
library and meeting place for postgraduate students 
and academic staff engaged in research in this field. 
Dir. Prof. W. H. Morris-Jones, b.sc. (econ.); Sec. 
P. H. Lyon, b.sc. (econ.), ph.d.; pubis. Annual Report, 
Reprint Series, Commonwealth Papers (series). Collected 
Seminar Papers. 


Joint Commonwealth Societies’ Council: c/o Royal Over- 
seas League, Park Place, St. James's St., London, 
S.W.I ; co-ordinates the activities of recognized societies 
promoting mutual understanding in the Commonwealth, 
mems.: fourteen Commonwealth Societies; Chair. 
The Viscount Amory, k.g., p.c., g.c.m.g., x.d.; Sec. 
D. K. Daniels, c.b.e. 


Royal Commonwealth Society: Northumberland Avenue, 
London, W.C.2; to promote knowledge and under- 
standing among the people of the Commonwealth; 
branches in principal Commonwealth countries; has 
full residential club facilities, lecture programmes and 
library; Chair. F. H. Tate; Sec.-Gen. A. S. H. Kemp; 
publ. Commonwealth Journal. 


Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind: Common- 
wealth House, Heath Rd., Haywards Heath, Sussex, 
England; f. 1950 to prevent blindness and to promote 
the education, employment and welfare of the six 
million blind people in the Commonwealth countries of 
Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific; Chair. Sw 
Edwin Arrowsmith, k.c.m.g.; Dir. J. F. Wilson, 
c.b.e.; publ. Annual Report. 


Royal Over-Seas League: Over-Seas House, Park Place, 
St. James’s Street, London, S.W.i; f. 1910 to promote 
friendship and understanding In the Commonwealth, 
membership is open to all British subjects and Com- 
monwealth citizens; Chair. Admiral Sir David Luce, 


160 


THE COMMONWEALTH 


G.C.B., D.S.O., O.B.E.; Dir.-Gcn. Philip Crawshaw, 
C.B.E.: publ. Overseas (quarterly). 

Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship: 38 Chesham 
Place, London, S.W.i; f. igoi to further personal 
friendship among Commonwealth peoples; about 
30,000 mems.; Pres. H.R.H. Princess Alice; Chair. 
Viscountess Dunrossil; Gen. Sec. Vice-Adm. Sir John 
Gray, k.b.e., c.b. 


Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO): 3 Hanover Street, 
London, WiR gHH; f. 1958 to help the developing 
nations solve their economic, educational and technical 
problems by providing young volunteers willing to 
serve overseas for a year or more; by 1971 over 10,000 
had been sent to more than 60 countries; Chair. 
Viscount Amory, k.g., p.c., g.c.m.g.; Dir. D. H. 
Whiting, o.b.e. 


101 



CONSEIL DE L’ENTENTE 


A political and economic association of four states which were formerly part of French West Africa, and Togo, 
which joined in June ig66. The organization was founded in May 1959. 



MEMBERS 

Dahomey 
Ivory Coast 
Niger 
Togo 

Upper Volta 


ORGANIZATION 


THE COUNCIL 
President; Diori Hamaki (Niger). 

The Council consists of the Heads of State and the 
President and Vice-President of the Legislative Assemblies 
of each member country, and the Ministers responsible for 
negotiations between the states. It is an executive body 
and members who fail to implement the decisions of the 
Council may be brought before a Court of Arbitration. 

The Council meets twice a year, the place rotating 
annually between the capitals of the member states. The 


Head of State of the host country acts as President. 
Extraordinary meetings may be held at the request of two 
or more members. 

COMMISSIONS 

Commissions on Foreign Afiairs, Justice, Labour, Public 
Administration, Public Works and Telecommunications, 
Posts and Telecommunications and on Epidemics and 
Epizootics have been set up. 

Secretary-General: Mile Mauricette Lakderoik. 

B.P. 1878, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 


TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT 

There is complete freedom of trade and a unified system of external tariffs and fiscal schedules. A single system of 
administration for ports and harbours, railways and road traffic and a unified quarantine organization will be set up. 


FONDS DE GARANTIE 

Central Guarantee Fund originally conceived as the Fonds de solidarity to support development projects, transfo^cd 
in June rg66 into a mutual aid and loan guaranty fund designed to encourage outside lenders to finance development project 
in member countries. Total to be provided annually by member states equals 650 million CFA, of which 500 million 'rill 
be contributed by Ivory Coast, 42 million each by Niger, Upper Volta and Dahomey, and 24 million by Togo. 

162 




CONSEIL DE L'ENTENTE 


FUNCTIONS 

In August i960 it was agreed that there should be: 

1. An identical constitutional and electoral procedure in each State. Elections are to be held 
at the same time. 

2. Each State shall have an identical organization of its Armed Forces. 

3. Identical administrative organization. 

4. Identical taxation and tariff policies. 

5. Common Bank of Amortization. 

6. A common Diplomatic Corps. 

Commissions have been set up to study how these measures may be implemented. 


AGREEMENTS WITH FRANCE 

In April ig6i the member states signed agreements with France, covering defence, economic affairs, judicial matters, 
higher education, cultural relations, civil aviation and postal and telecommunications. Upper Volta did not sign the defence 
agreement. 


1 G 3 



COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
OF MEDICAL SCIENCES— CIOMS 

Unesco House, 1 rue Miollis, Paris 15e, France 


Founded 1949 under the joint auspices of the World Health Organization and UNESCO to facilitate the exchange 
of views and information in medical sciences, to further co-ordination between international organizations in this 

field. 


MEMBERS 

International: 57 International Associations. 

National: Academies and Research Councils in thirteen 
countries. 

Associate: Seven medical societies. 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Consists of representatives of international and national 
members. Meets every three years to lay down general 
policy. Last meeting; Genova, September 1970. 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Consists of eight international members and four 
national members elected by the General Assembly. 
Directs the affairs of CIOMS between meetings of the 
General Assembly. 

President: Prof. A. Gellhorn (U.S..A). 

SECRETARIAT 

Carries out the administration of CIOMS. 

Executive Secretary: Dr. V. Fattorusso (Italy). 


ACTIVITIES 
The main activities of CIOMS are: 

Co-ordination of congress and technical aid to 
organizers of medical meetings. 

Convening of multi-disciplinary symposia and their 
publications. 

Establishing of medical nomenclatures. 

FINANCE 

CIOMS is financed by members’ dues and by grants from 
sponsoring bodies. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Newsletter. 

Calendar of International Congresses of Medical Sciences 
(annual). 

Calendar of Regional Congresses of Medical Sciences 
(annual). 

Proceedings of International Round Table Conferences. 
Yearbook. 


164 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 

COMECON— CMEA 


Prospckt Kalinina 56, Moscow 

The Council was founded in 1949 to assist the economic development of its member states through joint utilization 
and co-ordination of resources. The Mongolian People s Republic was admitted in 1962. 


MEMBERS 

Alhania* German Democratic Republic Poland 

Bulgaria Hungarj^ Ronmma 

Czechoslovakia Mongolian People s Republic U.S.S.R. 

♦ Since the end of 1961 Albania has virtually ceased to participate in the activities of the Council. 

OBSERVERS 

In accordance with Article X of the Charter, the Council may invite participation of non-member ^ 

its organs, in spheres agreed by arrangement with the relevant countries. At the f 

member countries arc participating in the work of the Council s organs in the role of observers. 

T , , ^ A ‘ViifTnclnvIa can participate in ccrt3.in defined spheres of the Council s Activity, 

In 1964 an agr^ment was concluded areas of foreign trade, finance and currency, and in a number 

where a mutual interest with member countries prevails, in tnc c B Th(> Tm-r'pmpnt also envisaced 

of branches of industry, to all intents and purposes on the same evel as 

TTigoslavia attending sittings of the Council's organs in the capacity of observer. 


ORGANIZATION 


SESSION OF THE COUNCIL 

Supreme organ of CMEA. Meets at least once yearly, in 
the capital of each member state in turn, all members being 
represented. Discusses proposals from members, from the 
Executive Committee, Permanent Commissions and 
Secretariat. Considers all fundamental questions con- 
cerning economic, scientific and technical collaboration. 
Lays down programme of action for CMEA. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Created at the i6th (Extraordinary) Session of the 
Council held in Moscow in June 1962 to take tlic place o 
the Conference of Members' Representatives and to form 
the chief executive organ of CMEA. Composed of t e 
representatives of the member states at the level of Depu > 
Prime Minister, their deputies and advisers. Meets at least 
once every two months to examine proposals from mem cr 
states, the Permanent Commissions and the Secrctaria . 
Guides all co-ordinating work linked with the resolution o 
problems before the Council, in agreement with tne 
decisions of the Session of the Council. The Chair is ta en 
in turn by representatives of each country. 

Msmbers: Todor Tsolov (Bulgaria), F. Hamouz (Czeebo 
, Slovakia), Heinrich Weiss (German Democratic 
Republic), Antal Apro (Hungary), Piotr Jarosze 
wicz (Poland). Gheorghe RAdulescu 
Dandinguivn Gombozhav (Mongolian People s Repu 
lie), Mikhail Lesechko (U.S.S.R.). 

There is also a Bureau of the Executive Committee, for 
Common Questions of Economic Planning. Each ^ 

state is represented by the Deputy Chairman of the bta 
Planning Organization. 

SECRETARIAT 

Prospekt Kalinina 56, Moscow. 

Sccrelary of Council: N. V. Faddeyev (U.S.S.R.). 


Deputy Secretaries: T. Todorov (Bulgaria), H. Emmerich 
German Democratic Republic), V. Constantinescu 
(Romania). 

PERMANENT COMMISSIONS 

The Commissions foster economic, scientific and tech- 
nical co-operation between members. Each Commission 
has its own committee and sub-committees, on each of 
which all member states are individually represented. 
Economic Questions: Moscow; Chair. A. Bachurin. 
Agriculture: Chair. V. Shopov. 

Power: Moscow; P. Neporozhny. 

Coal Industry: Warsaw; Chair. J. Mitrenga. 

Machine Building: Chair. K. PolACek. 

Chemical Industry: Berlin; Chair. G. Wyschofsky. 
Ferrous Metals: Moscow; Chair. I. Kazanets. 
Non-Ferrous Metals: Budapest; Chair. F. LivARtii. 

Oil and Gas: Chair. N. Tohder. 

Light Industry: Chair. I. Kopcha. 

Food Industry: Chair. V. Shopov. 

Transport: Chair. M. Zaifried. 

Construction: Berlin; Chair. G. Kosel. 

Foreign Trade: Moscow; Chair. N. Patolichev. 

Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy: Moscow; Chair. A. 
Petrosyants. 

Co-ordination of Scientific and Technical Research: 

Moscow; Chair. D. Gvishiani. 

Standardization: Chair. R. Gerbing. 

Statistics: Moscow: Chair. V. Starovski. 

Finance and Currency: Moscow; Chair. V. Garbuzov. 
Radio and Electronics Industries: Budapest: Chair. D. 
Horgosz. 

Geology: Ulan Bator; Chair. M. Pelzhaye. 

165 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


SESSIONS OF THE 

1958 Bucharest Considered the practical arrangements 

for the further development of economic 
co-operation between the socialist coun- 
tries on the basis of implementation of 
the International Socialist Division of 
Labour. Set up permanent commissions 
for economic problems, building and 
transport. 

Prague Decisions to specialize and co-operate 
in chemicals and ferrous metals. De- 
cided to build an oil pipeline from the 
U.S.S.R. to Hungary, German Demo- 
cratic Republic, Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia. 

1959 Tirana Approved proposals to unify power 

systems and recommendations for spec- 
ialization in ore mining, rolled steel, oil 
drilling, and equipment for the chemical 
industry. 

Sofia Constitution of CMEA approved. De- 
cided to carry out preparatory work on 
economic planning up to 1965. 

1960 Budapest Considered proposals for increasing agri- 

cultural production and related prob- 
lems. Approved recommendations re- 
garding specialization in the production 
of engineering equipment and building 
materials. 

1961 Berlin Discussed co-ordination of plans for the 

development of national economy be- 
tween 1961-65. Long-term agreements 
drawn up between member states for 
exchange of goods between 1961-65. 

Warsaw Approved project for the International 
Socialist Division of Labour. 

1962 Moscow Decision to set up an Executive Com- 

mittee of CMEA (see above). Decided to 
form a number of new Permanent Com- 
missions. CMEA Institute on Standard- 
ization established. Approved amend- 
ments to the Constitution to allow the 
admission of non-European countries. 
Mongolian People’s Republic accepted 
as a member. 

Bucharest Considered proposals to further the 
development of agriculture. Permanent 
Commission on finance and currency 
established. 

1963 Moscow Work on the co-ordination of develop- 

ment plans for 1966-70. Decided to set 
' up Permanent Commission on radio and 


COUNCIL SINCE 1958 

electronics industries and on geology. 
Agreement made to set up an Inter- 
national Bank for Economic Co-opera- 
tion as a result of recommendations by 
member states (see Chapter). 

1965 Prague Co-ordination of development plans for 

1966-70. Ratification of agreement of 
September 1964 that Yugoslavia should 
participate in certain spheres of CMEA. 

1966 Sofia Questions considered regarding the com- 

pletion of the work on co-ordination of 
development plans for 1966-70 and long- 
term agreements made betiveen member 
countries for exchange of goods during 
tliis period. 

1967 Budapest Proposals adopted for increasing speciali- 

zation and integration of production. 
Preparatory work on co-ordination of 
development plans for 1971-75- 

1969 Berlin Discussed the activities and successes of 

CMEA during the twenty years of its 
existence. Decided upon a course of 
action to be taken by the member states 
of CMEA in the spheres of economics and 
scientific-technical co-operation. 

Moscow Party leaders and heads of government 
of member states participated in this 
Special Session. 

Agreement reached to increase the 
role of CMEA as an organization for 
co-operation between member states. 
Stressed the necessity for strengthening 
bonds between member states, parhcu- 
larly those of economic relations. 
Agreement reached on the necessity of 
creating an Investment Bank for mem- 
ber states and the need to improve the 
facilities of the International Bank for 
Economic Co-operation. 

1970 Warsaw Heads of governments of member sta 

participated in this session. 

Report of the Executive Committee 
progress of work since the 23rd (Spec 
Session was discussed. This session i 
to bring into perspective and study 
greater depth the complex program 
for successful co-operation betw( 
member states and for strengthening J 
economic bonds between them. Dccisit 
taken to speed up fulfilment of resoluti 
of 23rd Session of Council. 


ICC 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


CMEA TRADE 


Foreign trade is one of the most important forms of 
economic co-operation between member states of CMEA. 
Trade between member states was planned by yearly 
agreements until 1951 and thereafter by long-term bilateral 
and multilateral trade agreements linked to the develop- 
ment plans of the member countries. In 1956 the Per- 
manent Commission for Foreign Trade was set up. Trade 
bebveen member countries comprises more than 60 per 


cent of their total foreign trade which is wholly conducted 
through state monopolies. Member countries engage in 
trade with socialist non-members on the basis of long-term 
agreements. Accordingly a long-term trade agreement was 
drarvn up with Yugoslavia for the years 1966-70 with the 
result that the volume of trade between member countries 
and Yugoslavia doubled in this period compared with the 
period 1961-65. 


AREA AND POPULATION 


Area 
(sq. kms.) 

U.S.S.R. 

Czecho- 

slovakia 

German 

Democratic 

Republic 

Poland 

Hungary 

Romania 

Bulgaria 

Mongolian 

People’s 

Republic 

22,402,200 

127,858 

108,174 

312,677 

93,030 

237,500 

110,912 

1,565,000 

Population 

(1969) 

241,748,000 

14,445,000 

17,075,000 

32,671,000 

10,316,000 

20,140,000 

8,464,000 

1,230,000 


TRADE BY COUNTRIES 


BULGARIA 


(Fiw-Year Plan 1961-6S*) 


At the end of the Second World War agriculture domi- 
nated the Bulgarian economy, whereas now heavy and 
light industry have a sizeable share. Industries showing the 
greatest development are: chemicals and engineering, 
ferrous metals, building, machine tools, fuel, power and 
cellulose. 


Industrial production rose by 74 per cent between i960 
and 1965, and in the period 1960-69 by 267 per cent. 
Bulgaria receives considerable economic aid from the 
U.S.S.R. 


Subsequently extended to 1980 as Twenty-Year Plan. 


Trade within CMEA 


(million leva) 



Imports 

Expi 

DRTS 

1967 

1968 j 

1967 

1968 

Czechoslovakia _ . 
German Democratic 

Republic 

Hungary . . • 

Mongolian People’s 

Republic 

Poland ... 

Romania 

U.S.S.R. 

114.9 

147-7 

34-9 

2.6 

55-3 

24.6 

915-9 

96.8 

176.1 

35-5 

1.9 

75-3 

23-4 

1. 107.0 

94-0 

137-9 

42.6 

2.9 

51-9 

30-5 

903-5 

103.6 

141-5 

33-4 

2-5 

55-6 

29.8 

1,045.8 


167 




























COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


CZECHOSLOVAKIA 
(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The Fourth Five-Year PJan aims to strike a balance 
between industry and agriculture; power and chemical 
industries are to be developed, machinery building 
modernized and consumer services improved. 

Czech industrial effort is concentrated on engineering 
and building products, fuel, power and metallurgy, as it 


has been for several years past. Industrial production rose 
by 43 per cent between 1958 and 1962. 

Czechoslovakia trades with over 25 countries on a 
substantial scale, but over a third of her trade is with the 
Soviet Union. 


Trade within CMEA 

(million korunas) 




Imports 

E.xports 



1967 

1968 

1967 

1968 

Bulgaria 

German Democratic 

• 

567 

650 

660 

590 

Republic 

. 

2.305 

2.877 

2,294 

2,362 

Hungary . 

Mongolian People's 

• i 

1,086 

1.305 

1.097 

1.205 

Republic 


49 

46 

66 

57 

Poland 

• 

1.434 

1.785 

1,691 

1,668 

Romania 

• 

623 

787 

644 

718 

U.S.S.R. 

♦ 

6,950 

7.460 

7.025 

7.257 


GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 
(Long-Term Plan 1966-70) 


The Long-Term Plan predicts considerable growth in the 
national economy. In comparison with 1965, the national 
income is growing in 1970 by 28-32 per cent, and industrial 
production by 37-40 per cent. The main reason for this is 
an increase in labour productivity; in industry as a whole 
this is increasing by 40-45 per cent, in the building industry 
by 35-40 per cent, and in agriculture by 30-35 per cent. 
The Plan predicts the gro'wth of capital investment by 
48-52 per cent. 

In recent years, productivity and efficiency have im- 


proved in industry as a result of measures taken to 
improve the structure of the economy. Increased produc- 
tivity has been particularly marked in the electro-technical 
industry, in instrument-making, chemicals, machine 
building, transport development, and in metallurgy. It 'S 
in these spheres that the greatest structural changes in the 
utilization of products have taken place. 

The turnover of export trade has been considerable and 
totals between 33 and 35,000 million marks in 1970. 


Trade within CMEA 


(million exchange marlrs) 



Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

r968 

1969 

Bulgaria 

513-8 

609.9 

636.6 

640.6 

Czechoslovakia 

1.380.9 

2 . 544-3 

1,689.4 

2.740.7 

Hungary .... 

720.3 

875-0 

812.7 

779-2 

Mongolian People's 

Republic 

16.7 

12 2 

! 

i 26.4 

22.1 

Poland .... 

942.4 

2 . 095-5 

1,224.1 

1,324.0 

Romania 

324-4 

489-3 

376,2 

354-0 

U.S.S.R. 

6,268.9 

7,326.0 

6,582.7 

6 , 96 r .7 


1G8 


















COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


HUNGARY 

(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The third Five-Year Plan 1966-70 envisages an in- 
creased rate of development over the second Plan. The 
average rate of grow’th of national income in the period 
1961-65 was 4.5 per cent, in the period 1966-70 it was 
almost 6 per cent. In engineering a rise of 40-45 per cent 
in the output of the industry as a whole and 50-55 per cent 
in engineering exports is aimed for. Particular emphasis is 
to be placed on transport equipment manufacturing, which 
should double, telecommunications engineering, instru- 


ments and machine tools; in 1965 these four branches 
produced 46.8 per cent of Hungary’s engineering ejqsorts, 
but it is hoped to increase their share to 65 per cent by 
1970. Development %vill be stressed in the foundry and 
forging industries. 

There is a general trend for international co-operation 
in production, with component imports coming mainly 
from socialist countries. 


Trade within CMEA 


(million foreign exchange forints) 



Imports 

Exports 


1967 

1968 

1967 

1968 

Bulgaria 

465-9 

337-6 

368.2 

339-2 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 

1,785.8 

1,883.7 

1,798.0 

2,134-5 

Republic 

Mongolian People’s 

2,277.6 

2.305-4 

1.924-3 

2.051.5 

Republic 

29 - 9 * 

24-5 

39 - 9 * 

71 .0 

Poland .... 

1,309.2 

1,323-2 

x,i 93-2 

1,189.6 

Romania 

462.8 

425-3 

436.3 

414-3 

U.S.S.R. 

6,949.4 

7,608.2 

7,201.1 

8,019.6 


* 1966. 


MONGOLIAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC 
(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


Ihe fourth Five-Year Plan 1966—70 lays ever-increasing 
pniphasis on industry, and the strengthening of the 
industrial-technical foundations of agriculture. Great em- 
phasis is placed on the speed with which the fuel and power 


industries arc developing. At the same time there are plans 
to improve the increasing network of social facilities. Great 
help is being provided in these problems by the member 
countries of ChlEA. 


Trade within CMEA 

(million roubles) 



Imports 

Exp 

3RTS 


i960 

1961 

1960 

1961 

Bulgaria 

o.g 

0,8 

I. I 

5.0 

0.9 

Czechoslovakia 

4-7 

4 • * 


German Democratic 

Republic 

3-7 

2.8 

2.4 

I .4 

3.7 

1.5 

Hungary . . . • 

Poland . . . • 

Romania 

U.S.S.R. 

I *3 

2.3 

0.2 

53-0 

2.1 

0*3 

88.7 

1-7 

0.3 

49-4 

2.1 

0.4 

49-9 


169 











COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


POLAND 

(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The Five-Year Plan 1966-70 aims to increase industrial 
production by more than 40 per cent by 1970, and to 
increase the flow of foodstuffs and consumer goods. 

Emphasis is being placed on raising the standard of 
living, modernizing the country's economic structure, 
developing production capacity and securing employment 
for young people. 


The Plan envisages further expansion of foreign trade 
■with socialist countries, but together -with this, expansion 
of trade -with non-socialist countries is necessary. Trade 
with the Soviet Union is likely to expand; some 70 per cent 
of Polish engineering products go to the Soviet Union. 


Trade within CMEA 

(million exchange zlot3's) 




Impc 

)RTS 

Exp 

DRTS 



1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Bulgaria 


1S9.2 

256.2 

253-7 

322.3 

Czechoslovakia 

German Democratic 


914-3 

978.9 

982.1 

1,082.0 

Republic 


1.185.0 

1,280. 1 

916.7 

1,111.4 

Hungary . 

Mongolian People's 


390.6 

466.4 

441.4 

460.0 

Republic 


17-1 

17.0 

14-5 

14.1 

Romania 


230.0 

240.9 

230.7 

264.2 

U.S.S.R. 


4,042,7 

4,800.9 

4,168.4 

4.485-7 


ROMANIA 
(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The Five-Year Plan (1966-70) envisages an annual 
industrial development rate of 10.8 per cent. Largest 
increases are in electric power, coalmining, fertilizers and 
motor vehicles. 

By the end of 1970 industrial output had increased more 
than tenfold compared with the level of production in 1950. 
Once primarily dependent on agriculture, Romania has 
been transformed into a largely industrial nation. In 1969 
more than 57 per cent of her national income accrued from 
industry. 

In 1969 Romanian foreign trade increased by 9.6 per 
cent. Exchanges with CSIEA countries expanded by 9.4 


per cent. The share of the CMEA countries in Romanian 
foreign trade is now 49 per cent, as opposed to 47 per cent 
in 1967. Trade exchanges •ivith the U.S.S.R., which in i960 
accounted for 40 per cent of the foreign trade total, 
accounted for 27.3 per cent in 1969. The volume of 
Romania's foreign trade rvith the Sordet Um'on for this 
period rose by 68 per cent. 

Chief imports; rolled metal, machinery and equipment, 
light vehicles, chemical products. Chief exports: oil pro- 
ducts, farm produce, sarvn timber, paper, furniture and 
other industrial products. 


Trade within CMEA 

(million lei) 




Imports 

Exports 



1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Bulgaria 

- 

153-4 

195.6 

iig.6 

124.9 

Czechoslo'vakia 


603.2 

651.5 

676.9 

844-5 

German Democratic . 
Republic 


544-8 

506.5 

462.5 

727.7 

Hungary . 


207.5 

256.7 

219.3 

234-7 

Mongolian People's 
Republic 


9-1 

10.9 

11-3 

12.6 

Poland . 


350.5 

409-3 

351-7 

368.2 

U.S.S.R. 


2,562.1 

2,788.9 

2 . 734-0 

2,729.5 


170 









COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


U. S. S. R. 
(Five-Year Plan 1966-70) 


The aim of the Plan is to increase industrial output by 
47“50 per cent, agricultural output by 25 per cent and the 
National Income by 38-41 per cent. Production of electric 
power will be 64-68 per cent larger in 1970 than in 1965, 
production of instruments and automation equipment will 
rise by 72-77 per cent and that of chemical equipment by 
103-116 per cent, and the increase in the engineering and 
metal-working industries will amount to 60-70 per cent. 

The Plan provides for further development of the 
U.S.S.R.’s trade with socialist countries, extension of 
economic co-operation with developing countries and 
expansion of trade with other countries on the basis of 
mutual advantage. 

During the five-year period trade turnover %vith socialist 
countries will amount to 50,000 million roubles. This is a 
considerable increase compared wth the previous Five- 


Year Plan. Rational economic co-operation wth CMEA 
countries is envisaged in industry, transport and trade, as 
well as in the spheres of credits, financial operations and 
foreign currency settlements. CMEA countries play an 
increasingly important role in Soviet international econo- 
mic relations; in 1958 they accounted for slightly over 
52 per cent of U.S.S.R. foreign trade, and in 1968 their 
share had risen to 57.5 per cent. The U.S.S.R. has played 
and still plays an important role in organizing reciprocal 
economic terms between member countries of CMEA, 
particularly in the development of industry and scientific- 
technical co-operation. The U.S.S.R. is also the main 
supplier of raw materials and finished goods. The U.S.S.R.’s 
main customers are German Democratic Republic (27 per 
cent), Czechoslovakia (18 per cent) and Poland (19 per 
cent). 


Trade within CMEA 

(million roubles) 



Imports 

Exports 


1968 

1969 

1968 

1969 

Bulgaria 

802.2 

877.2 

854-4 

876.9 

Czechoslovakia 

891.0 

1,003.2 

934-3 

998.7 

German Democratic 

Republic 

1,446.0 

1,446.4 

1 . 355-8 

1.565-0 

Hungary .... 

602.1 

647.2 

607.9 

630.0 

Mongolian People's 

Hepublic . 

47.8 

47-5 
1,011 .4 

174-5 

176.6 

Poland .... 

928.4 

404 -5 

945-1 

1,079.1 

Romania 

410.8 


375-0 

428.1 


SUMMARY OF CHARTER 


(With amendments approved by the l6th and 17th Sessions of the Council). 


Governments of the People's Republic of Albania, 
me People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak 
Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hun- 
People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, 
me .Romanian People’s Republic and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, 

f into account that economic co-operation, success- 

luUy effected between their countries, contributes to the 
most rational development of the national economy, the 
elevation of the living standards of the population, and the 
strengthening of the unity and cohesion of these countries, 

FrtUy resolved to continue developing all-round economic 
^'°P®tation on the basis of the consistent implementation 
pt the international socialist division of labour^ in the 
interests of building socialism and communism in their 
°'*^^es and ensuring a lasting peace throughout the 


Cominced that the development of economic co-ope 
on between their countries promotes the achievement 
me purposes expounded in the Charter of the Unil 


Confirming their readiness to develop economic relations 
with all countries, irrespective of their social and state 
systems, on the principles of equality, mutual advantage, 
and non-interference in domestic affairs. 

Recognizing the ever growing role of the Council for 
Mutual Economic Assistance in organizing economic co- 
operation between their countries. 

Have agreed for these purposes to adopt the present 
Charter. 

Article I 

AIMS AND PRINCIPLES 

1. The aim of the C.M.E.A. is to facilitate, by uniting 
and co-ordinating the efforts of the Council’s member 
countries, the planned development of their national 
economies, the acceleration of their economic and technical 
progress, an increase in the level of industrialization in the 
less industrialized countries, the uninterrupted growth of 
labour productivity and the steady advance in the welfare 
of the peoples of the Council’s member countries. 

2. The C.M.E.A. is based on the principles of sovereign 
equality of all its member countries. 


171 



COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE 


The policy of economic, scientific and technical co- 
operation between the member countries shall be effected 
in accordance with the principles of full equality, respect 
for sovereignty and national interests, mutual advantage 
and mutual comradely assistance. 

Article II 
MEMBERSHIP 

1. The founder members of the C.M.E.A. arc the coun- 
tries which sign and ratify the present Charter. 

2. Membership is open to any other countries which 
share the Council's aims and principles and agree to accept 
the obligations contained in the present Charter. 

3. Any member country may withdraw from the Council 
by notice to that effect given to the depositary of the 
present Charter. Such notice becomes effective six months 
after its receipt by the depositary. On receipt of such 
notice the depositary will inform the member countries of 
the Council. 

4. The member countries of the Council agree; 

(a) to ensure the fulfilment of the recommendations of 
the Council organs adopted by them; 

(b) to render the Council and its officials the necessary 
co-operation in the discharge of their functions 
under the present Charter; 

(c) to submit to the Council materials and information 
necessary for carrying out the tasks assigned to it; 

(d) to inform the Council about progress in fulfilling the 
recommendations adopted in the Council. 

Article III 

FUNCTIONS AND POWERS 

I. In conformity ivith the aims and principles laid down 
in Article I of the present Charter, the functions of the 
C.M.E.A. are as follows: 

(a) organize close economic, scientific and technical co- 
operation between the Council’s member countries 
in the most rational use of their natural resources 
and the acceleration of their productive forces; 

(b) foster the improvement of the international socialist 
division of labour by co-ordinating national econo- 
mic development plans, and the specialization and 
co-operation of production in the Council’s member 
countries; 

(c) take measures to study economic, scientific and 
technical problems which are of interest to the 
Council’s member countries; 

(d) assist tile Council’s member countries in elaborating 
and carrying out joint measures for: 

the development of the industry and agriculture 
of the Council’s member countries; 

the development of transport with a view to 
ensuring first priority for increasing export, import 
and transit shipments of the Council’s member 
countries; 

the most efficient use of principal capital invest- 
ments allocated by the Council’s member countries 
for the development of tlie mining and manufactur- 
ing industries and for the construction of major 
projects which are of interest to two countries or 
more; 

the development of trade and exchange of services 
between the Council's member countries and 
between them and other countries; 

the exchange of scientific and technical achieve- 
ments and advanced production experience; 

(e) take such other actions as may be required for the 
achievement of the aims of the Council. 


2. The C.M.E.A,, as represented by its organs, acting 
within the terms of their reference, is authorized to adopt 
recommendations and decisions in accordance with the 
present Charter. 

Article IV 

RECOMMENDATIONS AND DECISIONS 

r. Recommendations shall be made on questions of 
economic, scientific and technical co-operation. Recom- 
mendations shall be submitted to member countries for 
consideration. 

Member countries carry out the recommendations tliey 
receive by decisions of their Governments or other compe- 
tent bodies in accordance with their legislative processes, 

2. Decisions shall be adopted on organizational and pro- 
cedural matters. Unless otherwise provided for therein, 
decisions come into force on the day on which the minutes 
of the meeting are signed by the appropriate organ of the 
Council. 

3. All recommendations and decisions of the Council can 
be adopted only wdth the consent of interested member 
countries, and any country may declare an interest in any 
question under consideration by the Council. 

Recommendations and decisions do not apply to members 
who have declared themselves as having no interest in the 
question concerned. Each of these countries, however, may 
subsequently join recommendations or decisions adopted 
by the other member countries of the Council. 

Article V 
ORGANS 

1. For the purpose of carrying out tlic functions and 
exercising the powers laid down in Article HI of this 
Charter, the C.M.E.A, is divided into the following 
principal organs: 

Session of the Council; 

Executive Committee; 

Permanent Commissions; 

Secretariat. 

2. Other organs, as may be necessary, may be consti- 
tuted in accordance with the present Charter. 

Article VT 

SESSION OF THE COUNCIL 
Article VII 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL 
Article VIH 

PERMANENT COMMISSIONS 
Article IX 
SECRETARIAT 
Article X 

PARTICIPATION OF OTHER COUNTRIES IN 
THE WORK OF THE COUNCIL 
Article XI 

RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL 
ORGANIZATIONS 
Articles XII axd XIII 

FINANCIAL QUESTIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS 
RESOLUTIONS 
Articles XIV and XV 

LANGUAGES, RATIFICATION AND ENACTMENT 
OF THE CHARTER 
Article XVT 

PROCEDURE FOR AMENDING THE CHARTER 
Article XVII 

CONCLUDING RESOLUTIONS 


172 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


Place Lcn8tre, Strasbourg, France 


^ ^ ^ greater unity between its Members for the purpose of safeguardini? and realizine 

Shared by Member States, and to facilitate their economic and social process The ten 
oundmg Member States were joined by Greece and Turkey (August 1949), Iceland (1950) the Federal Renublic 
of Germany (1951), Austria (1956), Cyprus (1961), Switzerland (1963) and Malta (1965). Greece ceased to be a 

member on December 31st, 1970. 


MEMBERS 


Austria 

Belgium 

Cyprus 

Denmark 

France 

Federal Republic of Germany 


Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Netherlands 


Norway 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 


ORGANIZATION 

COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS 

Consists of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of each state. 


Austria: Heinrich Laube. 

Belgium: J. Lodewij CK- 

Cyprus: Polys Modinos. 

Denmark: A. Rosenstand Hansen. 

•^ederal Republic of Germany: Mrs. 

kamer. 

Pfance: Michel de Camaret. 
Iceland: Arni Tryggvason. 

Irish Republic: Miss Mary Tinney. 


MINISTERS’ DEPUTIES 
(Permanent Representatives) 

Italy: Carlo Enrico Giglioli. 
Luxembourg: Adrien Meisch. 

Malta: Carjiel Mallia. 

Netherlands: F. j. Gelderman. 

Norway: Leif Edwardsen. 

Sweden: Sven Einar Backlund. 
Switzerland: AndrA Dominice. 

Turkey: C. S. Hayta. 

United Kingdom: D. J. B. Robey, c.m.g. 


Elinor von Putt- 


CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY 


President: Olivier Reverdin (Switzerland, Liberal Demo- 

Vice-Presidents: George Darling (United Kingdom, 
^bour), Guido Gonella (Italy, Christian Democrat), 
N. G. Geelkerken (Netherlands, Anti-Revolutionary), 
Radius (France, U.D.R.), Hubert Leynen 
(Belgium, Christian Social), Klaus-Peter Schulz 
(Federal Republic of Germany, S.P.D.), Kaj BjSrk 
(Sweden, Socialist), Erol Yilmaz AK9AL (Turkey, 
Justice Party). 


Chairman of the Christian Democratic Group: Hubert 
Leynen (Belgium). 

Chairman of the Socialist Group: Karl Czernetz (Austria). 

Chairman of the Liberal Group: Per Federspiel (Den- 
mark). 

Chairman of the Independent Group: Erling Petersen 
(Norway) . 


173 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS 
Decides with binding effect all matters of internal 
organization, makes recommendations to govern- 
ments and may also conclude conventions and agree- 
ments. Usually meets in May and December. 

MINISTERS’ DEPUTIES 
Comprise senior diplomats accredited to the Council 
as permanent representatives of their governments, 
who deal with most of the routine work at monthly 
meetings. Any decision reached by the Deputies has 
the same force as one adopted by the Ministers. 

CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY 
Members are elected by their national parliaments 
or appointed. Members are also members of their own 
parliaments, and political parties in each delegation 
follow the proportion of their strength in the national 
parliament. Members do not represent their govern- 
ments; they are spokesmen for public opinion. 

The Assembly has 140 members: 

France, Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Italy, United Kingdom 18 each 


Turkey ..... 

10 

Belgium, Netherlands 

7 each 

Austria. Sweden, Switzerland 

6 each 

Denmark, Norway . 

5 each 

Ireland ..... 

4 

Cyprus, Iceland, Luxembourg, 
Malta ..... 

3 each 


The Assembly meets in ordinary session once a year 
for not more than a month. The session is usually 
divided into three parts held in January-February, 
April-May and September-October. The Assembly 
may submit recommendations to the Committee 
of Ministers, pass resolutions, discuss reports and any 
matters of common European interest. 


COMMITTEES 

Standing Committee. Represents the Assembly when 
it is not in session. Consists of the President, Vice- 
Presidents, Chairmen of the Ordinary Committees and 
a number of ordinary members. Meets at least three 
times a year. 

Ordinary Committees: political, economic, social and 
health, legal, culture and education, science and 
technology, procedure, agriculture, regional planning 
and local authorities, European non-member coun- 
tries, population and refugees, budget, parliamentar)’ 
and public relations. 

SECRETARIAT 

Secretary-General: Lujo Ton£i6-Sorinj (Austria). 

Deputy Secretary-General: Galejvzzo Sforza (Italy). 

Cleric of the Assembly: Gerhart Schloesser (Federal 
Republic of Germany). 

Director-General of Administration and Finance: Armard 
Daussin (Belgium). 

Political Director: Henri Leleu (France). 

Director of Economic and Social Affairs: Fadil Sur 
(T urkey). 

Director of Press and Information: Sandro Squartini 
(I taly). 

Director of Education and of Cultural and Scientific Affairs: 

Niels Borch- Jacobsen (Denmark). 

Director of Legal Affairs: Heribert Golsong (Federal 
Republic of Germany). 

Head of Human Rights Directorate: A. H. Robertson 
(United Kingdom). 

Secretary of the European Commission of Human Rights: 

Anthony McNulty (United Kingdom). 

Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights: M.-A. 

Eissen (France). 


ACTIVITIES 

HUMAN RIGHTS 


EUROPEAN COMMISSION 
President: Professor Max Sorensen (Denmark). 
Vice-President: James E. S. Fawcett (United Kingdom). 

Members: Adolf SiIsteehenn (Federal Republic of 
Germany), Felix Ermacora (Austria), Giuseppe 
Spefduti (Italy), Michael A. Triantafyllides 
(Cyprus), Fei.ix Welter (Luxembourg), Wilhelm F. 
de Gaay Fortm/vn (Netherlands), Philip P. O’- 
Donoghue (Ireland), Pedro O. Delahat-e (Belgium), 
Theodor B. Lindal (Iceland), Edwun Busuttil 
(Malta), Love Kellberg (Sweden), BOlent Daver, 
(Turkey), Torkel Opsahl (Norway). 

Secretary: Anthony McNulty (United Ifingdom). 

The Commission is competent to c.xamine com- 
plaints made either by a Contracting Part}% or in 
certain cases, by a person, non-governmental organiza- 
tion or group of indirdduals that the European Con- 


vention for the Protection of Human Rights and 
Fundamental Freedoms has been violated by one or 
more of the Contracting Parties, If the Commission 
decides to admit the application, it then proceeds to 
ascertain the full facts of the case and, at the same 
time, to place itself at the disposal of the Parties in 
order to try and reach a friendly settlement. If no 
settlement is reached, the Commission sends a report 
to the Committee of Ministers in which is states an 
opinion as to whether there has been a violation of the 
Convention. It is tlien for the Committee of Minister.s 
or, if the case is referred to it, tlie Court to decide 
whether or not a violation has taken place. 

EUROPEAN COURT 

Judges: Henri Rolin, President (Belgium), Humphrey 
Waldock, Vice-President (United Kingdom), Rek^ 
Cassin (France), Aice Ernst Vilhelm Holmback 
(Sweden), Alfred Verdross (Austria), Eugene Rod- 


174 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


ENBOURG (Luxembourg), Axf Niels Christian Ross 
(Denmark). Terje Wold (Nonvay), Giorgio Balla- 
DORE Pallieri (Italy), Hermann Mosler (Federal 
Republic of Germany), Mehmed Zekia (Cyprus), 
Antoine Favre (Switzerland), Conor A. Maguire 
(Ireland), John Cremona (Malta), A. Suat Bilge 
(Turkey), Gerard J. Wiarda (Netherlands), Sigurgeir 
S iGURjoNssoN (Iceland). 

Registrar: Marc-AndrS Eissen (France). 

The Court may only deal with a case after the 
Commission has acknowledged the failure of efforts for 
a friendly settlement within the prescribed period. The 
following may bring a case before the Court, provided 
that the High Contracting Party or Parties concerned 
have accepted its compulsory jurisdiction or, failing 
that, with the consent of the High Contracting Party 
or Parties concerned: the Commission, a High Con- 
tracting Party whose national is alleged to be a 
victim, a High Contracting Party which referred the 
case to the Commission, and a High Contracting Party 
against which the complaint has been lodged. In the 
event of dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdic- 
tion, the matter is settled by the decision of the Court. 
The judgement of the Court is final. 


INTERGOVERNMENTAL V/ORK PROGRAMME 

In December 1970 the Committee of Ministers 
adopted the fifth Intergovernmental Work Pro- 
gramme of the Council of Europe. Features of the new 
programme include its establishment for two years 
and tte redistribution of activities into four chapters: 
Man’s cultural development and permanent educa- 
tion; the adjustment of laws and administrative 
piachinery to present-day living conditions; the 
improvement of man’s physical environment in the 
toivn and in the country; development of economic 
and social structures and improvement of public 
health conditions. The Consultative Assembly has 
been called upon to give an opinion on the draft 
before its final adoption. 


SOCIAL AFFAIRS 

Ihe Council’s objectives in the social sphere are: 
to establish equality of treatment in each member 
country between nationals and citizens of the other 
member states in such matters as social security and 
social and medical assistance; to pool skills and re- 
Murces; to raise the living conditions of the popula- 
hons; and to raise the level of workers’ protection 
gainst accidents and professional diseases. The 
^wopean Social Charley, signed on October i8th, 1961, 
and in force since February 26th, 1965, with regard at 
present to Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, German Federal 
republic, Ireland, Italy, Nonvay, Sweden ajid bhe 
United Kingdom, lays down the rights and principles 
■"hich are the basis of the Council’s social policy, and 
Saarantees a number of social and economic rights to 
the citizen. It thus complements the European Con- 
vention on Human Rights, which guarantees certam 
mvil and political rights. A European Social Security 
Lode has also been signed; it entered into force on 
March 17th, 1968. 


Other international Conventions or Resolutions to 
member governments were also adopted or are under 
preparation. Among the Conventions are the European 
Interim Agreements on Social Security, the Conven- 
tion on the Adoption of Children and the Agreement 
on Au Pair Placement. Among the Resolutions which 
may be quoted are the Resolution on Medical and 
Medico-Social Policy for Old Age, the Resolution on 
Labour Inspection and Resolutions still in preparation 
on the Protection of Young People at Work and on 
Health Protection in Places of Employment. 

The Secretary-General of the Council of Europe 
wiU also henceforth act as Secretary of the Conference 
of European Ministers responsible for Family Affairs 
which meets every second year. The next Conference 
ivill be held in Stockholm in September 1971 when the 
main topic for discussion will be the problems of 
incomplete families. 

HEALTH 

The Council is working towards the pooling of 
medical techniques and equipment between member 
states. A programme of medical fellowships has been 
launched, designed to enable members of the medical 
profession and personnel of public health departments 
to become acquainted with new methods and tech- 
niques practised in other European countries and to 
participate in research of common European interest. 

European Agreements provide for special facUities 
for the medical treatment of war cripples and other 
injured, for a system of supply of blood and blood 
products through the channel of a network of 28 
Blood Transfusion Centres in 15 member states, and 
for the duty-free importation on loan of medical and 
surgical equipment. Eight member countries have 
concluded Administrative Arrangements setting up 
an “excepted sanitary area’’ under the terms of 
Article 104 of the International Sanitary Regulations. 
Ten states carry out activities towards harmonization 
of their legislation in several fields, such as the 
pharmaceutical field, the health control of foodstuffs 
and the use of pesticides. Eight countries are par- 
ticipating in the establishment of a European Pharma- 
copoeia, the first volume of which was published in 
1969 - 

population 

The Council has been concerned with refugee 
problems since 1950, and in 1953 appointed M. Pierre 
Schneiter its Special Representative for national 
refugees and over-population in Europe. M. Schneiter’s 
plan for a European Resettlement Fund to make 
loans to governments for the resettlements of refugees 
and helping them in solving the problems raised by 
over-population, was duly put into effect, nine coun- 
tries contributing. The Fund has so far granted loans 
totalling over $50 million. M. Schneiter is now 
engaged on improving the material, legal and psycho- 
logical situation of mi^nt workers and is preparing 
a European Convention on the Legal Status of 
Migrant Workers as well as many other recommenda- 
tions to governments on the following questions: 
school education of migrant workers’ children; safety 
at work for migrant workers; methods used for com- 


175 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


piling migration statistics; reunion of the family; 
equality of treatment as between national and 
migrant workers; equivalence of professional diploma 
for car repairing technicians. 

The First European Population Conference was 
held in 1966 and a second is planned for Strasbourg 
in September 1971. 


LEGAL CO-OPERATION 

The importance of this branch of the Council’s 
activities was acknowledged by the creation in 
1963 of a European Committee on Legal Co-operation, 
grouping delegations from all member states and from 
the Assembly. This committee has general responsi- 
bility for the preparation and implementation of the 
Council’s inter-govemmental activities in the legal 
field. It normally meets twice a year. Most of the 
specialized committees of legal experts work under 
its direction. 

In addition, the Ministers of Justice of member 
states of the Council of Europe meet from time to 
time for the purpose of stimulating co-operation in 
the legal field. The Fifth Conference of Ministers of 
Justice took place in London in Juno 1968 and the 
Sixth Conference in March 1970 in The Hague. 

Among the more important legal conventions con- 
cluded witliin the framework of the Council of Europe 
are those on Establishment, the Peaceful Settlement 
of Disputes, Patents (application, classification, unifi- 
cation of substantive law). Extradition, Commercial 
Arbitration, Compulsory Motor Insurance, Mutual 
Assistance in Criminal Matters, “Pirate" Broadcasts 
and Information on Foreign Law. A Convention on 
Multiple Nationality entered into force on March 28th, 
1968. 

PENAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY 

The European Committee on Crime Problems is the 
main body of the Council of Europe working on 
penal law, penology and criminology. It is assisted 
by a Criminological Scientific Council composed of 
specialists in law, psychology, sociology and related 
sciences. It organizes every year a conference of 
Directors of Criminological Research Institutes. 

The activities of tlie European Committee on 
Crime Problems have in recent years resulted in Con- 
ventions on the Punishment of Road Traffic Offences, 
on the Supervision of Conditionally Sentenced and 
Conditionally Released Offenders, on Repatriation of 
Minors and the International Validity of Criminal 
Judgements. Several Resolutions arising out of the 
work of the European Committee on Crime Problems 
have been adopted by the Committee of Ministers and 
concern the Mass Media and the Protection of Young 
People, the Status, Selection and Training of Prison 
Staff and the Setting-up of a Simplified Procedure to 
Deal with Minor Road Traffic Offences. 

Various studies in penal law, penologj^ and crimino- 
logy are at present being carried out b)' thirteen 
Expert Committees. 


EDUCATION AND CULTURE 

The Council for Cultural Co-operation was founded 
in 1962 to draw up proposals for the cultural policy of 
the Council of Europe and to allocate the resources of 
the Cultural Fund, which finances the cultural pro- 
gramme of the Organization. It is assisted by three 
Permanent Committees: Higher Education and Re- 
search, General and Technical Education and Otit-of- 
School Education and Cultural Development. All mem- 
ber states of the Council of Europe are represented on 
these bodies, together with Finland, Greece, Spain 
and the Holy See. 

The Educational and Cultural programme covers: 

Higher Education and Research: The work is centred 
on reform and development, on the harmonization 
of interests concerned with planning and adminis- 
tration, on the mobility of students, staff and 
research workers, on the equivalence of qualifica- 
tions and on research co-operation. It is carried 
out in close co-operation with university authori- 
ties who are represented with governments on the 
Committee. 

General and Technical Education: Inter-governmental 
co-operation in tackling educational problems 
common to European countries began with an 
emphasis on comparative studies (history, geo- 
graphy, civic education, school guidance, teacher 
training, etc.), as well as with the assembly ol basic 
material on school systems. The emphasis is now 
placed on obtaining guidelines for the development 
of key sectors of tlie educational system, such as: 
commercial and vocational education, the furtlicr 
training of teachers, examinations and_ con- 
tinuous assessment, pre-school and primary 
education. 

Out-of-School Education and Cultural Development: 
The work is divided into two main branches: 
educational development and cultural develop- 
ment, in addition to which research into j'OutU 
problems is promoted. A European Youth Centre, 
which will be residential and sited in Strasbourg 
will become operative in 1971. In adult educatioii 
the problems of the organization and content of 
of this branch of education within a system of 
permanent education and questions of new tech- 
nologies of out-of-school education are prominent. 
In tlie field of cultural development a new series 
of projects is under way', designed to provide the 
quantitative and qualitative data to enable 
governments and local authorities to redefine tlicir 
policies with regard to determination of the needs 
of the population, choice of facilities, management 
and investments. Action is also being taken to 
ensure the promotion of greater aesthetic, social 
and scientific awareness among individuals. More- 
over, a long-term programme is carried out on the 
theme of "Sport for All”. Its aim is to promote 
sport as an instrument for the fitness and socio- 
cultural development of the largest possible 
number. A number of traditional projects are 
being continued including European Art Exhibi- 
tions which demonstrate the interdependence of 


170 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


national cultures and tlie Cultural Identity Card 
which offers special facilities to research workers. 

Audio-visual Media and Educational Technology. 
Great attention is paid in all three branches of 
education to the present and future applications 
of modem media ranging from films and closed- 
circuit television to multi-media systems and 
satellites. 

Modern Languages: A Major Project — Modern Langu 
ages, covering all three branches of education, is 
being actively pursued in co-operation with tlie 
International Association for the Development of 
Applied Linguistics, with the airn of improving 
and accelerating language teaching throughout 
Europe. 

Documentation and Publications: A Documentation 
Centre for Education in Europe was established in 
1964. In 1967 it was linked with a new service for 
information on educational research. The main 
educational publications of the Council for Lm- 
tural Co-operation are published in the series hdu- 
cation in Europe. Other works of a more technical 
character are also produced. Two penodicals 
Education and Culture and Bulletin of the Documen- 
tation Centre for Education in Europe arc available 
to specialists free of charge. 

ENVIRONMENTAL QUESTIONS 

The European Committee for the Conservation o 
Nature and Natural Resources (created m 1902) 
advises the Committee of Ministers on environmental 
questions. It prepares policy recomm^dations an 
promotes European co-operation in tnis nelci. 
Diplomas have been awarded to protected landscapes, 
reserves and natural features of European inteie^. 
European Water Charter was made public in bttas- 
bourg in May 1968 when a European Iriforma 1 
Campaign on Water Problems was launched. In 19 7 ' 
a European Information Centre for Nature 
tion began operations at the Secretariat. ^ 7 ° ' 
proclaimed Nature Conservation Year by the 
mittee of Ministers. A European Conservation con- 
ference was held in Strasbourg in February 1970. ana 
the Committee of Ministers has decided . 
Conference of Ministers responsible for the Envi 
ment shall be held in late 1972 or early i 973 - 
A Committee of Experts on Air 
created in 1966 with tasks similar to those 01 
above-mentioned Committee. A Declaration o 
ciples of Air Pollution Control, prepared oy ^ 
Committee, was approved by the Commi 
Ministers in 1968. 

local authorities and REGIONAL PLANNING 

The Council of Europe provides a 
appropriate framework for European 
local authorities and regional planning q , 

The Council entered this field in 1952 with /iflairs 
tion of a Committee on Local and Regional ^airs 
'vithin the Consultative Assembly, ocal 

by the creation of the European Conferen 
Authoritie.s, as a common forum for electee p 


tatives of local and regional government from member 
states. In 1967 the Committee on Co-operation in 
Municipal and Regional Matters was set up to enable 
senior officials from Ministries responsible for local 
government affairs and/or leading local government 
figures in the member states to meet. 

At the same time, in response to recommendations 
by the European Conference of Local Authorities and 
the Consultative Assembly, the Council began to study 
regional planning problems and in 1970 . called 
together the first European Conference of Ministers 
responsible for Regional Planning. The Consultative 
Assembly’s Committee altered its name m 1968 to the 
"Committee on Regional Planning and Local Authori- 
ties’’. The objectives are many and varied. Firstly, 
the intention is to provide, through the European 
Conference of Local Authorities, for the participation 
of local and regional administrators in European 
co-operation. 

Through the Committee on Co-operation in Munici- 
pal and Regional Matters machinery exists to establish 
co-operation between governments in local govern- 
ment questions, with a view to enabling national 
governments to exchange experience and ensure, as 
far as is possible and necessary, that the various 
national structures and legislations m 

harmony. Amongst the activities of this Comnuttee 
are those aimed at the strengthening of the structures 
of local and regional government 

to the requirements of modern society and European 
unification. _ . 

The European Conference of Ministers responsible 
for Regional Planning has set itself the task of laying 
the foundations of a European regional P^unning 
policy, with a view to ensuring a more balanced use of 
the European territory and the harmonious develop- 
ment of its various regions. 

At their first Conference, in Bonn, September 1970, 
the Ministers responsible for regional planning in te 

states represented agreed to co-operate m th? follow- 
ing fields: institution between the 
coLtries of a standing exchange of 'ufu^mation on 
policy legislation, experience and current ^evelop- 
mente in the field of regional planning: co-operation 
in the field of long-range forecasting a.nd establishment 
of regular co-operation betiveon public research insti- 
tutes“concerned with regional planning; “-ordination 
in time and space of plans and measures relating to 
regional planning in frontier areas; 
cussions between officials and research wo 
S of regional planning, in order to harmonize and 
improve their training and famdiarize them wito the 
noheies and techniques m use m other European 
states; harmonization of terminology, statistics and 
cartographical methods. 

Finally, mention should be made of the activities 
of local Lthorities aimed at spreading the European 
idea and promoting a closer understanding beb,\een 
peoples, particularly through town-t^vinnmg arrange- 
ments 'These activities led some years ago to the 
institution of May 5th as Europe Day. A 
Prize is awarded each year to the local authority 
having made the most outstanding efforts to propa- 


177 


THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


gate the ideal of European unity. The Council also 
awards a number of grants-in-aid to local authorities 
under a European Intermunicipal Exchanges Dev'elop- 
ment Plan. 

FRONTIER FORMALITIES 

Since its earliest days the Council has sought to 
bring about the simplification of frontier formalities 
and the aboUtion of unnecessary restrictions in the 
way of freer travel within its area. All visas have been 


abolished between the member countries of the 
Council, the necessity of passports has been done away 
with by a considerable number of them, formalities 
for the temporary importation of motor vehicles have 
been reduced to a minimum and much has been done 
to speed up formalities at airports. At present, a new 
effort is being made with a view to the preparation of 
practical measures for adapting frontier formalities to 
the requirements of the present situation (excluding 
customs matters). 


CONVENTIONS AND AGREEMENTS 

In an effort to harmonize national laws, to put the citizens of member countries on an equal footing and to pool certain 
resources and facilities, the Council has concluded a large number of treaties covering particular aspects of European 
co-operation; 


Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and 
Fundamental Freedoms. 

European Convention on Social and Medical Assistance. 

European Interim Agreement on Social Security other than 
Schemes for Old Age, Invalidity and Survivors. 

European Interim Agreement on Social Security relating 
to Old Age, Invalidity and Survivors. 

European Social Charter. 

Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharma- 
copoeia (not yet in force). 

Agreement on the Exchange of War Cripples between 
Member States wth a view to Medical Treatment. 

European Convention on the Equivalence of Diplomas 
leading to Admission to Universities. 

European Cultural Convention. 

European Convention on the Academic Recognition of 
University Qualifications. 

European Agreement on the Equivalence of Periods of 
University Study. 

European Agreement on Travel by Young Persons on 
Collective Passports between Member Countries. 

European Convention relating to the Formalities required 
for Patent Applications. 

European Convention on the International Classification 
of Patents for Invention. 

Convention on the Unification of certain points of Sub- 
stantive Law on Patents for Invention lyiot yet in force). 

European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for 
Refugees. 

European Agreement on Regulations governing the Move- 
ment of Persons between Member States. 

European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of 
Disputes. 

European Convention on Establishment. 

European Convention on Extradition. 

European Agreement on the Exchange of Therapeutic 
Substances of Human Origin. 

Agreement on the Temporary Importation, free of duty, 
of Jledical, Surgical and Laboratory Equipment for use 
on free loan in Hospitals and other Medical Institutions 
for purposes of Diagnosis or Treatment. 


Agreement between the Member States of the Council of 
Europe on the issue to Military and Civilian War 
Disabled of an International Book of Vouchers for the 
repair of Prosthetic and Orthopaedic Appliances. 

European Agreement on Mutual Assistance in the matter 
of Special Medical Treatments and CUmatic Facilities. 

European Agreement on the Exchange of Blood Grouping 
Reagents. 

European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of 
Nurses. 

European Agreement concerning Programme Exchange 
by means of Television Films. 

European Agreement on the Protection of Television 
Broadcasts. 

European Agreement for the Prevention of Broadcasts 
transmitted from Stations outside National Territories. 

European Convention on Compulsory Insurance against 
Civil Liability in respect of Motor Vehicles. 

European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal 
Matters. 

Convention on the Liability of Hotel-Keepers concerning 
the Property of their Guests. 

European Convention on the Supervision of Conditionally 
Sentenced of Conditionally Released Offenders (not yet 
in force). 

European Convention on the Punishment of Road Traffic 
Offences (not yet in force). 

Convention on the Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nation- 
ality and on Military Obligations in Cases of Multiple 
Nationality. 

Agreement relating to Application of the European Con- 
vention on International Commercial Arbitration. 

European Convention providing a Uniform Law on 
Arbitration (not yet in force). 

European Code of Social Security. 

European Convention on Establishment of Companies 
(not yet in force). 

European Convention on the Adoption of Children. 

European Convention on Foreign Jloney Liabilities (not 
yet in force). 


17S 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


European Convention on Consular Functions {not yet in 
force). 

European Convention on Information on Foreign Law. 

European Convention on the Abolition of Legalization ol 
Documents executed by Diplomatic Agents and Con- 
sular Officers. 

European Agreement on the Restriction of the Use ol 
Certain Detergents in Working and Cleaning Products 
{not yet in force). 


European Convention for the Protection of Animals during 
International Transport. 

European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeo- 
logical Heritage. 

European Agreement relating to Persons participating in 
Proceedings of the European Commission and Court of 
Human Rights {not yet in force). 


EXTERNAL RELATIONS 


Agreements providing for co-operation and ex- 
change of documents and observers have been con- 
cluded with the United Nations and its Agencies, and 
with most of the European inter-govemmental 
organizations. Particularly close relations exist with 
the European Communities, OECD, EFTA and 
Western European Union. Members of tlie European 


Parliament hold an annual joint meeting with mem- 
bers of the Consultative Assembly. 

Israel is represented in the Consultative Assembly 
by observers, and certain European non-member 
countries have been invited to participate, through 
observers, in meetings of technical committees and 
specialized conferences. 


BUDGET 

( 197 °) 


INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 

Contributions of Member States: 
France, FederM Republic of Ger- 
many, Italy, United Kdngdom . 
Turkey . . . . ■ 

Netherlands .... 
Belgium . . . . • 

Austria, Greece, Sweden 

Denmark, Sivitzerland 

Norway . . . . • 

Ireland . . . . • 

Cyprus . . . . • 

Iceland, Luxembourg, Malta 

/o 

16.99 each 
10.62 

4.06 

3-13 

2.55 each 

I . So each 

1.25 

0.94 

0.31 

0.16 each 

The expenses of the Secretariat and all other 
common expenses are shared by member 
states, who bear the cost of their own 
delegations. 

Total . . . 49m. French francs 

Other Receipts . 2 . sm. French francs 



PUBLICATIONS 

Foru,ard in Europe: Quarterly a to of the Council. 

^'ft^emblv debates, documents of the Assembly, texts adopted. 
Official Records of Consultative of Human Rights. 

Judgements and Proceedings of the Europe 
All other publications are listed in: 

Council of Europe, Catalogue of Publications (annual). 


179 



THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE 


SUMMARY OF STATUTE 


The Statute of the Council of Europe was signed in 
London on May 5th, 1949. It defines the aim of the 
Council, the conditions of membership and the com- 
position and tasks of its institutions. (For an account 
of the latter, see the section on Organization above.) 

The aim of the Council of Europe is stated by the 
Statute to be the achievement of "a greater unity 
between its members for the purpose of safeguarding 
and realizing the ideals and principles which are their 
common heritage and facilitating their economic and 
social progress”. Collaboration with the United 
Nations and other international organizations are not 
to be affected by membership of the Council. 


Every member state must "accept the principles of 
the rule of law and of the enjoyment by all persons 
within its jurisdiction of human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms, and collabora,te sincerely and 
effectively in the realization of the aims of the 
Council”. It is further laid down that "any European 
state deemed able and willing to fulfil these provisions 
may be invited by the Committee of Ministers to 
become a member of the Council”. This has later been 
modified by the Committee of Ministers, who now 
undertake to consult the Assembly before issuing an 
invitation to join. 


4 - 


180 



DANUBE COMMISSION 



THE ANNUAL SESSION 

President {1969-72): K. Enderl (Austria). 

Vice-President: F. Dvorsk'^’ (Czechoslovakia). 

Secretary: D. Jovic (Yugoslavia). 

Sessions are held once a year. A Session may adojA a 
resolution by a simple majority with a quorum of five, u 
important decisions require the attendance of the u 
Session. The President, Vice-President and Secretary are 
elected for three years by a simple majority. Resolurions 
^e in the form of recommendations and are passe o 
Member states for internal legislation. The Session appoints 
Expert Groups which meet beriveen two Sessions as 

required. 


SECRETARIAT AND SERVICES 

The Secretariat has two sections: correspondence, 
publications and archives, and administration and 
management. In addition the Commission has four 
services departments: technology, navigation, hydro- 
meteorology, and planning and statistics. A separate 
department is responsible for accounts. Stafl is drawn 
from all the member countries. 

Director: L. J. Kapikraian (U.S.S.R.). 

Assistant Director (Secretariat): (vacant). 

Assistant Director (Services): S. Simeonov (Bulgaria). 
Assistant Director (Accounts): E. Christ (Austria). 


181 



DANUBE COMMISSION 


activities 


General Work Plans. Based on proposals of the DanuWan 
States and the special river administrations. The Com- 
mission assesses total expenditure for any large plans and 
carries out the work if a single state cannot do so. It 
consults continually with member states and river adminis- 
trations while work is proceeding. 

Uniform Navigational System. Navigational rules have 
been unified and manu^s of navigational procedure 
published. To secure observations of these rules a fiver 
inspection system has been set up, -ivith functions laid 
down by the Commission. 

Manuals for River Users. Publications include pilots’ 
charts covering most of the Danube, sailing directions, 
mileage charts and lists of temporary winter quarters, 

Co-ordination in Hydro-Meteorological Services. Liaison 
has been improved for the provision of hydro-meteoro- 
logical information and water-level forecasts. Assessing 
water-levels is carried out by a uniform method. 

Hydrotechnical Services. Steps are being taken to measure 
the minimum dimensions of locks and bridges and the 
minimum heights of high-tension cables and telephone 
lines. The Commission works out statistical surveys noting 
the appearance of sandbanks, and classifies the results. A 
similar analysis is being made of glacial activity. 

Customs, Sanitary, Veterinary and Phytosanitary Regula- 


tions. The Commission has undertaken to formulate 
uniformly applicable rules. 

Legal Problems. The Secretariat of the Commission 
studies the most important legal questions connected with 
shipping on the Danube and submits its proposals to the 
Commission. 

International Co-operation. The Commission works 
closely with many international bodies, including the UN 
Economic Commission for Europe, the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, ITU and the World Health 
Organization. An agreement of collaboration and co-opera- 
tion was signed with the World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion in 1962. In 1965 the Commission became a member of 
the Permanent International Association of Navigation 
Congresses. 

Independent Yugoslav-Romaiiian Co-operation. A giant 
hydroelectric dam is being planned at Djerdap by Yugoslav 
and Romanian engineers independently, but taking into 
account recommendations made by the Danube Com- 
mission. The dam will control the currents of the Iron 
Gates, where the river is only about 500 ft. wide but up to 
280 ft. deep. The effect on navigation toU be to raise the 
annual tonnage capacity to 90 million tons. At present, 
12 million tons of shipping, one-third of which is Russian, 
pass annually through the Iron Gates. The project is 
expected to be completed in 1971. 


BUDGET 

1970: 5,419,100 forints. 

Member countries pay an equal annual contribution to the costs of the Commission. 


LANGUAGES 

The official languages are Russian and French. 


Proceedings of the Sessions. 

Danube Uniform Marking System. 
Basic Regulations of Navigation, 
River Supervision. 

Pitots' Charts. 

Survey Map. 

Mileage Chart. 

Sailing Directions. 


PUBLICATIONS 

Hydro-meteorological Co-ordination. 
Installation of Buoys. 

Danube Signalling Stations. 

Winter Ports and Temporary Winter 
Quarters. 

Danubian Ships. 

Danube Profile. 

Control of Ice on the Danube. 


Danube Maintenance (annual). 
Statistical Bulletin (annual). 
Hydrological Bulletin (annual). 
Compilation of Inland Laws concerning 
Shipping on the Danube. 

Compilation of Agreements on Danube 
Navigation. 


182 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Established December 1967, the Community provides an institutional and legal framework to strengthen the 
Common Market between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and has absorbed the common services and research 
activities formerly controlled by the East African Common Services Organization. 

MEMBERS 

Kenya Tanzania Uganda 

Zambia, Ethiopia, Somalia and Burundi have made formal application to join the Community. 


HISTORY 


The foundations of regional integration in east 
Africa were laid under British colonial rule. A customs 
union between Kenya and Uganda had been estab- 
lished in 1917, into which Tanganyika was drawn in 
successive stages. An East African Common Market 
^s'as established in the 1920s, giving Kenya, Uganda 
and Tanganyika a common external tariff, designed 
to protect European-dominated highland agriculture 
in Kenya and the new industries in Nairobi and 
Mombasa. The East African Currency Board -was 
established in 1917 and a common currency was in 
use in east Africa from that date until 1966, when the 
three countries set up their mm central banks and 
issued national currencies. 

In 1948 the East African High Commission, headed 
by the governors of the three territories, was set up 
to operate joint services in the fields of transport and 
communications, administration, research and edu- 
cation. In addition to the common external tariS, 
there were common monetary, banking and financial 
S)rstems. These joint operations encouraged a sharp 
increase in trade -within the region. 

After independence the High Commission was 
replaced in ig6i by the East African Common Services 
Organization under the three Heads of State. Inte- 
grated acti-vities were continued, and several joint 
ministerial commi-ttees were created. 

There were no pro-visions for integrated economic 
planning or for harmoniza-tion of taxation and 
monetary policy, and the arrangements were in- 
creasingly threatened by the separate policies pursued 
by the three countries. The benefits derived from the 
union appeared to be largely in Kenya’s favour, whOe 
Tanzania was the net loser. Industries, as well as the 
administrative headquarters of common services, 
tended to be concentrated in Kenya. Tanzania pressed 
for reforms of the economic institutions, and in 1964 
the Kampala Agreement was signed, providing for 
the relocation of certain industries and joint measures 
■to protect new industries in Uganda and Tanzania 
from Kenyan competition. However, the Agreement 
was badly implemented and led to bitter disputes 


between the member countries. In 1965 -the EASCO 
was in danger of breaking up, and a Commission on 
East Africa was set up, composed of three senior 
ministers from each state, and chaired by a UN 
official. Professor Kjeld Philip. The Commission pre- 
sented its report to the three governments in May 

1966. On the basis of its recommendations, a Treaty 
for East African Economic Co-operation was dra^vn 
up and signed, coming into effect in December 

1967. 

The Treaty -takes into account the need for planned 
development policies, a better framework for close 
co-ordination and more equitable allocation of gains 
and growth opportunities. Under the terms of the 
Treaty administrative offices have been relocated so 
that they are more equally di-vided between -the 
member States, and the East African Development 
Bank has been established. The East African Com- 
mon Market is given a legal basis as an integral part 
of the East African Community, established by the 
Treaty. 

Accession of new members is provided for. In 1968 
negotiations were opened between the East African 
Community and Zambia, Ethiopia, Somalia and 
Burundi, who had all applied to join the Community. 

In October 1965 the UN Economic Commission for 
Africa sponsored a conference at Lusaka, at which 
the idea of an Economic Community of Eastern 
Africa was launched. This would embrace the East 
African Community, Zambia, E-tbiopia and Burundi, 
and possibly Somalia, Malawi and Rwanda. A draft 
■treaty was initialled at a conference of ministers in 
Addis Ababa in May 1966, and a Provisional Council 
created. 

Negotiations between the European Economic 
Community and Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania were 
opened in 1965. In July 1968 an Association Agree- 
ment was signed at Arusha by the EEC and -the 
members of the East African Community, but never 
came into force. A new Arusha Agreement was signed 
in September 1969 and will expire on January 31st 
1975 - 


183 


EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


ORGANIZATION 


EAST AFRICAN AUTHORITY 

Responsible for the general direction and control over 
the executive functions of the Community. Composed of 
the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Three 
East African Ministers assist the Authority in the exercise 
of its executive functions and advise it generally on the 
affairs of the Community. The East African Ministers have 
no national responsibilities but are able to attend and 
speak at meetings of the Cabinet of the country by which 
they were nominated. 

East African Ministers: J. S. Malecela, Shafiq Arain, 
R. J. OUKO. 

EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

Replaces the Central Legislative Assembly. Legislates 
or services provided by the Community, but does not 
debate the Estimates of the four Corporations. 

Members: nine from each state, the three East African 
Ministers and Deputy Ministers, Secretary-General, 
Counsel to the Community, and a Chairman. 

COMMON MARKET COUNCIL 

Main organ for the supervision of the functioning and 
development of the Common Market; keeps its operation 
under review; settles problems and disputes arising from 
the implementation of the Treaty concerning the Common 
Market; considers methods of creating closer economic and 
commercial links with other States, associations of States 
and international organizations. 

Members: the three East African Ministers, three National 
Ministers from each country. 

Other Councils 

The following four Councils have also been established as 
consultative organs to advise Member States and the 
Community on planning and the co-ordination of policies; 
each is composed of the three East African Ministers and a 
varying number of national Ministers from each country: 
Communications Council 
Economic Consultative and Planning Council 
Finance Council 
Research and Social Council 


COMMON MARKET TRIBUNAL 

Composed of a Judicial Chairman, three members (one 
from each country) and a fourth chosen by the other three, 
plus the Chairman. Only member states are permitted to 
refer disputes to the Tribunal, although the Common 
Market Council may seek advisory opinions. Decisions, 
which are binding on member states, are reached by a 
majority vote. 

CENTRAL SECRETARIAT 

Arusha, Tanzania 

Composed of the three Secretariats (Ministries) : Finance 
and Administration {Deputy Minister Ali Kisseka), 
Common Market and Economic Affairs {Deputy Minister: 
vacant). Communications, Research and Social SerAu’ces 
{Deputy Minister G. N. Kalya); Office of the Secretary- 
General, The Chambers of the Counsel to the Community 
and the Community Sendee Commission. 

The Secretariat co-ordinates the work of the five 
Councils and is responsible for execution of the Councils 
decisions. The Common Market and Economic Affairs 
Secretariat of the Central Secretariat is also charged witli 
co-ordinating the implementation of the Association 
Agreement signed in September 1969 at Arusha, between 
the East African Community and the European Economic 
Community. 

Secretary-General: Zerubaberi Hosea Kwamva Bioir- 

WENKYA. 

Counsel to the Community: Paulo Sebalu. 

COURT OF APPEAL FOR EAST AFRICA 

P.O.B. 30187, Nairobi 
Permanent Members; 

President: Mr. Justice W. A. H. Duefus. 

Vice-President: Mr. Justice J. F. Spry. 

Justices of Appeal: E. J. E. Law, B. C. W. Lutta, A 
Mustafa. 

Registrar: T. T. M. Aswani. 

This Court, which was established in 1951, hears 
appeals from the Courts of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. 


184 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


EAST AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK 

Kampala, Uganda 


Established in 1967, tlie Bank’s aims are as follows; 

To provide financial and technical assistance to pro- 
mote the industrial development of the member states; 
priority is given to industrial development in the 
relatively less developed countries and about 77 per 
cent of ordinary and special funds are to be invested in 
Tanzania and Uganda over consecutive five-year 
periods. 

To further the aims of the East African Community 
by financing, wherever possible, projects designed to 
make the economies of the member states increasingly 
complementary in the industrial field. 

To co-operate with national development agencies in 


the three countries in financing operations, and also with 
other institutions, both national and international, that 
are interested in the industrial development of member 
states. 

The Bank’s members are the three governments together 
with such other non-governmental bodies, enterprises and 
institutions whose membership is approved by the govern- 
ments. Total initial subscriptions by the governments 
totals Sh. 120 million and the total authorized capital 
is Sh. 400 million. The Bank is administered by a Board of 
Directors appointed by the members. 

Director-General and Chairman: Iddi Simba. 

Directors: J. N. Miciiuki, S. K. Mokasa, E. P. Mwaluko. 


COMMUNITY CORPORATIONS 


The four Community Corporations are self-accounting, 
statutory bodies. The Railways, Harbours, and Posts and 
Telecommunications Corporations are each controlled by 
a Board of Directors consisting of a Chairman, three 
members (one from each member state) appointed by the 
East African Authority, and a Director-General. Board of 
Directors of the Airways Corporation is composed of a 
Chairman, Director-General, two members appointed by 
the Authority and two by each member state. 

East African Railways Corporation: P.O.B. 30121, Nairobi; 
regional headquarters in each State; takes over the 
internal transport functions exercised by the East 
African Railways and Harbours; Director-General Dr. 
E. Njuguna Gakuo. 

East African Harbours Corporation: Dar es Salaam, 
Tanzania; takes over the harbours functions formerly 
exercised by the East African Railways and Harbours; 
Director-General C. Tamale. 


East African Posts and Telecommunications Corporation: 

P.O.B. 7106, Kampala; formerly the East African Posts 
and Telecommunications Administration. The service 
has been self-contained and self-financing since January 
1949; there are regional headquarters in each partner 
state; Director-General J. Keto. 

East African Airways Corporation : Headquarters; Embakasi 
Airport, P.O.B. 19002, Nairobi, Kenya; Uganda 
Regional Ojfice: P.O.B. 523, Kampala; Tanzania 
Regional Offices; Airways Terminal, Tancot House, 
P.O.B. 543, Dar es Salaam, and P.O.B. 773, Zanzibar; 
operates extensive services throughout Kenya, Tan- 
zania and Uganda; also regular scheduled services to 
Europe, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Thai- 
land, Hongkong, Zambia, Ruanda, Congo-Kinshasa. 
Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Somalia and U.A.R; 
Director-General Wilson Okumu Lutara. 


COMMUNITY SERVICES 


Community Service Commission: P.O.B. 1000, Arusha; f. 
1957 ^ the Public Service Commission; establishment 
organization of the Community; no responsibilities in 
relation to the four Corporations. 

East African Community Information Office: P.O.B. looi, 
Arusha; news and information service for press, radio, 
magazines, and for the public. Arranges visits, exhi- 
bitions, and lectures, and produces literature. 

The East African Directorate of Civil Aviation: P.O. Box 
30163. Nairobi; established under the Air Transport 
Authority in 1948; to advise on all matters of major 
policy affecting Civil Aviation within the jurisdiction of 
the East African Community, on annual estimates and 
■ on Civil Aviation legislation; the Area Control Centre 
and an Area Communications Centre are at East 
African Community, Nairobi. Air traffic control is 
operated at Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Entebbe and 


Mombasa airports, at Wilson (Nairobi) Aerodrome and 
aerodromes at Arusha, Kisumu, Mwanza, Malindi, 
Moshi, Mtwara, Tabora, Tanga and Zanzibar; Dir.-Gen. 
Z. M. Baliddawa. 

East African Industrial Council: P.O.B. 1003, Arusha; 
grants licences for the scheduled class of products 
included under the East African Industrial Licensing 
Act; Chair. D. Mwiraria. 

East African Industrial Research Organization: P.O.B. 

30650, Nairobi; f. 1942; research and advisory service in 
the technical problems of industrial development; Dir. 
C. L. Tarimu. 

East African Literature Bureau: P.O.B. 30022, Nairobi; 
European Office: University Press of Africa, i West 
St., Tavistock, Devon, England; f. 1948; to encourage 
the publication and sale of books. Publishes, prints and 
distributes books, including adult education books; 
promotes African authorship; Dir. N. M. L. Sempira. 


185 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


East African Meteorological Department: P.O.B. 30259, 
Nairobi; Headquarters, Regional Meteorological Centre, 
Regional Telecommunications Hub and Central Ser- 
vices at Nairobi; Regional Headquarters and forecast 
offices at Dar es Salaam, Entebbe, Mombasa and 
Nairobi; Port Meteorological Offices at Mombasa and 
Dar es Salaam. Responsible for collection and study of 
meteorological and climatological data for East Africa, 
pure and applied meteorological research, provision of 
meteorological services to amation, shipping, agricul- 
ture and the public; Dir.-Gen. S. Tewungwa; pubis. 
Annual Report, Memoirs, Technical Memoranda, 
Climatological Statistics. 

East African Natural Resources Research Council: P.O.B. 

1002, Arusha; f. 1963; Sec. E. R. Kagazi; responsible 
for the co-ordination of research relating to the Natural 
Resources of East Africa, especially as regards; 

East African Fresh Water Fisheries Research Organiza- 
tion: Jinja, Uganda; f. 1946; exploitation of fisheries 
in Lake Victoria and all lakes and rivers in East 
Africa; Dir. Dr. J. Okedi; publ. Annual Report. 
East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization: 
Zanzibar; exploitation of marine fisheries in Indian 
Ocean; Dir. B. E. Bell; publ. Annual Report. 

The Tropical Pesticides Research Institute; Amsha, 
Tanzania; research in the application of insecticides, 
herbicides and fungicides, etc.; Dir. Dr. M. E. A. 
Materu; publ. Annual Report. 

East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organi- 
zation: P.O.B. 30148, Nairobi, Kenya; f. 1948; 
planning of research; soil science; plant genetics and 
breeding; forestry; systematic botany; animal 
industry; library of 20,000 vols.; Dir. O. Starnes; 
publ. Annual Report, 

The East African Veterinary Research Organization: 

Muguga, P.O. Kabete, Kenya; f. 1948; for research 
on diseases and conditions of importance to the 
East African territories and the production of 
vaccines against rinderpest and pleuropneumonia. 
Disease research includes virus infections of live- 
stock with special emphasis on rinderpest and 
rinderpest-like diseases, tick-borne diseases, especi- 
ally the Theilerias, Bovine pleuropneumonia and 
rielminthiasis. The physiology, metabolism and 
genetics of cattle, are aspects of animal production 
being studied; Dir. A. Rashid; publ. Annual 
Report. 

East African Statistical Department: P.O. Box 30462, 
Nairobi; to provide statistical data on an East African 
basis; publ. Economic and Statistical Review (quarterly); 
Chief Statistician D. C. Singh. 

East African Tax Board: Includes representatives of the 
Customs and Excise and the Income Tax Departments 
{see below), the Community and the three Governments; 
tasks include correlation of the taxation systems of the 
three countries, keeping under review the work of the 
two taxation departments and ensuring their co-ordina- 
tion, assisting in taxation planning. The Commissioners 
in each Member State under the authority of two 
Commissioners General are members. 

East African Customs and Excise Department: P.O.B. 
9061, Mombasa, Kenya; f. 1949; Commissioner- 
General G. M. Wandera (Acting). 


East African Income Tax Department: P.O.B. 30742, 
Nairobi; responsible for the assessment and collec- 
tion of Income Tax in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, 
and for the assessment of Hospital Tax in Kenya. 
Offices in Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru, Kisumu, 
Kampala, Mbale, Mbarara, Dar es Salaam, Arusha, 
Tanga, Mwanza, Mbeya and Zanzibar Tom; 
Commissioner-General H. Ng’ang’a (Acting). 

Office of the East African Medical Research Council: 

P.O.B. 1002, Arusha, Tanzania; f. 1949; directs and 
co-ordinates the activities of the East African Institute 
for Medical Research, the East African Virus Research 
Institute, the East African Institute of Malaria and 
Vector-Bome Diseases, the East African Trypano- 
somiasis Research Organization, the East African 
Leprosy Research Centre and the East African Tuber- 
culosis Investigation Centre; Sec. Dr. F. Kamunvi; 
pubis. Annual Reports, papers. 

East African Institute of Malaria and Vector-Borne 
Diseases: P.O., Amani, Tanzania; f. 1949; work is 
divided between fundamental research, the applica- 
tion of knowledge to East African problems and the 
dissemination of knowledge among those concerned 
rvith antimalarial operations in East Africa and 
elsewhere; research concerns chiefly malaria and 
onchocerciasis and their vectors; Dir. P. Wegesa; 
publ. Annual Report. 

East African Institute for Medical Research: F.O.B. 
1462, Mwanza, Tanzania; formerly the East African 
Medical Survey and East African Filariasis Research 
Units; f. 1949; Dir. V. M. Eyakuze; publ. Annual 
Report, scientific papers. 

East African Leprosy Research Centre (The John Lowe 
Memorial), P.O.B. 1044, Busia, Uganda; situated 
on the border of Kenya and Uganda, the Centre 
undertakes studies on problems of leprosy in East 
Africa and works out a method of satisfactory 
control of leprosy in the field ivithout high costs. 
Scientists carry out study programmes by visits 
to rural areas and schools to find out how far the 
disease is spread and to set up small clinics for 
treatment and prevention of further infection. 
Research is undertaken into immunology and drug 
trials in leprosy. Dir. Dr. Y. Otsyula. 

East African Trypanosomiasis Research Organizalion: 
P.O.B. 96, Tororo, Uganda; the laboratories study 
sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals; 
main lines of research: immunology, entomology, 
epidemiology, biochemistry, treatment and preven- 
tion of diseases; Dir. Dr. R. J. Onyango; publ. 
Annual Report. 

East African Virus Research Institute: P.O.B. 49. 
Entebbe, Uganda; f. 1936 by the Rockefeller 
Foundation as the Yellow Fever Research Institute, 
it -was taken over by the East African High Com- 
mission and by the East African Common Services 
Organization in 1950; in 1967 it became part of the 
East African Community. Work on yellow fever is 
now only one side of the general research on viruses, 
especially those carried by arthropods; Dir. G. W. 
Kafuko; publ. Annual Report. 


18C 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 

SUMMARY OF TREATY FOR EAST AFRICAN GO -OPERATION 

Signed at Kampala, Uganda, on June 6th, 1967, by the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. 


Preamble 

Refers among other points to the fact tliat Tanzania, 
Uganda and Kenya have enjoyed close commercial, 
industrial and other ties for many years, and to the 
determination of the three Partner States to strengthen 
these ties and their common services, by the establishment 
of an East African Community, and a Common Market as 
an integral part of the Community. 

Chapter i 
(Articles 1-4) 

Aims and Institutions 

General undertaking included that the three countries 
shall make every effort to plan and direct their policies 
mth a view to creating conditions favourable for the 
development of the Common Market and the achievement 
of the aims of the Community. 

Chapter 2 
(Articles 5-8) 

External Trade 

Three countries to maintain a Common External Tariff, 
"^ree countries will not enter into agreements whereby 
tarifi concessions negotiated with any country outside the 
Community are not available to all three countries. 

Three countries will take effective measures to counteract 
any deviation of trade, resulting from barter agreements, 
away from goods produced in East Africa to goods produced 
outside the Common Market. 

Chapter 3 
(Articles 9-16) 

Inier'Territorial Trade 

Guarantees freedom of transit across one State of goods 
destined for another country, subject to the normal customs 
Md other rules. 

Customs duty collected on goods imported into one of 
the three countries, but in transit to another, shall go to 
the second country. 

Prohibits internal tariffs (except for the transfer tax; 
see below), and quantitative import restrictions upon goods 
produced in East Africa. Exceptions made in respect of 
goods covered by certain special obligations, certain 
agricultural goods, and for restrictions imposed for certain 
efined reasons (e.g. control of arms and munitions) or in 
efined circumstances (e.n. balance of payments difficul- 
ties). 

One country must not engage in discriminatory practices 
ogainst goods from either or both of the other countries. 

Chapter 4 
(Articles ly-rS) 

Excise Tariffs 

Removal of present differences in the excise tariff 
‘he Common Market Council determines to be undesirable 


in the interests of the Common Market, and establishment 
of a generally common excise tsiriff. 

Excise duty collected on goods produced in one country, 
but transferred to another country, to be transferred to the 
second country. 

Chapter 5 
(Articles 19-21) 

Measure to Promote Balanced Industrial Development 

1. Harmonization of fiscal incentives offered by each 
country towards industrial development. 

2. The Transfer Tax System: 

The Transfer Tax: States which are in deficit in their 
total trade in manufactured goods wth the other two 
States may impose transfer taxes upon such goods 
originating from the other two countries, up to a value of 
goods equivalent in each case to its deficit rvith that 
country. A transfer tax can only be imposed if goods of a 
similar description to those taxed are being manufactured, 
or are reasonably expected to be manufactured within 
three months, in the tax-imposing country. The industry 
to be protected by the tax must have a productive capacity 
equivalent to at least 15 per cent of the total domestic 
consumption of such products in the tax-imposing country 
or to a value of 2 million shillings E.A., whichever is the 
less. 

Rate of Transfer Tax; limited to 50 per cent of the 
equivalent external customs tariff imposed on such goods 
coming from outside East Africa. 

Collection; Customs and Excise Department of East 
Africa responsible for collection, administration and 
management of all transfer taxes; costs to be borne by the 
country or countries which imposed transfer taxes. 

Limitations: No transfer tax can be imposed for longer 
than eight years, and all such taxes are to be revoked 
fifteen years after the Treaty comes into force. There will 
be an examination of the effectiveness of the system five 
years after the first tax is imposed. If a significant deviation 
of trade takes place to goods produced outside the Common 
Market, as a result of the imposition of transfer taxes, 
measures shall be taken to counteract such a deviation. If a 
tax-protected industry is able to export 30 per cent of its 
annual production to the other two countries, the transfer 
tax must be revoked, and if its exports to all countries 
reach 30 per cent, the situation can be considered by the 
Common Market Council. A country which comes into 80 
per cent balance in its total trade in manufactured goods 
inside East Africa loses the right to impose new transfer 
taxes, although existing taxes will continue in force. 

Anti-Dnmping Provisions: Prohibit the transfer of 
manufactured goods at a price lower than their true value, 
in such a way as to prejudice the production of similar 
goods in each Partner State, and prohibit export subsidies 
for such goods (other than tax incentives and refunds of a 
general and non-discriminatory kind). 

3. Establishment of the East African Development Bank 
{see above). 


187 


EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Chapter 6 

(Article 23 

Industrial Licences 

Present system of industrial licensing shall continue, in 
respect of articles now scheduled, until twenty years have 
expired since the commencement of the original legislation. 

Chapter 7 
(Articles 24-28) 

Currency and Banking 

Exchange of currency notes of the three countries (but 
not coin) at official par value -without exchange commission 
and -without undue delay (subject to exchange control laws 
and regulations not in conflict with the Treaty). 

Bona Fide current account payments between the three 
countries permitted; all necessary permissions and 
authorities to be given without undue delay. 

Controls may be exercised on capital payments and 
transfers under certain conditions. Monetary policies to be 
harmonized: meetings of the three Central Bank Governors 
to be held at least four times a year. 

Reciprocal credits may be given by one Partner State 
to help another which is in need of balance of payments 
assistance, up to defined limits and for a period of not more 
than three years. 

Chapter 8 

(Article 29) 

Other Fields of Co-operation 

Harmonization of commercial laws in each State; co- 
ordination of surface transport policies. 

Chapter g 
(Articles 30-31) 

Common Market Council 

[See above: Organization) 

Chapter 10 
(Articles 32-42) 

Common Market Tribunal 

[See above: Organization) 

Chapter ii 
(Articles 43-45) 

Functions of the Community 

The Community will operate the services formerly 
controlled by the East African Common Services Organiza- 
tion (EACSO): also to perform services on an agency 
basis, as agreed by the Authority, and pass laws on certain 
matters. 

Chapter 12 
(Articles 46-48) 

East African Authority 

[See above: Organization) 

Chapter 13 
(Articles 49-51) 

East African Ministers 

(See above: Organization) 


Chapter 14 

(Article 52) 

Deputy East African Ministers 

Allows the Authority, if at any time it considers it 
desirable, to appoint three Deputy East African Ministers 
to assist the Ministers. 

Chapter 15 
(Articles 53-55) 

Five Counciis 

Establishes the following Councils: Common Market 
Council, Communications Council, Economic Consultative 
and Planning Council, Finance Council, Research and 
Social Council [see above: Organization). 

Chapter 16 
(Articles 56-60) 

East African Legislative Assembly 

[See above: Organization) 

Chapter 17 
(Articles 61-64) 

Staff 

Provides for the senior staff of the Community, including 
a Secretary General and a Counsel to the Community, and 
for the establishment of a Community Service Commission, 
which will have no responsibilities in relation to staff of 
the new Corporations. 

Chapter 18 
(Articles 65-70) 

Finance 

Creation of a General Fund and special funds, and the 
authorization of Community expenditure. 

General Ftind: to be financed by customs and excise 
revenue and the tax on gains or profits of companies 
engaged in manufacturing or finance. 

Distributable Pool Fund; had been operated under the 
East African Common Services Organization (EACSO) to 
maintain those common services which are not self- 
supporting: the remainder of the Pool was distributed to 
Uganda and Tanzania. The Fund is to be retained, but to 
be distributed equally to the three countries. It is to cease 
altogether after the Partner States have paid the second 
instalment of their full initial subscriptions to the paid-in 
capital of the Development Bank. 

Chapter 19 
(Articles 71-79) 

Four Corporations within the Community 

[See above; Community Corporations) 

Chapter 20 
(Articles 80-81) 

Court of Appeal for East Africa 

Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa to continue as Court 
of Appeal for East Africa. 


188 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


Chapter 22 
{Articles 83-86) 

Decentralization 

Location of headquarters and the new East African Tax 
Board. 

Chapter 23 

Auditor-General 

Provides for audit and the functions of the Community 
Auditor-General. 

Chapter 24 
(Article 88) 

Transitional Provisions 


Chapter 25 
(Articles 89-96) 

General Provisions 

Treaty to come into force on ist December 1967; parts of 
Treaty dealing with Common Market to remain in force for 
fifteen years and then to be reviewed; other countries may 
negotiate for association with the Community or for 
participation in its activities; modification of the Treaty 
by common agreement; implementation measures by way 
of national legislation in the three countries; abrogation 
of the EACSO Agreements and past agreements on the 
Common Market. 


STATISTICS 


FINANCE 

Exchange Kates 
I shilling E.A. = ioo cents 

£x sterling=l7 shillings 17 cents U.S. $1 = 7 shillings 15 cents 

BUDGET* 




Revenue 


ig69-70t 


^vcmment of the United Kingdom 
Government of Tanzania 
Government of Uganda . 

Government of Kenya . 
wncral Fund Resources . . 

"peral Fund Reserve . . . 

Reimbursements . . . . 

Rents and Sundry Revenue 
Other Contributions 


566,511 

1,085.642 

029,284 

1.353,302 

7.748,174 

n.a. 

948,200 

1,023,512 

1,358,100 


Total . 


14,712,725 


Expenditure 

1969-70! 

Court of Appeal for East Africa 

64,003 

Common Market Tribunal 

38,706 

Community Service Commission 

Office of the Secretary-General and East 

28,222 

African Legislative Assembly 

195.327 

Chambers of the Counsel to the Community 
Common Market and Economic Affairs 

78,691 

Secretariat ..... 

307,338 

Finance and Administration Secretariat . 

853,130 

Miscellaneous Services .... 

3,049.522 

E.A. Customs and Excise Department 

1,915,140 

E.A. Income Tax Department 

1,403,516 

Communication and Research Secretariat. 

223,932 

E.A. Industrial Research Organisation 

78,128 

Natural Resources Research . 

1,106,047 

Medical Research ..... 

597,574 

E.A. Literature Bureau .... 

79,072 

Higher Education ..... 

1,132,480 

E.A. Directorate of Civil Aviation . 

2,521,788 

E.A. Meteorological Department 

879,486 

Audit Department .... 

160,623 

Total ..... 

14,712,725 


* Refers to East African Community (General Fund Services), 
f Estimates. 


189 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


INTER-STATE TRADE 

(i’ooo) 

KENYA 



Imports 

Exports 


1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1966 

1967 ■ 

1968 

1969 

Tanzania* 

Uganda . 

3,806 j 

7.317 

3,288 

10,165 

3.692 

8,650 

4,018 

7.803 

13,282 

15.619 

11,382 

14.796 

13.069 

13.265 

12,848 

15.949 

Total 

11,123 

13.453 

12,342 

11,821 j 

28,901 

26,178 

26,334 

28,797 


TANZANIA 



Imports 

Exports 


1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1966 

1 1967 

1968 

1969 

Kenya 

Uganda . 

13,282 

3.120 

11,382 

2,432 

13.069 

2,029 

12,848 

1.713 

3,806 

842 

3.288 

750 

3.692 

855 

4,018 

1.177 

Total 

16,402 

13.814 

15.098 

14.561 

4,648 

4,038 

4»547 

5.195 


UGANDA 


Countries 

Imports 

Exports 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

Kenya 

Tanr.inia* 

15.619 

842 

14.796 

750 

13.265 

855 

15.949 

1.177 

7.317 

3.IZ0 

10,165 

2,432 

8,650 

2,029 

7,803 

1,713 

Total 

16,461 

15.546 

14,120 

17,126 

10,437 

12,597 

10,679 

9.518 


* Excludes Zanzibar up to 1967. 


TRANSPORT 

Rail, Road, and Water Transport — Passenger, Livestock and Goods Traffic 


Item 

Unit 

1966 

1967 

1968 

Passenger Traffic: 

Number of Passenger Journejrs including Season Tickets 

Total Passenger Receipts ...... 

Number of Passenger Train Miles ..... 

Goods Traffic: 

Public Tonnage Hauled ....... 

Railway Tonnage Hauled ....... 

Total Goods Traffic Tonnage Hauled ..... 

Total Goods Traffic Ton Miles ...... 

Revenue from Public and Railway Paying Traffic 

Livestock Carried — Revenue ...... 

Parcels and Luggage Carried— Revenue 

Mails Carried — Revenue ....... 

'000 

/’ooo 

'ooo 

'000 

'ooo 

’ooo 

'ooo 
I’OOO 
£'000 
£’ ooo \ 
£•000 f 

4.529 
1,716 
2,163 ■ 

4,888 

1,775 

2,097 

4,760 
1,737 
• 3.253 

5,032 

908 

4*995 

902 

5,247 

1,015 

5,940 

5,897 

6,262 

2,407,092 

22,898 

403 

637 

i 

2,397,963 

22,526 

420 

591 

2,539.782 

22,732 

420 

644 


190 



EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY 


EAST AFRICAN RAILWAYS 

Track Mii.bagb 



Main 

Lines 

Principal 

Links 

Minor and 
Branch Lines 

Single Track 
Lines 

Worked but not 
OWNED BY Administra- 
tion 

Total 

1963 . 

2,689 

754 

720 

4.183 

107 

4.270 

1964 . 

2,690 

845 

696 

4.231 

98 

4.329 

1965 . 

2,697 

846 

723 

4,266 

98 

4.384 

1966 . 

2,698 

850 

724 

4.272 

98 

4.370 

1967 . 

2,702 

851 

717 

4.270 

98 

4.388 

1968 . 

2,704 

852 

720 

4.276 

98 

4.374 


CIVIL AVIATION 


East African Airways Corporation 


Detail 

Unit 

1965 

1966 

1987 

1968 

1969 

Aircraft Kilometres 

*000 

13,806 

14,162 

13.772 

15.375 

18,024 

Passengers Carried 

number 

241.958 

284,001 

343.707 

422,050 

451.085 

Cargo Carried .... 

tons 

4,122 

4,276 

8.157 

8,185 

8.907 

Mail Carried .... 


1.031 

1.034 

1,196 

1.443 

1.471 

Capacity Ton Kilometres Offered . 

'000 

75.227 

86,842 

147,622 

181,850 

228,703 

Load Ton Kilometres Carried 


39.875 

45,580 

87.915 

83.050 

90,207 

Weight Load Factor 

% 

53 

52.5 

46 

45-7 

39-4 

Gross Revenue .... 

I'OQO 

8.853 

10,412 

13.060 

14,891 

n.a. 


191 

























EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF MUSIC FESTIVALS* 

122 rue de Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland 


MEMBERS 


Aix-en-Provence . 

Athens 
Barcelona . 

Bath . 

Bayreuth . 

Bergen 

Berlin 

Besan9on . 
Bordeaux . 

Copenhagen 

Dubrovnik . 
Edinburgh . 

Flanders 

Florence 

Granada 

Graz . 


Casino d’Aix-en-Provence, 2 bis boule- 
vard de la R^publique, Aix-en- 
Provence. Tel: 26 30 33. 

I rue Voukourestiou, Athens. Tel: 
230-049. 

Via Layetana, 139, 4°, l.a. Tel: 
215. 36 57- 

Bath Festival Office, Linley House, 
Pierrepont Place, Bath. Tel: Bath 

2531- 

Bayreuther Festspiele, Postfach 2320, 
8580, Bayreuth 2. Tel: 57 22. 
Sverres gate ii, Bergen. Tel: 30 010. 
Bundesallee 1-12, i Berlin 15. Tel: 
8 81 04 41. 

Parc des Expositions, Planoisc- 
Besanfon. Tel: 87 20 24, 87 21 74. 
Commissariat du Festival, 252 Fau- 
bourg St. -Honors, Paris 8e. Tel: 
924 97 28. 

The Royal Theatre, Festival Office, 
Tordenskjoldsgade 3, DK1055, 
Copenhagen K. Tel: (01) 14 46 65 
(ext. 44). 

Ul. Od Sigurate i, Dubrovnik. Tel: 

63 - 5 '>- 63 . 52 . 

Edinburgh International Festival of 
Music and Drama, 29 St. James’s 
St., London, S.W.i. Tel: 839 2611. 
Studio Ghent, St-Margrietstraat 26, 
Ghent. Tel: 09 259740, 09 254749. 
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Teatro 
Communale, Florence. Tel: 262 841. 
Palacio de la Madraza, Calle de los 
Oficios, Grenade. Tel: 22 52 01, 
22 52 13. 

Steirischer Herbst, Mandelstrasse 38, 
8010 Graz. Tel: 77.3.07, 77.3.09. 


Helsinki 

Holland 

Lucerne 

Lyon 

Montreux 

Munich 

Perugia 

Prague 

Santander 

Spoleto 

Strasbourg 

Vienna 

Warsaw 

Zurich 


. Helsinki Festival, Unioninkatu 28, 
Helsinki 10. Tel: 653 690. 

. Holland Festival Office, Gevers Dey- 
nootweg 134. Scheveningen. Tel: 
The Hague 55 87 00. 

. Internationale Musikfestwochen, 
Schweizerhofquai 4, Lucerne. Tel: 
041 — 22 52 22. 

. Lyon Festival Secretariat, Hotel 
Ville, 69 Lyon. Tel: 28 50 31. 

Festival de Musique Montreux-Vevey, 
42 Grand Rue, 1820 Montreux. Tel: 
(021) 6r.33.84. 

. Intendanz der Bayerischen Staats- 
oper, Munich. Tel: 2 18 51 (ext. 
2185). 

. Ufficio C.I.T., Corso Vannucci 2, 
Perugia. Tel: 56 loi, 30 147. 

. International Music Festival, "Prague 
Spring", Dum UmSlbii, Alesovo 
Ndbfe 21 12, Prague i. Tel: 635-82. 

. Direccidn del Festival, Plaza de 
Velarde, Santander. Tel: 22 425- 
27 382. 

. Festival of Two Worlds, Via Margutta 
17, Rome. Tel: 686 762, 679.18.73. 

. Festival de Strasbourg, 24 rue de la 
Mdsange, Strasbourg. Tel: 32 43 10. 

. Osterreichisches Verkehrsbfiro, Fried- 
richstrasse 7, 1010 Vienna. Tel: 
57 23 15-57 96 57- 

. International Festival of Contempor- 
ary Music, "Warsaw Autumn", 27 
Rynek Starego Miasta, Warsaw. 
Tel: 31.06.07. 

. Internationale J uni-Festwochen, Post- 
fach 8023, Zurich. Tel: 051/27.12.56. 


CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

Israel . . Israel Festival, Migdal Shalom, 9 

Ahad Haam St., Tel- Aviv. Tel: 
51602. 

Osaka . . Osaka International Festival Society, 

2-22 Nakanoshima, Kitaku Osaka, 
Japan. Tel: 231-6985 (ext. 403-5). 
In November 1966 it was decided to include geographic- 
ally non-European festivals in the Association, since these 
festivals contribute to the diffusion of European culture. 

• The Salzburg Festival is not a member of the Association. 
192 



EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF MUSIC FESTIVALS 


FESTIVALS 1971 


Aix-en-Provence 

. July ioth-3ist 

Helsinki . 


. August 26th-September 13th 

Athens 

, July I5th-Scptember 26th 

Holland . 


. June i5th-July gth 

Barcelona 

. September a^th-October 31st 

Lucerne . 


. August I4tli-September 7th 

Bath 

. May aSth-Junc 6th 

Lyon 


June loth-July 8th 

Bayreuth . 

. July 24th-August 27th 

Montreux-Vevey 

September ist-October 3rd 

Bergen 

. May 26th-June gth 

Munich 


. July I4th-August 6th 

Berlin 

. September-October 

Perugia 


. September igth-October 3rd 

Besangon . 

. September 3rd-i2th 

Prague 


. May i2th-June 4th 

Bordeaux 

. April 30th-May i6th 

Santander 


. August ist-3ist 

Copenhagen 

. May 2oth-June 5th 

Spoleto 


. June 24th-July nth 

Dubrovnik 

. July loth-August 25th 

Strasbourg 


. June 4th-aoth 

Edinburgh 

August 22nd-September nth 

Vienna 


. May aand-June aoth 

Flanders . 

. !May ist-Junc 30th and 

Warsaw . 


. September i8th-26th 


August ist-Scptembor arst 

Zurich 


. End May-Early June 

Florence . 

Granada . 

Graz 

. April 3oth-June 30th 

. End June-Early July 

. October 

Israel 

Osaka 


. July iSth-August a4tli 

. April 


193 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION— EBU 

Founded 1950 in succession to the International Broadcasting Union to promote the development of radio and 
television, to assist the study of broadcasting and to exchange information. 

Seat, Secretariat-General, Administrative Office and Department of Legal Affairs: 

1 rue de Varembi, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland 
Technical Centre; 32 avenue Albert Lancaster, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium 

MEMBERS 

ACTIVE 


Algeria . . Eadiodiffusion Tdldvision Algdrienne. 

Austria . . Osterreichischer Kundfunk Ges.m.b.H. 

— ORF. 

Belgium . . Radiodiffusion-Tdldvision Beige — 

BRT/RTB. 

Cyprus . . Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation. 

Denmark . . Danmarks Radio — UR. 

Finland . . Oy. Yleisradio Ab. — YLE. 

France . . Officede Radiodiffusion-TdldvisionFran- 

ijaise — ORTF. 

German Federal . Arbeit.sgemeinschaft der Offentlich- 
Republic Rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der 

Bundesrepuhlik Deutschland — ARD. 

Zweites Deutsches Femsehen — ZDF. 

Greece . . Ethnikon Idryma Radiophonias. 

Iceland . . Rikisutvarpid-Sjonvarp — RUV. 

Ireland . . Radio Telcfis Bireann — RTE. 

Israel . . Israel Broadcasting Authority — IBA. 

Italy . . Radiotelevisione Italiana — RAI. 

Jordan . . Jordan Television — JTV. 

Lebanon . . Ministfere de I'Orientation et de 

rinformation — RL. 

Luxembourg . Radio-Tdld-Luxembourg — RTL. 

Malta . . Malta Broadcasting Authority — ^MBA, 

and Malta Television Service Ltd. — 
MTV. 


Monaco . . Radio Monte-Carlo — RMC. 

Morocco . . Radiodifiusion Tdldvision Marocaine — 

RTM. 

Netherlands . Nederlandse Omroep Stichting — NOS. 

Norway . . Norsk Rikskringkasting — ^NRK. 

Portugal . . Emissora Nacional de RadiodifusSo 

— ENR. 

Radiotelevisao Portuguesa S.A.R.L — 
RTP. 

Spain . . Direccidn General de Radiodifusidn y 

Televisidn — RNE, TVE. 

Sweden . . Sveriges Radio — SR. 

Switzerland . Socidtd Suisse de Radiodiffusion et TQ6- 

vision — SSR. 

Tunisia . . Radiodiffusion-Tdldvision Tunisienne 

— RTT. 

Turkey . . TOrkiye Radyo-Televizyon Kurumu— - 

TRT. 

United Kingdom British BroadcastingCorporation — BBC. 

Independent Television Authority and 
Independent Television Companies 
Association Ltd. — ITA/ITCA. 

Vatican State . Radio Vatican — RV. 

Yugoslavia . Jugoslovenska Radiotelevizija — JRT. 


ASSOCIATE 

Argentina . Rio de la Plata T.V.S.A. (Canal 13). I Iran . . National Iranian Television and Radio 


Australia . . Australian Broadcasting Commission. 

Federation of Australian Commercial 
Television Stations. 

Brazil . . Assocla(;3o Brasileira de Emissoras de 

Radio e Televisao. 

Diarios Associados Ltda. 

TV Globo Ltda. 

Canada . . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation — 

La Socidtd Radio-Canada. 

CTV Television Network Ltd. 

Ceylon . . Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation. 

Chad . . Radiodifiusion Nationale Tchadienne. 

Chile . . Television Nacional de Chile Ltda. (TV 

Chile). 

Colombia . . Institute Nacional de Radio y Tclc- 

visidn — Inravisidn. 

Congo (Kinshasa) Radiodiffusion-Tdldvision Nationale 
Congolaise. 

Dahomey . . Radiodiffusion du Dahomey. 

Gabon . . Radiodiffusion-Television Gabonaise. 

Ghana . . Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. 


Iran. 

Ivory Coast . Radiodifiusion Tdldvision Ivoirienne. 
Jamaica . . Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation. 

Japan . . Fuji Telecasting Company, Ltd. 

Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc. 
National Association of Commercial 
Broadcasters in Japan. 

Nippon Educational Television Com- 
pany, Ltd. 

Nippon Hoso Kyokai. 

Nippon Television Network Corporation. 
Tokyo Broadcasting System, Inc. 
Kenya . . The Voice of Kenya. 

Kuwait . . Kuwait Broadcasting and Television 

Service. 

Liberia . . Liberian Broadcasting Corporation. 

Libya . . Libyan Broadcasting Service and Libyan 

Television Service. 

Madagascar . Radiodiflusion-Tdldvision de Madagas- 

car. 

Malawi . . Malawi Broadcasting Corporation. 


194 


Malaysia . 
Mexico 


Morocco . 
New Zealand 
Niger 

Nigeria 
Pakistan . 

Pern 


EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION 


Radio and Television Malaysia, 
Tele-Cadena Mexicana S.A. 

Telesistema Mexicano S.A. 

Televisidn Independiente de Mdxico S.A. 
Radiodiffusion-Tdievision Marocaine. 
New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. 
Office de Radiodiffusion — ^T^ldvision du 
Niger. 

Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. 
Pakistan Television Corporation Ltd. 
Radio Pakistan. 

Compania Peruana de Radiodifusion 
S.A. (Televisora America). 
Panamericana Telev'ision S.A. 


Rhodesia . 
South Africa 
Tanzania . 
United States 


Upper Volta 
Uruguay . 


Rhodesia Broadcasting Corporation. 
South African Broadcasting Corporation. 
Radio Tanzania. 

American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. 
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. 
Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 
National Association of Educational 
Broadcasters. 

National Broadcasting Company, Inc. 
U.S. Information Agency. 
Radiodiffusion-Tdffivision VoltaTque. 
Sociedad Televisora Larranaga S.A. 
(Tele iz). 


ORGANIZATION 


GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

The supreme body of the EBU. Composed of repre- 
sentatives of all member organizations. Meets annually. 

ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL 

Elected by the General Assembly and is responsible for 
the general policy of EBU, meets twice a year. Members 
(1971): representatives of broadcasting organizations in 
Belgium, France, German Federal Republic, Italy, Norway, 
Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, United Kingdom 
and Yugoslavia. 

President {1971-72): M. Bezen9on (Switzerland). 
Vice-Presidents (1971-72): W. Hess (German Federal 
Republic), I. PusTisEK (Yugoslavia). 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

Legal Committee: Chair. H. Brack (German Federal 

Republic). 

Technical Committee: Chair. C. Mercier (France). 
Television Programme Committee : Chair. J. W. Rengelink 
(Netherlands). 

Radio Programme Committee: Chair. R. W.'^ngerm^e 

(Belgium). 


ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE 

Carries on general administration of EBU. 

Director and Secretary-General: H, Hahr (Sweden). 

Head, Television Programme Section and Television Pro- 
gramme Committee Secretariat: M. Vilcek (Yugo- 
slavia). 

Head, Radio Programme Section and Radio Programme 
Committee Secretariat: A. M. Dean (U.K.). 

DEPARTMENT OF LEGAL AFFAIRS 

Legal assistance to member broadcasting organizations 
and permanent secretariat of the Legal Committee. 

Director: G. Straschnov (France). 

TECHNICAL CENTRE 

Comprises the Technical Directorate, the Eurovision 
Control Centre, the Receiving and Measuring Centre, and 
the Technical Committee Secretariat. 

Director: G. Hansen (Belgium). 


ACTIVITIES 


General: 1970 marked the twentieth anniversary of the 
founding of the EBU at Torquay, England. The Union has 
grown from 23 Active Members to 88 Active and Associate 
Members in 65 countries. Active membership is strictly 
limited to the European Broadcasting Area, as defined by 
fhe International Telecommunication Union, and Associate 
Members are drawn mainly from countries outside the 
M’ea. The EBU, which includes the Eurovision news and 
programme exchange, is defined in its Statutes as an 
association of organizations which operate broadcasting 
services. The Union is non-commercial, non-govemmental 
and non-political. The main objectives are: 

(e) to support in every domain the interests of member 
broadcasting organizations and to establish relations 
with other broadcasting organizations or groups of 
organizations; 

(f>) to promote and co-ordinate the study of all questions 
relating to broadcasting, and to ensure the exchange 


of information on all matters of general interest to 
broadcasting services; 

(c) to promote and take all measures designed to assist 
the development of broadcasting in all its forms; 

(d) to seek the solution, by means of international co- 
operation, of any differences that may arise; 

(c) to use its best endeavours to ensure that all its 
Members respect the provisions of international 
agreements relating to all aspects of broadcasting. 

Legal: Across the differences in laws and customs, 
broadcasters have common interests which bring them 
together to study the best ways of defending these in- 
terests. The essential task of the EBU Legal Committee is 
to follcav very closely the establishment and revision of 
international conventions dealing with the rights that those 
who collaborate in or provide services for programmes can 
claim, or the rights that broadcasting organizations them- 


195 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION 


selves can claim for their programmes. In 1971, the Legal 
Committee will be concerned with the revisions of the 
Universal Copyright Convention and the Berne Conven- 
tion. 

Technical: In the technical field the activities to which 
the EBU attaches the greatest importance arc those that 
require collaboration between Members in order to decide 
upon a common course of action or point of view. Such 
activities are in some cases of a practical nature, such as 
the technical planning and supervision of international 
television transmissions, while in others they relate to 
matters of principle, which may' determine for many years 
future trends in broadcasting practice; these include 
problems posed by the introduction of new techniques, 
studies leading to international standardization and 
research work of a nature which cannot readily be under- 
taken except by a combined effort. The technical activities 
of the EBU are divided into three main categories; 
operations, research and development and publications. 
A constant preoccupation of the Union is the question of 
communication, satellites. The implications of computers in 
broadcasting are also now actively under study. 

Radio Programmes: As the EBU Radio Programme 
Committee has matured since its creation in 1964, so its 
work has tended to concentrate less on physical pro- 
gramme exchange and more on the tjqie of service which, 
due to its activities, can be rendered to member organiza- 
tions. Examples include the mutual exchange of musical 
materials, the publication and sale of musical materials, 
etc., but the Committee is equally active in collecting 
information from Members on trends, patterns, innova- 
tions, experiments and all manner of progress and develop- 
ment in radio programming. Regular analyses of this 
information arc made and distributed to all organizations. 
In the field of programme exchanges, music of all types is 
tlie principal concern, including the EBU Concert Seasons, 
now in their fourth y^ear, which are broadcast live simul- 
taneously by the many countries taking part; other musical 
activities include the commemoration of anniversaries of 
great composers, e.g. the Beethoven Commemoration in 
1970. The EBU Radio Programme Committee also con- 
cerns itself with radio drama, education by radio, the 
exchange of historical and interesting sound archive 
material, international sporting events and co-operation 
with otlier international bodies. 


Television Programmes: The Television Programme 
Committee studies all aspects of international television 
programme co-operation, in particular; the organization 
of multilateral programme exchanges and news trans- 
missions which include the multilateral transmissions over 
the Eurovision Permanent Network, and intercontinental 
transmissions via satellites; e.xchanges of recorded tele- 
vision programmes and films, including agricultural and 
educational programmes; the setting up of joint produc- 
tions; the organization of screening sessions and the 
running of staff training courses. The EBU does not itself 
produce programmes but is a system for the planning and 
co-ordination of programmes produced and, in principle, 
financed by individual broadcasting organizations (except 
in the case of EBU contracts) and offered to members on a 
multilateral basis. 

Eurovision: The Eurovision activities have developed 
from modest begitmings in 1954 — after the first inter- 
national television transmission across the Straits of Dover 
in 1950 had shown the way — ^to worldwide transmissions 
by satellite in 1971. It is an example of international co- 
operation in all fields and the highly successful coverage of 
the 1970 World Football Championship from Me.xico 
demonstrated the standard which has been readied. 
Planning is now going ahead for transmissions of the 
Olympic Games in 1972. As part of its continuing develop- 
ment in the news field, the EBU is conducting an experi- 
mental daily news exchange via satellite with Latin 
American countries in 1971. Possibilities are also being 
explored with Asian countries. At the end of 1970, the 
Eurovision Network linked 27 television services in 22 
countries of Europe and North Africa. The total length of 
the vision circuits is more than 100,000 km., but, in 
addition, links with Intervision in Eastern Europe and via 
Intelsat satellites to many other countries provide the 
means whereby nearly all television services in the world 
may now contribute to and receive Eurovision programmes. 
Over 3,000 filmed news items of all kinds were distributed 
over the network in 1969 — an average of more than eight 
items a day. They w-ere taken by' the majority of news 
services, giving a total of 35,000 relay's. The Luxembourg, 
Portuguese and Tunisian television services joined the 
news exchange on a regular basis in 1969, while Greece is 
now linked to the network via Italy for occasional pro- 
gramme transmissions. Altogether, 668 programmes (636 in 
1968) of a total duration of 951 hours (898 in 1968) were 
transmitted to many countries in the European Broad- 
casting Area. 


196 



EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION 


TELEVISION LICENCES OR SET NUMBERS 


Country 

1959 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

Algeria .... 

— 

— . 

83.037 

go,ooo 

101,000 

Austria .... 

112.223 

834.999 

975.180 

1,098,402 

1,272,521 

Belgium .... 

392.355 

481,149 

531,566 

1.832,534 

1,999,836 

Cyprus .... 



20,839 

27,441 

30,748 

41,552 

Denmark 

351.044 

1,140,371 

1,182,143 

1,224,053 

1.264,355 

Finland .... 

34.258 

822,691 

899.737 

957,766 

1.016,331 

France .... 

1,406,242 

7,471,192 

8,316,325 

9,195,606 

10,153,180 

German Federal Republic . 

3.375.003 

12,719,599 

13,805,653 

15,232,167 

15,909,146 

Greece .... 

— 

— 

— 

50,000 

120,000 

Iceland .... 

— 

16,000 

20,995 

30,000 

35,000 

Irish Republic . 

— 

320.061 

388,634 

394.515 

432,735 

Israel .... 



20,000 

26,000 

75,000 

189,500 

Italy .... 

1,576.058 

<5.874.543 

7,686,427 

8,346,641 

9,042,959 

Jordan .... 

— 

— 



10,000 

19,000 

Luxembourg . 

5.500 

36.297 

44,274 

51,885 

61,649 

Malta 

— 

31.029 

34,588 

39,119 

43.444 

Monaco .... 



— 

— 

15,000 

15,000 

Morocco . 

— 

36.479 

70,388 

99.673 

144.547 

Netherlands 

584.766 

2,369,997 

2,559,162 

2,764,149 

2,938,815 

Norway .... 


573.757 

662,415 

736.409 

795.642 

Portugal .... 

29.S54 

210,913 

253,570 

290,393 

351.557 

Spain .... 

175,000 

2,325,000 

2,685,000 

3,335,000 

3,845,000 

Sweden .... 

598.530 

2,160,435 

2,267,700 

2,353,007 

2,404,000 

Switzerland 

78,700 

754,161 

871,141 

1,022,530 

1,186,792 

Tunisia .... 


5,500 

35.000 

37,000 

50,267 

Turkey .... 



93 

299 

3,054 

United Kingdom 

10,114,419 

13.919.191 

14.910,346 

15.531,471 

15,829,572 

yugosla\'ia 

12,000 

777.299 

1,001,929 

1,249,113 

1,542,662 

Total . 

18,845,952 

53,921,502 

59.338.744 

66,092,480 

70,809,116 


PUBLICATIONS 


EBV Review (monthly in English and French editions). 
The Review is divided into two parts; A — ^Technical, 
B — General and Legal. 


Annual Report of Activities; General, Legal and Technical 
Monographs; Reports of seminars and workshops for 
producers and directors of educational television and 
of programmes for children and young people; Lists of 
European broadcasting stations (long- and medium- 
wave and VHF sound broadcasting and television). 


d97 















THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 

THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY— EEC 
(The Common Market) 

THE EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY— ECSC 
THE EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY— EURATOM 


The three European Communities are legally separate but share a common European Parliament and'Court of 
Justice. There are common legal, statistical and information services. A treaty merging the Councils of Ministers 
of the three Communities into a single Council and the Commissions into a single Commission was signed in 

April 1965; the merger took place in July 1967. 



MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES 

MEMBERS 

Belgium 

France 

German Federal Republic 
Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

ASSOCIATED EUROPEAN STATES 

Greece 

Turkey 


Burundi 

Cameroon 

Central African Republic 
Chad 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 


Kenya 


ASSOCIATED STATES 
(under Yaoundd Convention) 

Dahomey 
Gabon 
Ivory Coast 
Madagascar 
Mali 

Mauritania 

(under Arusha Agreement) 

Uganda 


Niger 

Rwanda 

Senegal 

Somalia 

Togo 

Upper Volta 


Tanzania 


ASSOCIATED 

Comoro Islands 
French Afar/Issa Territory 
French Austral Lands 
French Guiana 
French Polynesia 


OVERSEAS DEPARTMENTS AND 

Guadeloupe 
Martinique 
Netherlands Antilles 
New Caledonia 


TERRITORIES 

Reunion 

St. Pierre et Miquelon 
Surinam 

Wallis and Futuna Islands 


198 




THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


CHRONOLOGY 


1950 May 


1951 April 

1952 July 

1954 Uec. 

1955 June 

1957 Mar. 

1958 Jan. 

1959 Jan. 

1960 July 
Dec. 

1961 Aug. 

Sept 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

1962 Jan. 
Feb. 

April 

June 

Aug. 

Dec. 


1963 Feb. 


Robert Schuman proposed that the 
French and Federal German coal and 
steel industries be placed under a com- 
mon authority in a community open to 
other European nations. 

European Coal and Steel Community 
(ECSC) Treaty signed in Paris. 

ECSC Treaty came into force. 

Agreement of Association between 
ECSC and U.K. 

Messina Conference. 

EEC & Euratom Treaties signed, Rome. 

EEC and Euratom Treaties came into 
force. 

First 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. 

Introduction of Euratom Common 
Market. 

Second 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. 

Common Market time-table accelera- 
ted. Internal tariffs reduced by further 
10 per cent. 

First 30 per cent alignment towards a 
common external tariff. 

Applications for membership of EEC 
received from U.K., Denmark, Ireland. 

Conclusion of Agreement of Association 
with Greece. 

Talks open between EEC and U.K. 

Applications for Association received 
from Austria, Sweden and Switzerland. 
Further 10 per cent reduction of EEC 
internal tariffs. 

Abolition of industrial quotas. 

End first stage EEC transition period. 

Agreement with U.S.A. on reciprocal 
tariff cuts for industrial goods. 

EEC Council takes decisions on b^ic 
common agricultural policy for grains, 
pigmeat, fruit and vegetables. 

Norway applies to join EEC. 

Further 10 per cent reduction in EEC 
internal tariffs. 

Agricultural Common Market starts for 
grains. 

EEC Council of Ministers offers new 

form of Association to countries covered 
by the Association Convention and 
now independent. 

Breakdown, of negotiations beRveen 
United Kingdom and EEC. 


July 


Sept. 

Dec. 


1964 June 

Nov. 

Dec. 

1965 Jan. 
April 


June 

July 

1966 Jan. 

May 

July 

Dec. 

1967 Feb. 


Internal tariffs reduced by 10 per cent 
Second movement of 30 per cent to- 
wards a common external tariff. 
Signature of Yaounde Convention 
associating seventeen African states 
and Madagascar with EEC. 

Agreement of Association with Turkey. 
EEC Council takes basic decisions ex- 
tending common farm policy to rice, 
dairy produce and beef. 

Convention of Association with Associ- 
ated States and with Associated Over- 
seas Territories ratified. 

Common policy for dairy produce and 
beef came into operation. 

Agreement of Association with Turkey 
ratified. 

Internal tariffs reduced by 10 per cent. 
Commission proposal for financing 
common agricultural policy, indepen- 
dent Community revenues, increased 
budgetary powers for European Parlia- 
ment. 

Treaty for merging the Community 
institutions signed. 

Council fails to agree on farm policy 
financing. 

France starts boycott of Council of 
Ministers. Seeks revision of majority 
voting rule and limitation of role of 
Commission. 

Beginning of third stage of transitional 
period. Qualified majority voting be- 
comes possible in Council of Ministers 
on most questions. 

France ends boycotts at special session 
in Luxembourg. 

Agreement to differ about application 
of majority voting in cases of vital 
national interests. 

Council agrees on financing of common 
agricultural policy up to end of transi- 
tional period. 

Council agrees common policies for 
sugar, vegetable fats and oils and fruit 
and vegetables, and sets remaining 
common price levels. 

Association agreement signed between 
Nigeria and EEC. 

Council completes Commission’s negoti- 
ating directives for Kennedy Round 
trade negotiations. 

Five-year medium term economic pro- 
gramme adopted by Council of Minis- 
ters and agreement reached- on a 
common system of added value taxa- 
tion. 


199 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


1967 May 

cont. 


July 


1968 July 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1969 Mar. 


April 

May 


Conclusion of the Kennedy Round of 
Tariff Negotiations under GATT. 
Applications for Community member- 
ship lodged by U.K., Denmark and 
Ireland. 

Following ratification in June of the 
April 1965 Treaty for the merger of the 
Community institutions, a single execu- 
tive Commission and a single Council 
of Ministers for the three Communities 
were established. 

A common Community price instituted 
for intra-Community trade in cereals, 
poultry, eggs and pigmeat. 

Norway requests membership of the 
Community. Sweden requests negotia- 
tions to establish a link with the 
Community. 

Establishment of the customs union. 
Remaining tariffs on trade between 
member states are removed and the 
Common External Tariff is introduced. 
Association Agreement betw'een the 
EEC and the three countries forming 
the East African Community (Tan- 
zania, Uganda and Kenya) signed at 
Arusha. 

Common market regulations for beef 
and veal, milk and dairy products and 
sugar come into force. 

Free movement of labour introduced. 
Council adopts five regulations laying 
foundations for common transport 
policy. 

France rejects German plan for trade 
agreement with U.K. as step to Com- 
munity membership. 

Monetary crisis in Europe; Deutsche 
mark and French franc parities un- 
changed. 

Commission publishes “Mansholt Plan’’ 
for radical reform of Communitj' agri- 
culture over a ten-year period, en- 
couraging older, small farmers to retire 
and others to enlarge their farms, and 
to take large areas of land out of 
agricultural production. 

The Six agree to invite nine other 
European countries to take part in 
joint development of up to seventy-two 
research and development projects in 
advanced technology. 

Council agrees on interim solution for 
EURATOM problem and votes §48ro. 
for 1969 research budget, against 
$88m. for 1968. 

Italian Communist members take seats 
in European Parliament for the first 
time. 

President de Gaulle resigns. 
Commission publishes proposals for 
three-year programme to complete the 
economic union. 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Dec. 


1970 Jan. 


Feb. 


Six agree to co-ordinate more closely 
their economic and monetary poUcies 
and to set up a common fund to hold 
part of their reserves. 

Second Yaounde Convention of Asso- 
ciation between 18 African States 
signed. 

French franc devalued leading to a 
two-year isolation of the French market 
from application of common farm 
prices. 

Representatives of the East African 
Community and the EEC renew the 
Arusha Agreement. 

The Six agree to submit proposals for 
a new world preference system for the 
developing countries to UNCTAD. 

Following the German revaluation of 
October 26th the Commission, in a 
proposition to the Conncii decided on 
compensatory measures in favour of 
German farmers. 

A Commission memorandum to the 
Council proposed price cuts for wheat, 
rye and butter, and lower production 
quotas for sugar. 

Exploratory talks were held between 
the EEC and the UAR on a preferen- 
tial trade agreement. 

Heads of State and Government of the 
Six meet at a Summit in the Hague 
and agree to complete outstanding 
policy measures and to open negotia- 
tions rvith the U.K., Ireland, Denmark 
and Norway in the second half of i97°- 
Due to difficulties in Italy and Belgium 
the deadline for the application of the 
Value Added Tax is extended to 
January ist, 1972. 

Negotiations begin on a commercial 
non-preferential agreement betrveen the 
EEC and Yugoslavia. 

Preliminary negotiations open between 
the EEC and Spain. 

The Six agree to reorganize the EUEA- 
TOM research centre. 

The Six agree on plan to provide the 
Community with direct revenue from 
import levies on foodstuffs, import 
duties on other products and part 01 
value-added tax revenue b}’’ stages 
from 1971. After 1975 the European 
Parliament will have power to alter the 
Council’s budgetary proposals. 

The Six agree on a $2,000 mutual-aid 
reserve fund to counter short-term 
balance-of-payments troubles. 

U.K. Government publishes a V^***-® 
Paper on the implications of British 
acceptance of tire European Com- 
munity structures. 


200 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


1970 Feb. Six agree to set up a committee under 
cont. Luxembourg Premier Pierre Werner to 

study implementation of monetary' 
union. 

May Commission produces firm policy pro- 
posals to implement Mansholt memor- 
andum on farming reform. 

June At meeting in Luxembourg formal 
membership negotiations are opened 
between the Community and four 
applicants: U.K., Ireland, A'onvay and 
Denmark. Regular negotiations meet- 
ings take place in subsequent months, 

July New nine-man Commission takes office 
under President Franco-Maria jNIalfatti 
(Italian) . 


Council of Ministers agree to reform 
Kuropean Social Fund to give it more 
positive role in retraining workers. 

Oct. Werner Committee on monetary union 
recommends steps towards achieving 
this aim by 1980. 

Nov. Continuing negotiations -with U.K. 
show that the main problems to be 
settled are U.K. imports of New 
Zealand butter and of sugar, and the 
size of the British contribution to the 
European Agricultural Fund. 

Six governments accept in principle the 
Commission's proposals to phase in the 
Werner plan for monetary union. 


INSTITUTIONS COMMON TO THE THREE COMMUNITIES 

European Parliament 

Centre Europ«en, Kirchberg, Luxembourg 


OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 
President: Mario Scelba (Italy). 

Mimbers: 142 members nominated by the Parliaments of 
the six states. 

Mems. Mems. 

Belgium . , ,14 Italy . . 36 

France , . .-36 Luxembourg . 6 

Fed. German Republic 36 Netherlands . 14 

Members sit in the Chamber in political, not national, 
groups. 

STANDING COMMITTEES 
!• Political affairs. 

2 . External economic relations. 

3- Agriculture. 


4. Social affairs. 

5. Energy, Research and Atomic affairs. 

6. Relations wth African and Malagasy Associates. 

7. Transport. 

k Economic affairs. 

9. Finance and Budget. 

10. Legal affairs. 

11. Association with Greece. 

12. Association with Turkey. 

The task of the European Parliament is to supervise the 
executive organs of the three Communities, and to debate 
the Annual General Reports of the three Communities and 
all other matters of interest to them. It has powers, by a 
vote of censure of a two-thirds majority, to dismiss the 
executives of the Communities. It meets seven or eight 
times a year (normally in Strasbourg) for sessions of up to 
one week. The annual opening session is in October. 


Court of Justice 

12 rue de la CMe d’Eich, Luxembourg 


President of the Court: Robert Lecourt. 

Registrar: M. Van Houtte. 

first Chamber: 

President: Prof. A. M. Donner. 

Members: M. Monaco, Mertens de Wilmars. 

■Advocate General : K. L. Roemer. 

Second Chamber: 

President: Prof. Alberto Trabucchi. 

Ministers: M. Pescatore, Jl. Kutscher. 
rldvocate - General : M. Dutheillet de Lamothe. 

The primary task of the Court of Justice is to ensure 
the observance of law and justice in the interpretation and 

201 


application of the Treaties setting up the three Communi- 
ties. The President of the Court is appointed by the Judges 
from among their members for a renewable term of three 
years. The Judges and Advocates-General are appointed 
for renewable six-year terms by the Governments of the 
member states. A partial renewal of the Court takes place 
every three years, affecting three and four Judges alter- 
nately as well as one of the two Advocates-General. 
The Court has full jurisdiction to settle all disputes within 
the Communities and to award penalties. It may review 
the legal validity of acts (other than recommendations or 
opinions) of the executives and is competent to give 
judgment on appeals by a member state or the executives 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


on grounds of incompetence, of errors of substantial form, 
of infringement of the Treaties or of any legal provision 
relating to their application, or of abuse of power. Any 
natural or legal person may, under the same conditions, 
appeal against a decision addressed to him or against a 
decision which, although in the form of a regulation or 
decision addressed to another person, is of direct and 
specitic concern to him. 

The Court is also empowered to hear cases concerning 
compensation for damage, disputes between the Communi- 


ties and their employees, fulfilment by member states of 
the obligations arising under the Statute of the European 
Investment Bank, arbitration clauses contained in any 
contract concluded, under public or private law, oy or on 
behalf of the Communities and disputes between member 
states in connection with the objects of the Treaties, where 
such disputes are submitted to it under the terms of a 
compromise. It also gives pre-judicial rulings at the request 
of national courts on the interpretation of the Treaties 
or of Community legislation. 


Council of Ministers of the European Communities 

2 rue Ravenstein, Brussels 


Secretary-General; Christian Calmes (Luxembourg). 

The Council of Ministers has the double responsibility of 
ensuring the co-ordination of the general economic policies 
of the member states and of taking the decisions necessary 
for carrying out the Treaties. 

The Council is composed of representatives of the mem- 
ber states, each Government delegating to it one of its 
members. The olfice of President is exercised for a term of 
six months by each member of the Council in rotation 
according to the alphabetical order of the member states. 
Meetings of the Council are called by the President acting 
on his own initiative or at the request of a member or of 
the Commission. 

The conclusions of the Council can usually be taken by a 
majority vote; where conclusions require a qualified 
majority, the votes of its members are weighted as follows: 
Belgium and the Netherlands 2, the German Federal 
Republic, France and Italy 4, and Luxembourg r. Majori- 
ties are required for the adoption of any conclusions as 
follows: twelve votes in cases where the Treaty requires a 


previous proposal of the Commission, or twelve votes in- 
cluding a favourable vote by at least four members in all 
other cases. This system of voting has applied for most 
decisions on internal Community affairs since January ist, 
1966. Abstentions by members either present or represented 
do not prevent the adoption by the ^uncil of conclusions 
requiring unanimity. When the Council acts on a proposal 
of the Commission, it must, where the amendment of such 
a proposal is involved, act only by means of a unanimous 
vote; as long as the Council has not so acted, the Commis- 
sion may amend its original proposal, particularly in cases 
where the European Parliament has been consulted. The 
Council may request the Commission to undertake an)' 
studies which the Council considers desirable for^ the 
achievement of the common objectives, and to submit to 
it any appropriate proposals. 

The functions of the Council of Ministers of the European 
Coal and Steel Community and of the Council of Ministers 
of EURATO.M were transferred to the merged Council of 
Mim’sters of the European Communities on July ist, 1967- 


Commission of the European Communities 

200 ruo de la Loi, Brussels 


President: Fhanco-Maeia Malfatti (Italian). 
Vice-Presidents: Sicco Leendert JIansholt (Dutch), 
Raymond Barre (French), Wilhelm Haferkamp 
(German). 

Members: Albert Copp6 (Belgian), Jean-Fran^ois 
Deniau (French), Albert Borschbtte (Luxembourg), 
Ralf Dahrendorf (German), Altiero Spinelli 
(Italian). 

Special respoiisihilitics : 

External Relations: Ralf Dahrendorf. 

E.xtemal Trade: Ralf Dahrendorf. 

Economic and Financial Affairs: Rayjiond Barre. 
Industry: Altiero Spinelli. 

Internal Market and Hannonization of Legislation: 

Wilhelm Haferkamp. 

Regional Polic)’: Albert Borschette. 

Competition: Albert Borschette. 

Budget: Albert Copp£. 

Agriculture: Sicco Mansholt. 


Energy: Wilhelm Haferkamp. 

Social Affairs: Albert Copp£. 

Transport; Albert Copp£. 

Research and Technology: Altiero Spinelli. 

Development Aid: JEAN-FRAN901S Deniau. 

Information; Albert Borschette. 

Co-ordination of Enlargement Negotiations; Jean- 
FRAN901S Deniau. ■ 

The Commission works on the principle of collegiate 
responsibility but with each member having responsibility 
for a particular sector. 

The functions of the Commission are fourfold: to ensure 
the application of the provisions of the Treaties and of the 
provisions enacted by the institutions of the Communities 
in pursuance thereof; to' formulate recommendations of 
opinions in matters which are the subject of the Treaties, 
where the latter expressly so provides or where the Com- 
mission considers it necessary; to dispose, under the con- 
ditions laid down in the Treaties of a power of decision of 
its own and to participate in the preparation of acts of the 


202 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Council of Ministers and of the European Parliament; and 
to exercise the competence conferred on it by the Council 
of Ministers for the implementation of the rules laid down 
by the latter. 

The Commission is bound to publish an Annual General 
Report on the activities of the Community, not later than 
one month before the opening of the session of the 
European Parliament. 

The Commission may not include more than two mem- 
bers having the nationality of the same state; the number 
of members of the Commission may be amended by a 
unanimous vote of the Council of Ministers. In the per- 
formance of their duties, the members of the Commission 
are forbidden to seek or accept instructions from any 
Government or other body, or to engage in any other paid 
or unpaid professional activity. 

The members of the Commission are appointed by the 
Governments of the member states acting in common 
agreement for a renewable term of four years; the President 


and Vice-Presidents are similarly appointed for renewable 
terms of two years. Any member of the Commission, if ho 
no longer fulfils the conditions required for the performance 
of his duties, or if he commits a serious offence, may be 
declared removed from office by the Court of Justice. The 
Court may furthermore, on the petition of the Council of 
Ministers or of the Commission itself, provisionally suspend 
any member of the Commission from his duties. 

Until the entry into force of a Treaty establishing a 
single European Community, and for a maximum period 
of three years starting from the date on which its members 
are nominated, the Commission is composed of fourteen 
members, who take over the responsibilities of the three 
former executive bodies. No more than three of these 
members may be of the same nationality. 

The functions of the High Authority of the European 
Coal and Steel Community and of the Commission of 
EURATOM were transferred to the merged Commission 
of the European Communities on July ist, 1969. 


THE COMMUNITIES 

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY— EEC 

(THE COMMON MARKET) 


The creation of the European Economic Community 
was decided upon at a Conference of Foreign Ministers 
of six European Coal and Steel Community nations at 
Messina in June 1955. 

Negotiations continued into 1957 and the treaties 
setting up the European Economic Community and the 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 
were signed in Rome on March 25th, 1957. These 
treaties were ratified by the parliaments of the mem- 
ber states during the summer and autumn of 1957 
and came into force on January ist, 1958. 

The aim of the European Economic Community is, 
by establishing a Common Market and progressively 
Approximating the economic policies of the member 
states, to promote harmonious development of 
economic activities, a continuous and balanced expan- 
sion, an increased stability, an accelerated raising of 
the standard of living of the peoples of the member 
states and closer relations between them. 

This aim is to be achieved by various measures, of 
which the following are the most significant: 


(a) the elimination of import and export duties and 
restrictions; 

(b) the establishment of a common tariff and com- 
mon commercial policy; 

(c) the establishment of free movement of persons, 
services and capital; 

(d) the inauguration of common agricultural and 
transport policies; 

(e) the establishment of a system of fair com- 
petition; 

(f) measures to co-ordinate economic policy and 
adjust balances of pa3mients; 

(g) the approximation of municipal law in the 
member states; 

(h) the creation of a Social Fund and a European 
Investment Bank; and 

(i) the association of overseas countries and terri- 
tories related to certain member states. 


203 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


ORGANIZATION 

Economic and Social Committee 

3 Boulevard de I’Empereur, Brussels 

President: J. D. Kuipers. 

Vice-Presidents: M. Aschoff, P. Bouladoux. 

Members: loi persons representing economic and social 
fields, 12 each from Belgium and the Netherlands, 24 
each from France, Federal Germany and Italy and 5 
from Luxembourg. One-third represent each side of 
industry and one-third the general economic interest. 

Appointed for a renewable term of four years by the 


unanimous vote of the Council of Mimsters of the 
European Communities (Euratom is also represented 
in this Committee). Members are appointed in their 
personal capacity and are not bound by any mandatory 
instructions. 

The Committee is advisory and is consulted by the 
Council of Ministers or by the Commission of the European 
Communities, particularly with regard to agriculture and 
transport. 


Specialized Bodies 


Monelary Committee. Advises the Commission and 
Council of Ministers on monetary matters, promotes the 
co-ordination of national monetary policies and reviews 
the monetary and financial situation of member countries 
and the general payments system. Consists of two members 
nominated by each of the Six and two from the Com- 
mission. 

Short-term Economic Policy Committee, Assists member 
countries in co-ordinating their day-to-day economic 
policies and in maintaining a steady rate of economic 
expansion. Composed of representatives of national 
governments and of the Commission. 

Medium-term Economic Policy Committee. During 1965 
and 1966 prepared a draft five-year programme setting out 
foreseeable trends in the Community economy and making 
general policy recommendations. The programme, adopted 
by the Council in February 1967, will be brought up to date 
and expanded each year, and ^vill provide a framework for 
co-ordination of national economic policies and for the 
various common policies to be worked out at Community 


level. Comprises representatives of national governments 
and of the Commission. 

Budgetary Policy Committee. Composed of leading 
officials responsible for drawing up the budgets of member 
governments, and of Commission representatives. 

Committee of Central Bank Governors, Meets to discuss 
credit, money-market and exchange matters, with a 
member of the Commission attending. 

Transport Committee. Consists of national officials and 
experts. A Common Transport Policy, to come into effect 
by 1973. was agreed in June 1965. The first stage deals 
with international transport and the second will include 
national transport. Common transport prices are to be 
established before the end of the second stage. 

Adtninistrativc Commission for the Social Security oj 
Migrant Workers. Protects the interests of Community 
citizens working in a member country other than tlieir 
own. Comprises national officials and representatives of 
the Commission. 


European Social Fund 


The European Social Fund was established by the Treaty 
in order to improve opportunities of employment of 
workers in the Common Market and thus contribute to 
raising the standard of living. Its task is to promote within 
the Community employment facilities and the geographical 
and occupational mobility of workers. The Fund is 
administered by the Commission, assisted by a Committee 
presided over by the member of the Commission specially 
concerned with Social Affairs and composed of representa- 
tives of governments, trade unions and employers associa- 
tions. 

At the request of a member state, the Fund may cover 
50 per cent of expenses incurred by that state or by a body 
under public law for the purposes of ensuring productive 
re-employment of workers by means of occupational re- 


training and resettlement allowances, and of granting aids 
for the benefit of workers whose employment is temporarily 
reduced, or wholly or partly suspended, as the result of the 
conversion of their enterprise to other productions, in order 
that they may maintain the same wage-level pending their 
full re-employment, subject to certain detailed con- 
ditions. The rules of the Social Fund were adopted by the 
Council of Ministers in May i960. Total aid igOorbQ' 
$111.85 million. A total of 1,134,074 workers have been 
assisted during this period. 

In July 1970 the Council agreed that the Social Fund s 
powers and financial resources be greatly extended m 
order to retrain and redeploy’ workers in industries and 
jobs threatened with redundancy but not y'ct unem- 
ployed. 


204 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


European Investment Bank 

2 Place dc Metz, Luxembourg 


Board Ot Governors: Generally the Finance Ministers of the 
six member States. 

Board of Directors: Hans Rannow, Raymond Denuce, 
Ugo Mosca, Herbert Martini, Alfred Mueller- 
Armack, Maurice Perouse, Stefano Siglienti, 
Daniel Deguen, Salvatore Guidotti. Ludovico 
Nuvolim, AndriS Postel-Vinay. 

Management Committee: 

President: Yves le Portz (France). 

Vice-Presidents: Ulrich Meyer-Cording (German 
Federal Republic), Sjoerd Boomstra (Nether- 
lands), Luca Rosania (Italy). 

Members: The sis Governments of the Community. 

The task of the European Investment Bank is to con- 
tribute, by calling on the capital markets and its oivn 
resources, to the balanced and smooth development of the 
Common Market in the interest of the Community. For this 


purpose, the Bank is to grant loans and guarantees on a 
non-profit-making basis to facilitate the financing of pro- 
jects for developing less-developed regions, for modernizing 
or converting enterprises or for creating new activities 
which are called for by the progressive establishment of the 
Common Market where such projects by their size or 
nature cannot be entirely financed by the various means 
available in each of the member states, and projects of 
common interest to several meml-er states which similarly 
cannot be entirely financed by e^ch of the member states. 

The members of the Bank are the Governments of the 
six member states of the Community. Its capital is 
1,000 million European Monetary Agreement Accounting 
Units, to be subscribed by the member states as follows: 
France and the Federal German Republic 300 million each; 
Italy 240 million; Belgium 86.5 million; the Netherlands 
71.5 million; Luxembourg 2 million. One-quarter of these 
totals has been paid up. The Bank raises most of its 
working capital on the open international capital markets. 


ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS 


APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP 

The following countries have applied for membership 
of the EEC: United Kingdom* (August 1961 and May 
1967), Denmark* (August 1961 and May 1967). Ireland 
(August 1961 and May 1967), Norway (April 1962 and July 
1967). 

The following countries have applied for association, or 
some form of trade agreement rvith the EEC: Austria* 
(December 1961 and July 1967), Srvitzerland* (December 
1961)1 Sweden* (December 1961), Portugal (May 1962), 
Cyprus (December 1962), Nigeria^ (September 1963)1 
Kenya, Tanzania and Ugandaf (November 1963), Algeria 
(January 1968). 


OF OR ASSOCIATION WITH THE EEC 

Trade Agreements have been signed with Iran (October 
1963), Israel (July 1964 and renewed in new form June 
1970), Lebanon (March 1965), Spain (June 1970), Malta 
(end 1970), Morocco (March 1969), Tunisia (March 1969), 
Yugoslavia (March 1970). 

* Negotiations or talks have taken place, but are not yet 
completed. 

t Signed July 1966 but not ratified. 

J Signed July 1968 and renewed in September 1969. 


Organs of Association 


Association agreements have been signed by the mem- 
bers of the EEC and Greece (came into force November 
1962); Turkey (came into force December 1964)' 
eighteen signatory states in Africa and Madagascar of the 
Yaounde Convention (first Yaounde Convention 1964-69, 
second Yaoundd Convention signed July 19691 wp 
minate on January 3isti 1975); Kenya, Tanzania and 
Uganda (signed July 1968, renewed September 1969)- 
agreement establishes a separate institutional framework. 
Since the Greek military coup of April 1967 agreement 
with Greece has been in suspense. 

Association Agreements vrith Greece and Turkey. An 
Association Council, comprising representatives of e 
Community governments and of the Commission on the 
one hand, and of the associated country on the other, 
supervises the implementation of the agreements. Parlia- 
mentary Committees, comprising members of the European 
Parliament and of the parliaments of the associated 

205 


country, meet regularly to debate the progress of the 
Associations and other matters of common interest. 

Yaoundi Convention. The Association Council consists 
of one minister from each of the associated states and from 
each of the Community members, and of the members of 
the Commission. The Association Committee conducts the 
day-to-day business of the Association and consists of 
representatives from the twenty-four signatory countries. 
The Parliamentary Conference meets annually and com- 
prises 108 members of parliament, half of them from the 
eighteen associated states and half from the European 
j^arliament. An Arbitration Court, with a president and 
two European and two African judges, can be appointed 
to settle any disputes which may arise. 

Arusha Agreement. A Parliamentary Committee meets 
once a year and an Association Council administers the 
agreement. 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


European Development Fund 


Under the association agreement concluded at the same 
time as the Rome Treaty (see below) a Development Fund 
for Associated Overseas Countries and Territories was set 
np for the purpose of promoting the social and economic 
development of these countries and territories, in particular 
the development of health, educational, research and 
professional activities of their populations, and economic 
investments of general interest directly connected with 
the implementation of a programme including productive 
and specific development projects. 

The Fund (EDF I) began operations in 1959 and was 
endowed with a total of $581 million contributed by the 
member countries. After many of the territories concerned 
had become independent in 1960-62, a new Convention of 


Association, signed in Yaounde, Cameroon, came into 
effect on June ist, 1964. It provided for the continued 
operation of the Development Fund (EDF II) and the 
spending over a five-year period of a total sum of $730 
million, plus $70 million from the European Investment 
Bank in loans, on the same lines as before and also for pro- 
moting the diversification of .the economies of the Asso- 
ciated States and of the French Overseas Territories. The 
second Yaounde Convention, signed in July 19691 provides 
development aid of S748 million in grants, 58o million in 
special loans at low interest rates and $90 million in Euro- 
pean Investment Bank loans; another $82 million was 
allocated for overseas dependencies of the Six, making 
$1,000 million in a .11 (EDF III). 


EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND COMMITMENTS 

(Situation at January 1971) 


Countries and Territories 

First EDF 
($’000) 

Second EDF 
($’000) 

A ASM (Associated African States and Madagascar): 
Burundi 

4,926 

20,858 

Cameroon ....... 

52.798 

54,253 

Central African Republic ..... 

18,196 

25,995 

Chad ........ 

27.713 

23,066 

Congo (Brazzaville) ..... 

25.036 

20,442 

Congo (Kinshasa) ...... 

19.593 

75,231 

Dahomey ....... 

20,778 

23,722 

Gabon ........ 

17.761 

20,490 

Ivory Coast ....... 

39,644 

58,596 

Madagascar ....... 

56,265 

69,927 

Mali 

42,023 

33,583 ' 

Mauritania ....... 

15,377 

18,562 

Niger ........ 

31,291 

30,340 

Rwanda ....... 

4,942 


Senegal 

43,831 

56,186 

Somalia. ....... 

10,089 

28,100 

Togo 

15,936 

19,663 

Upper Volta . . . ... . ■ .■ 

28,351 

30,706 

Total ...... 

474,550 

638,825 

OCT and OD (Overseas Countries, Territories and 
Departments of European Communitj' Member 
States) ........ 

66,057 

60,179 

Algeria ........ 

25.320 

• — 

New Guinea ....... 

4,490 



Miscellaneous ....... 

10,833 

21,032* 

Still to be Committed ..... 


10,000 

Total ...... 

581,250 

730,036 


* Includes administrative e.vpenses of $1,869,000, and Price Stabilisiation Loans of $12,703; 


206 













THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY— ECSC 


The Enropean Coal and Steel Community is the 
eldest of the three “sisters" of the European Com- 
munity. It arose from a declaration made by M. 
Robert Schuman on May 9th, 1950, urging the 
necessity of a united Europe. This union could not be 
achieved all at once, or according to a single, general 
plan; concrete achievements, stage by stage, and 
above all the elimination of hostility and suspicion 
between France and German}', were the solution. 
Accordingly he proposed, as a first step, the placing 
of the coal and steel industries of France and Ger- 
many under a common "High Authority”, within 
the framework of an organization open to the partici- 
pation of the other countries of Europe. Direct 
political action towards European federation would, 
at this stage, be doomed to failure, but economic 
co-operation could be achieved and once gained, 
would provide a firm foundation for the political 
federation to come. 

The ECSC Treaty was signed in Paris on April i 8 th, 
1951. The Treaty was ratified by substantial majori- 


ties in the parliaments of The Six and came into force 
on July 25th, 1952. The High Authority began its 
work on August loth, 1952. The functions of the 
High Authority and the Council of Ministers as laid 
down in the ECSC Treaty {see below) were transferred 
on July ist, 1967, to the merged Commission and 
Council of the European Communities respectively. 
The Consultative Committee now exercises its func- 
tions in relation to the Commission. 

The ECSC Consultative Committee is attached to the 
Commission, and consists of not less than thirty and 
not more than fifty-one members, including an equal 
number of producers, workers and consumers and 
dealers. They are appointed by the Council of Minis- 
ters for a period of two years, and are not bound by 
any mandate or instructions. 

The Commission may consult the Committee on all 
matters it deems proper, and is required to do so under 
certain provisions of the Treaty, particularly with 
regard to economic and social provisions. 


EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY — 

EURATOM 


The idea of the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity was bom at the Messina Conference in 1955, 
together with that of EEC. The Treaty setting up the 
Community came into force on the same date as the 
EEC Treaty, January ist, 1958. 

EURATOM’s role is to create ‘the conditions nec- 
essary for the speedy establishment and growth of 
nuclear industries in the Community' by stimulating 
and co-ordinating public and private research in 
atomic energy, by ensuring the free flow of informa- 
tion, and by encouraging the building of power 
reactors. EURATOM also has various responsibilities 
of a regulatory character, establishing common laws 
and rules in the atomic field throughout the Com- 
munity. A common market in nuclear materials was 
introduced on January ist, 1959. which eliminates 
internal import and export duties on nuclear products, 
a common tarifi is applied to third countries :assismnce 
is granted to the free movement of specialized laboi^, 
and a common insurance scheme against nuclear risks 
has been established. 

Nuclear materials intended for military purposes 
are not subject to the control of EURATOM which 
bas no responsibilities in the field of armaments, an 
new military plant need not be notified to the o 
mission nor is it subject to inspection. However, tne 


intended use of all nuclear materials has to be declared, 
so the scope of production for military purposes comes 
to the knowledge of the Commission. 

The supply of nuclear fuel i.s supervised ornegotiated 
by an Agency, financially independent and with an 
option on the purchase of materials within the Com- 
munity. Contracts with third countries are the 
exclusive right of the Agency. EURATOM is also the 
exclusive owner of special fissile materials. 

Throughout 1968 and 1969 Euratom’s activities and 
budget were sharply reduced owing to disagreement 
between the Six over the role and scope of the 
research activities. In December 1969 the Six agreed 
to maintain the research centre fully, stalled but to 
diversify research activities into non-nuclear fields 
and to reorganize the centre in order that it might 
undertake research and development work for outside 
industry. 

The Commission and Council of Ministers of 
EURATOM were merged with the corresponding 
executive bodies of the European Economic Com- 
munity and the European Coal and Steel Community 
on July ist, 1967. EURATOM also shares with the 
other two Communities the following common organs: 
European Parliament and Court of Justice. The 
Economic and Social Committee is common to the 
EEC and to EURATOM. 


207 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


ACTIVITIES AND 

, Research: EURATOM's nuclear research assignment is 
to undertake research at its own Joint Research Centre or 
under various types of contracts with bodies in the member 
countries. Ispra is the largest of the four establishments of 
the Centre. A second is in operation (the Central Nuclear 
Measurements Bureau) at Mol, Belgium; a third is at 
Karlsruhe (the European Transuranium Elements Insti- 
tute); the Dutch Petten Centre is the fourth under an 
agreement which came into force in 1962. Roughly half 
EURATOM research is undertaken under contract with 
public or private concerns in member countries and several 
hundred contracts are in comrse. Some of these are long- 
term "association contracts" in which EURATOJI and the 
concern contribute finance and personnel; one is for the 
operation of the Belgian BR2 materials' testing reactor at 
Mol; others concern, inter alia, fast breeder and high tem- 
perature gas reactors, nuclear ship propulsion, fusion, 
agricultural and medical aspects of nuclear energy. 

• Co-operation with other countries and organizations: An 
important section of EURATOM’s research work falls 
under agreements lor joint research with other countries 
and international organizations. In November 1958 an 
agreement was signed between EURATOM and the 
U.S.A. for a joint power and research and development 
programme. Three large-scale American-designed and con- 
structed atomic reactors have been installed or are under 
construction: one atomic power station is in operation in 
Italy, one plant at Chooz on the Franco-Belgian border 
and one at Gundremmingen in Bavaria. The latter two are 
EURATOM joint undertakings, and so benefit from 
certain fiscal exemptions and other investment aids. Sixty 
million dollars have so far been devoted to joint research 
and development. 


ACHIEVEMENTS 

Under the agreements with the U.K. and Canada, 
signed 1959, joint discussions and exchanges of information 
are taking place in many fields of common interest, such as 
fast breeder reactors and the economics of nuclear power 
(with the U.K.) and heavy-water moderated reactors (with 
Canada). Other agreements have been signed with Brazil 
and Argentina. 

EURATOM is participating in the research projects of 
the European Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. 
EURATOM is participating, in the place of its member 
countries, and in partnership with the U.K., in the building 
and operation of the high-temperature gas-cooled 
DRAGON reactor at Winfrith Heath, along with other 
ENE. 4 . countries. 

Industry and the Common Market: About 3,155 lilWe. of 
nuclear capacity had been installed in the Community by 
the end of October 1970. 

It is estimated that between i960 and 1980 Community 
electricity consumption will virtually quadruple, rising 
from an estimated 264 billion MVh. in i960 to 950 billion 
kWh. in 1980, and that consumption per head will rise fo 
5,000 kW. in 1980 (from the 1,350 kW. or so in i960). It 
estimated that the Community’s installed nuclear capacity 
will be 60,000 MW. in 1980 to satisfy electricity needs, over 
20 per cent of total electricity production capacity. By 
the year 2000 the capacity is expected to be 370,000 
producing some two-thirds of the Community’s electricity. 

EURATOM is not, however, responsible for the con- 
struction of power reactors in the Community. Its role is to 
facilitate and encourage investment by private or public 
authorities in member countries. 


STATISTICS 


AREA AND POPULATION 



Area 

(’000 sq. km.) 

Population 

(million) 

(1969) 

German Federal Republic . 

248.5 

60.84 

Belgium .... 

30-5 

9.66 

France .... 

551-2 

50-35 

Italy .... 

301.2 

54-09 

Luxembourg . 

2.6 

0-34 

Netherlands 

33-5 

12.87 

European Communitv . 

i,i< 57-5 

188.15 


208 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EMPLOYMENT 

(1969 average — ’000) 



Total 
Civilian 
L.abour Force 

Unemploy- 

ment 

Agriculture 

Industry 

Services 

German Federal Republic . 

26,516 

179 

2.533 

12,936 

10,868 

France ...... 

20,324 

337 

3.009 


8,857 

Italy ...... 

19.336* 

663* 

4.023* 

8,048* 

6,602 ♦ 

Netherlands ..... 

4 . 5 i 3 t 

63 t 

34 it 

i. 852 t 

2 , 257 t 

Belgium ...... 

3.760 

102 

191 

1.603 

1,877 

Luxembourg ..... 

140 


16 

64 

60 


* Excluding institutional households. f Man-years. 


AGRICULTURE 

PRINCIPAL CROPS 


(1968-69 — '000 metric tons) 



Federal 

German 

Republic 

France 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Belgium/ 

Lu-xembourg 

EEC Total 

^Vheat (soft) 

5.971 

14,682 

7.525 

709 

901 

29,788 

Eye . 

3.203 

351 

75 

239 

96 

3,964 

Barley 

4.745 

9,139 

258 

390 

622 

15.184 

Oats . 

4,026 

3,066 

390 

346 

398 

8,226 

Maize 

278 

5,379 

3,991 

— 

— 

9.651 

Rice . 


67 

515 

— 

— 

582 

Refined Sugar 

1,826 

2,190 

i,t88 

61 

530 

6,395 

Wine (’000 hectolitres) 

6,294 

65,630 

65,621 

10 

130 

137.685 


INDUSTRY 

ig6g Indices 

(1963=100) 


Industry, total (excl. con- 
struction .... 
Mining and Quarrying . 
Manufacturing (excl. food- 
stuffs, beverages and to- 
bacco 

Textiles . i 
Paper . ■ | 

Chemicals . 

Engineering 
Foodstuffs, Beverages and 
tobacco .... 


German 

Federal 

Republic 

France 

Italy 

Nether- 

lands 

Belgium 

Luxem- 

bourg 

Community 

144 

lOI 

139 

no 

139 

126 

161 

209 

132 

70 

127 

89 

142 

108 

150 

128 

145 

184 

143 

143 

104 

134 

192 

140 

141 

98 

178 

193 

132 

157 

113 

160 

n,a. 

147 

139 

112 

161 

149 

136 

131 

n.a. 

n.a. 

94 

146 

114 

148 

n.a. 

140 

127 

n.a. 

123 

128 

127 

120 

n.a. 


209 



































THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


ECSC HARD-COAL PRODUCTION 
{'ooo metric tons) 



1938 

1954 

1959 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

I 

German Federal Republic 

151.345 

144.853 

141.833 

140,600 

131,294 

116,499 

117,070 

IIS 

Belgium 

2g.6oo 

29.249 

22,757 

19,786 

17,500 

16.435 

14,806 

IS 

France .... 

46.500 

54.405 

57,606 

51,348 

50,338 

47,624 

41,911 

3; 

Italy .... 

600 

1.074 

735 

389 

418 

410 

365 


Netherlands . 

13.500 

12,071 

11,978 

11.739 

io,3ig 

8,265 

6,864 

t 

Totai. 

241,500 

241.653 

1 

234,908 

1 

223,862 

209,869 

189,232 

1 

181,016 

1 

163 


ECSC CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION 
(‘ooo metric tons) 



1938 

1954 

1959 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

I< 

German Federal Republic 
(excl. Saar) 

Saar .... 
Belgium 

France .... 
Italy .... 
Luxembourg . 

Netherlands . 

17.902 

2.557 

2,296 

6,221 

2.323 

1,437 

32 

17.435\ 

2.805 j 
5.003 
10.627 
4.207 
2,828 
937 

29,400 

6,600 

15,200 

6,800 

3.700 

1.700 

36,821 

9,162 

19,599 

12,680 

4,585 

3,145 

35,316 

8,911 

19.594 

13.639 

4,390 

3.255 

36,745 

9.712 

19.655 

15,892 

4.481 

3.404 

41,160 

11.570 

20,400 

16,960 

4.830 

3.710 

45 

14 

22,^- 

16,416 

5,520 

4.716 

Total 

32,788 

43,842 

63,400 

85.991 

85,105 

89,889 

98,630 

108,504 


ENERGY 


(ig6g montlily average — ’ooo ton coal equivalent) 



German 

Federal 

Republic 

France 

Italy 

Nether- 

Belgium 

LUXE^!- 

BOURG 


Production of Primary Energy* 

42,350 

17,290 

8.000 

8,160 

3.040 

10 

78,850 

Gross Domestic Consumption* 
Degree of Dependency on 

77,450 

50,480 

37,400 

16,490 

13,630 

1,600 

197,050 

Foreign Supply (%) . 

42.4 

64-5 

79.2 

51-4 

75-6 

99.4 

58.6 

Natural Gas Production 

4,800 

4,092 

7,936 

9,919 

46 


26,793 

Town Gas, Coke Oven Gas 
and Blast Furnace Gas Pro- 






duction (T cal. (Ho-Pcs) ) . 
L.P.G. and Refinery Gas Pro- 

13,632 

6,265 

2,443 

725 

2,959 

1.158 

27,182 

duction (T cal. (Ho-Pcs) ) . 
Imports of Crude Oil ('ooo 

3.742 


2,295 

793 

68 

— 

10,389 

metric tons) 

Net Production of Electrical 

7,480 

1 

7,348 

8,567 

4,231 

2,372 

— 

29,997 

Energy (GWh.) 

17,582 

10,960 

8,860 

2.938 

2,302 

176 

42,820 

0/ which : 

Hydroelectric Production 







(GWh.) . 

1.196 

4.407 

3,480 

— 

19 

69 

9,170 

Nuclear Production (GWh.) 

386 

372 

131 


2 


915 


* Quarterly average. 


310 












































THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EXTERNAL TRADE 

(million U.S. dollars) 


• 

1965 

1 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

Imports 

Exports 

28.582 

27.093 

30.756 

29.419 

30.595 

31.629 

33.567 

35.292 

39.242 

39.236 


TRADE WITH MEMBERS 
OF EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION 



2965 

rg 66 

1967 

1968 

1969 

Imports 

Exports 

6,896 

9.602 

7.245 

9.999 

7»095 

10,424 

7.840 

11,217 

9.450 

12,744 


TRADE WITH UNITED KINGDOM 



1965 

1966 

1967 

196S 

1969 

Imports 

2,607 

2,782 

2,702 

2,994 

3,588 

Exports 

2,364 

2,540 

2.847 

3,127 

3,364 


INFORMATION OFFICES 


Belgium . 


France 


German Federal 
Republic 

Italy 


Luxembourg 


Official Spokesman of the Commission 
of the European Communities, 23 
avenue de la Joyeuse Entrde, 
Brussels. Tel.; 35.00.40. 

Bureau d’information des Commu- 
nautds europdennes, 61 rue des Belles 
Feuilles, Paris 16. Tel.: KtEber 53.26. 

Presse und Informationstelle der Euro- 
paischen Gemeinschaften, Bonn, 
Zitelmann.strasse n. Tel.: 26041. 

Ufficio Stampa e Informazione delle 
Comuniti Europee, Via Poll 29, 
Rome. Tel.: 670.696/688.182. 

Bureau dTnformation des Commu- 
nautds Europdennes, Centre Kirch- 
berg, Luxembourg. Tel.: 479 ' 4 t- 


Netherlands . Voorlichtingsdienst van de Europeso 
Gemeenschappen, Mauritskade 39, 
The Hague. Tel.: 184815. 

Switzerland . Bureau dTnformation des Commun- 
autds Europdennes, 72 rue de 
Lausanne, Geneva. 

United Kingdom European Community Information 
Office, 23 Chesham Street, London, 
S.W.x. Tel.; 01-235 4904- 

United States . European Community Information 
Office, Suite 707, 2100 M Street 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037; 
2207 Commerce Building, 155 East 
44th Street, New York 10017. 


211 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


EDUCATION 

EUROPEAN SCHOOLS 

Six schools have been established for the childfen 
ot officials ot the Cotamunities. Where ■possible other 
children may join the schools. 

Luxembourg: Founded 1953, ECSC. 

Brussels: Founded 1959, EEC and Euratom. 

Mol, Belgium: Founded 1961, Euratom. 

Varese-Ispra, Italy: Founded 1961, Euratom. 
Karlsruhe. Germany: Founded 1962, Euratom. 

Petten, Netherlands: Founded 1963, Euratom. 


COUNTRIES WITH DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION WITH THE COMMUNITIES 


Algeria 

El Salvador 

Malaysia 

Spain 

Argentina 

Finland 

Mali 

Sudan 

Australia 

Gabon 

Malta 

Sweden 

Austria 

Ghana 

Mauritania 

Switzerland 

Brazil 

Greece 

Mexico 

Syria 

Burundi 

Guatemala 

Morocco 

Tanzania 

Cameroon 

Haiti 

New Zealand 

Thailand 

Canada 

Iceland 

Niger 

Togo 

Central African Republic 

India 

Nigeria 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Ceylon 

Indonesia 

Norway 

Tunisia. 

Chad 

Iran 

Pakistan 

Turkey 

Chile 

Ireland 

Panama 

Uganda 

Colombia 

Israel 

Paraguay 

United Arab Republic 

Congo (Brazzaville) 

Ivory Coast 

Peru 

United Kingdom 

Congo (Democratic Republic) 

Jamaica 

Philippines 

United States 

Costa Rica 

Japan 

Portugal 

Upper Volta 

Cj’prus 

Kenya 

Rwanda 

Uruguay 

Dahomey 

Korea, Republic of 

Saudi Arabia 

Venezuela 

Denmark 

Lebanon 

Senegal 

Yugosla-via 

Dominican Republic 

Libya 

Somalia 


Ecuador 

Madagascar 

South Africa 



212 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


TREATIES OF THE COMMUNITIES 

SUMMARY OF EEC TREATY (TREATY OF ROME) 


Part I. PRINCIPLES 

The aim of the Community is, by establishing a Common 
Market and progressively approximating the economic 
policies of the member states, to promote throughout the 
Community a harmonious development of economic activi- 
ties, a continuous and balanced expansion, an increased 
stability, an accelerated raising of the standard of living 
and closer relations between its member states. With these 
aims in view, the activities of the Community will include: 

(a) the elimination between member states of customs 
duties and of quantitative restrictions in regard to 
the importation and exportation of goods, as well as 
of all other measures with equivalent effect; 

(b) the establishment of a common customs tariff and a 
common commercial policy towards third countries; 

(c) the abolition between member states of the obstacles 
to the free movement of persons, services and capital; 

(d) the inauguration of a common agricultural policy; 

(e) the inauguration of a common transport policy; 

(f) the establishment of a system ensuring that com- 
petition shall not be distorted in the Common 
Market; 

(g) the application of procedures that will make it 
possible to co-ordinate the economic policies of 
member states and to remedy disequilibria in their 
balance of payments; 

(h) the approximation of their respective municipal law 
to the extent necessary for the functioning of the 
Common Market; 

(i) the creation of a European Social Fund in order to 
improve the possibilities of employment for workers 
and to contribute to the raising of their standard of 
living; 

(j) the establishment of a European Investment Bank 
intended to facilitate the economic expansion of the 

, Community through the creation of new resources; 
and 

(k) the association of overseas countries and territories 
with the Community with a view to increasing trade 
and to pursuing jointly their effort toward economic 
and social development. 

Member states, acting in close collaboration with the 
institutions of the Community, shall co-ordinate their 
respective economic policies to the extent that is necessary 
fo attain the objectives of the Treaty; the institutions of 
the Community shall take care not to prejudice the internal 
and external financial stability of the member states. 
WitWn the field of application of the Treaty and without 
prejudice to certain special provisions which it contains, 
nny discrimination on the grounds of nationality shall be 
nereby prohibited. 

The Common Market shall be progressively establi^ed 
^the course of a transitional period of twelve years. This 
transitional period shall be divided into three stages of four 


years each; the length of each stage may be modified in 
accordance with the provisions set out below. 

Transition from the first to the second stage shall be 
conditional upon a confirmatory statement to the effect 
that the essence of the objectives laid down in the Treaty 
for the first stage has been in fact achieved, and that all 
obligations have been observed. Failing a unanimous vote 
by the Council of Ministers at the end of the fourth year, 
the first stage shall be automatically extended for a period 
of one year. A similar procedure may be followed at the end 
of the sixth year if the first stage has in fact been extended. 
If at the end of the seventh year a unanimous vote is not 
forthcoming to proceed to the second stage, the Council of 
Ministers shall appoint an Arbitration Board whose 
decision shall bind both member states and Community 
institutions. The second and third stages may not be 
extended or curtailed except by a decision of the Council 
acting by means of a unanimous vote on a proposal of the 
Commission. These provisions shall not have the effect of 
extending the transitional period beyond a total duration 
of fifteen years after the date of entry into force of the 
Treaty. 

Part II. BASES OF THE COMMUNITY 
Free Movement of Goods 

Member states shall refrain from introducing between 
themselves any new import or export customs duties, or 
charges with equivalent effect, and from increasing such 
duties or charges as they apply in their commercial rela- 
tions with each other. Member states shall progressively 
abolish between themselves all import and export customs 
duties, charges with an equivalent effect, and also customs 
duties of a fiscal nature. Independently of these provisions; 
any member state may, in the course of the transitional 
period, suspend in whole or in part the collection of import 
duties applied by it to products imported from other 
member states, or may carry out the foreseen reductions 
more rapidly than laid down in the Treaty if its general 
economic situation and the situation of the sector so 
concerned permit. 

A common customs tariff shall be established, which, 
subject to certain conditions (especially with regard to the 
Italian tariff), shall be at the level of the arithmetical 
average of the duties applied in the four customs territories 
(i.e. France, Germany, Italy and Benelux) covered by the 
Community, This customs tariff shall be applied in its 
entirety not later than at the date of the expiry of the 
transitional period. Member states may follow an in- 
dependent accelerating process similar to that allowed for 
reduction of inter-Community customs duties. 

Member states shall refrain from introducing between 
themselves any new quantitative restrictions or measures 
with equivalent effect, and existing restrictions and 
measures shall be abolished not later than at the end of the 
first stage of the transitional period. These provisions shall 
not be an obstacle to prohibitions or restrictions in respect 


213 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


of importation, exportation or transit which are justified 
on grounds of public morality, health or safety, the pro- 
tection of human or animal life or health, the preservation 
of plant life, the protection of national treasures of artistic, 
historic or archaeological value or the protection of 
industrial and commercial property. Such prohibitions or 
restrictions shall not, however, constitute either a means 
of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on 
trade between member states. Member states shall pro- 
gressively adjust any state monopolies of a commercial 
character in such a manner as will ensure the exclusion, at 
the end of the transitional period, of all discrimination 
between the nationals of member states in regard to con- 
ditions of supply and marketing of goods. These provisions 
shall apply to any body by means of which a member state 
shall de jure or de facto either directly or indirectly, control 
or appreciably intluence importation or exportation be- 
tween member states, and also to monopolies assigned by 
the state. In the case of a commercial monopoly which is 
accompanied by regulations designed to facilitate the 
marketing or the valorisation of agricultural products, it 
should be ensured that in the application of these provisions 
equivalent guarantees are provided in respect of the 
employment and standard of living of the producers 
concerned. 

The obligations incumbent on member states shall bo 
binding only to such extent as they are compatible with 
existing international agreements. 

Agriculture 

The Common Market shall extend to agriculture and 
trade in agricultural products. The common agricultural 
policy shall have as its objectives: 

(a) the increase of agricultural productivity by develop- 
ing technical progress and by ensuring the rational 
development of agricultural production and the 
optimum utilisation of the factors of production, 
particularly labour; 

(b) the ensurance thereby of a fair standard of living for 
the agricultural population; 

(c) the stabilisation of markets; 

(d) regular supplies; 

(e) reasonable prices in supplies to consumers. 

Doe account must be taken of the particular character 
of agricultural activities, arising from the social structure of 
agriculture and from structural and natural disparities 
between the various agricultural regions; of the need to 
make the appropriate adjustments gradually; and of the 
fact that in member states agriculture constitutes a sector 
which is closely linked xvith the economy as a whole. With 
a view to developing a common agricultural policy during 
the transitional period and the establishment of it not later 
than at the end of the period, a common organisation of 
agricultural markets shall be effected. 

Free Movement of Persons, Services and 
Capital 

Worken: The free movement of workers shall be ensured 
within the Community not later than at the date of the 
expiry of the transitional period, involving the abolition 
of any discrimination based on nationality between workers 
of the member states as regards employment, remuneration 


and other working conditions. This shall include the right 
to accept offers of employment actually made, to move 
about freely for this purpose within the territory of the 
member states, to stay in any member state in order to 
carry on an employment in conformity with the legislative 
and administrative provisions governing the employment 
of the workers of that state, and to live, on conditions 
vfhich shall be the subject of implementing regulations laid 
down by the Commission, in the territory of a member 
state after having been employed there. (These provisions 
do not apply to employment in the public administration). 

In the field of social security, the Council shall adopt the 
measures necessary to effect the free movement of workers, 
in particular, by introducing a system which permits an 
assurance to be given to migrant workers and their bene- 
ficiaries that, for the purposes of qualifying for and retain- 
ing the rights to benefits and of the calculation of these 
benefits, all periods taken into consideration by the re- 
spective municipal law of the countries concerned shall be 
added together, and that these benefits will be paid to 
persons resident in the territories of the member states. 

Right ot Establishment; Restrictions on the freedom of 
establishment of nationals of a member state in the 
territory of another member state shall be progressively 
abolished during the transitional period, nor may any new 
restrictions of a similar character be introduced. Such 
progressive abolition shall also extend to restrictions on the 
setting up of agencies, branches or subsidiaries. Freedom 
of establishment shall include the right to engage in and 
carry on non-wage-earning activities, and also to set up 
and manage enterprises and companies under the con- 
ditions laid down by the law of the country of establish- 
ment for its own nationals, subject to the provisions of this 
Treaty relating to capital. 

Services: Restrictions on the free supply of service 
within the Community shall be progressively abolished in 
the course of the transitional period in respect of nationals 
of member states who are established in a state of the 
Community other than that of the person to whom the 
services are supplied; no new restrictions of a similar 
character may be introduced. The Council, acting by a 
unanimous vote on a proposal of the Commission, may 
extend the benefit of these provisions to cover services 
supplied by nationals of any third country who are estab- 
lishea within the Community. 

Particular services involved are activities of an industrial 
or artisan character and those of the liberal professions. 

Capital: Member states shall during the transitional 
period progressively abolish between themselves restric- 
tions on the movement of capital belonging to persons 
resident in the member states, and also any discriminatory 
treatment based on the nationality or place of residence of 
the parties or on the place in which such capital is invested. 
Current payments connected with movements of capital 
between member states shall be freed from all restrictions 
not later than at the end of the first stage of the transitional 
period. 

Member states shall endeavour to avoid introducing 
within the Community any new exchange restrictions 
which affect the movement of capital and current payments 
connected witli such movements, and making existing 
rules more restrictive. ' 


214 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Transport 

With a view to establishing a common transport policy, 
the Council of Ministers shall, acting on a proposal of the 
Commission and after consulting the Economic and Social 
Committee and the European Parliament, lay do\vn 
common rules applicable to international transport effected 
from or to the territory of a member state or crossing the 
territory of one or more member states, conditions for the 
admission of non-resident carriers to national transport 
services within a member state and any other appropriate 
provisions. Until these have been enacted and unless the 
Council of Ministers gives its unanimous consent, no 
member state shall apply the various provisions governing 
this subject at the date of the entry into force of this 
Treaty in such a way as to make them less favourable, in 
their direct or indirect effect, for carriers of other member 
states by comparison with its own national carriers. 

Any discrimination which consists in the application by 
a carrier, in respect of the same goods conveyed in the same 
circumstances, of transport rates and conditions which 
differ on the ground of the country of origin or destination 
of the goods carried, shall be abolished in the traffic of the 
Community not later than at the end of the second stage 
of the transitional period. 

A Committee with consultative status, composed of 
experts appointed by the governments of the member 
states, shall be established and attached to the Commission, 
without prejudice to the competence of the transport 
section of the Economic and Social Committee. 

Part III. POLICY OF THE COMMUNITY 
Common Rules 

Enterprises: The following practices by enterprises are 
prohibited; the direct or indirect fixing of purch^e or 
selling prices or of any other trading conditions; the limita- 
tion or control of production, markets, technical develop- 
ment of investment; market-sharing or the sharing o 
sources of supply; the application to parties to transactions 
of unequal terms in respect of equivalent supplies, thereby 
placing them at a competitive disadvantage; the subjection 
of the conclusion of a contract to the acceptance by a party 
of additional supplies which, either by their nature or 
according to commercial usage, have no connection wit 
the subject of such contract. The provisions may be 
declared inapplicable if the agreements neither impose on 
the enterprises concerned any restrictions not indispenaa e 
to the attainment of improved production, distribution or 
technical progress, nor enable enterprises to elimma c 
competition in respect of a substantial proportion of tfie 
goods concerned. 

Dumping: If, in the course of the transitional period, the 
Commission, at the request of a member state or o 
other interested party, finds that dumping practices exist 
within the Common Market, it shall issue recommendations 
to the originator of such practices with a view to “ringing 
them to an end. Where such practices continue, the com- 
mission shall authorise the member state injure “ 
protective measures of which tlie Commission s a 
mine the conditions and particulars. 

Re-importation within the Community shall be tree o 
Ml customs duties, quantitative restrictions or me 
With equivalent effect. 


Aid granted by States: Any aid granted by a member 
state or granted by means of state resources which is 
contrary to the purposes of the treaty is forbidden. The 
following shall be deemed to be compatible with the 
Common Market: 

(a) aids of a social character granted without discrimina- 
tion to individual consumers: 

(b) aids intended to remedy damage caused by natural 
calamities or other extraordinary events: 

(c) aids granted to the economy of certain regions of the 
Federal German Republic affected by the division of 
Germany, to the extent that they are necessary to 
compensate for the economic disadvantages caused 
by the division. 

The following may be deemed to be compatible with the 
Common Market; 

(a) aids intended to promote the economic development 
of regions where the standard of living is abnormally 
low or where there exists serious under-employment; 

(b) aids intended to promote the execution of important 
projects of common European interest or to remedy 
a serious economic disturbance of the economy of a 
member state; 

(c) aids intended to facilitate the development of certain 
activities or of certain economic regions, provided 
that such aids do not change trading conditions to 
such a degree as would be contrary to the common 
interest: 

(d) such other categories of aids as may be specified by 
a decision of the Council of Ministers acting on a 
proposal of the Commission. 

The Commission is charged to examine constantly all 
systems of aids existing in the member states, and may 
require any member state to abolish or modify any aid 
which it finds to bo in conflict with the principles of the 
Common Market. 

Fiscal Provisions: A member state shall not impose, 
directly or indirectly, on the products of other member 
states, any internal charges of any kind in excess of those 
applied directly or indirectly to like domestic products. 
Furthermore, a member state shall not impose on the 
product of other member states any internal charges of 
such a nature as to afford indirect protection to other pro- 
ductions. Member states shall, not later than at the begin- 
ning of the second stage of the transitional period, abolish 
or amend any provisions existing at the date of the entry 
into force of the Treaty which are contrary to these rules. 
Products exported to any member state may not benefit 
from any drawback on internal charges in excess of those 
charges i.mposed directly or indirectly on them. Subject to 
these conditions, any member states which levy a turnover 
tax calculated by a cumulative multi-stage system may. in 
the case of internal charges imposed by them on imported 
products or of drawbacks granted by them on exported 
products, establish average rates for specific products or 
groups of products. 

Approximafion of (.aws: The Council, acting by means of 
a* unanimous vote on a proposal of the Commission, shall 
issue directives for the approximation of such legislative 
and administrative provisions of the member states as have 
i direct incidence on the establishment or functioning of 


215 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


the Common Market. The European Parliament and the 
Economic and Social Committee shall be consulted con- 
cerning any directives whose implementation in one or 
more of the member states would involve amendment of 
legislative provisions. 

Economic Policy 

Balance of Payments: Member states are charged to 
co-ordinate their economic policies in order that each may 
ensure the equilibrium of their overall balances of payments 
and maintain confidence in their currency, together with a 
high level of employment and stability of prices. In order 
to promote this co-ordination a Monetary Committee is 
established {see section on Organization, above). 

Each member state engages itself to treat its policy with 
regard to exchange rates as a matter of common interest. 
Where a member state is in difficulties or seriously 
threatened with difficulties as regards its balance of pay- 
ments as a result either of overall disequilibrium of the 
balance of payments or of the kinds of currency at its 
disposal, and where such difficulties are likely, in par- 
ticular, to prejudice the functioning of the Common Market 
or the progressive establishment of the common commercial 
policy, the Commission shall examine the situation and 
indicate the measures which it recommends to the state 
concerned to adopt; it this action proves insufficient to 
overcome the difficulties, the Commission shall, after con- 
sulting the Monetary Committee, recommend to the Council 
of Ministers the granting of mutual assistance. This mutual 
assistance may take the form of: 

(a) concerted action in regard to any other international 
organization to which the member states may have 
recourse; 

(b) any measures necessary to avoid diversions of com- 
mercial traffic where the state in difficulty maintains 
or re-establishes quantitative restrictions with 
regard to third countries; 

(c) the granting of limited credits by other member 
states, subject to their agreement. 

Furthermore, during the transitional period, mutual assist- 
ance may also take the form of special reductions in 
customs duties or enlargements of quotas. If the mutual 
assistance recommended by the Commission is not granted 
by the Council, or if the mutual assistance granted and the 
measu restaken prove insufficient, the Commission shall 
authorise the state in difficulties to take measures of safe- 
guard, of which the Commission shall determine the 
conditions and particulars. In the case of a sudden balancc- 
of-payments crisis, any member state may take immediate 
provisional measures of safeguard, which must be sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the Commission as soon as 
possible. On the basis of an opinion of the Commission and 
after consulting the Monetary Committee, the Council may 
decide that the state concerned shall amend, suspend or 
abolish such measures. 

Commercial Policy: Member states shall co-ordinate their 
commercial relations with third countries in such a way as 
to bring about, not later than at the expiry of the tran- 
sitional period, the conditions necessary to the implementa- 
tion of a common policy in the matter of external trade. 
After the expiry of the transitional period, the common 
commercial policy shall be based on uniform principles. 


particularly in regard to tariff amendments, the conclusion 
of tariff or trade agreements, the alignment of measures of 
liberalisation, export policy and protective commercial 
measures, including measures to be taken in cases of 
dumping or subsidies. The Commission will be authorised 
to conduct negotiations with third countries. As from the 
end of the transitional period, member states shall, in 
respect of all matters of particular interest in regard to the 
Common Market, within the framework of any inter- 
national organizations of an economic character, only 
proceed by way of common action. The Commission shall 
for this purpose submit to the Council of Ministers pro- 
posals concerning the scope and implementation of such 
common action. During the transitional period, member 
states shall consult with each other with a view to concert- 
ing their action and, as far as possible, adopting a uniform 
attitude. 

Social Policy 

Social Provisions: Without prejudice to the other pro- 
visions of the Treaty and in conformity with its general 
objectives, it shall be the aim of the Commission to promote 
close collaboration between member states in the social 
field, particularly in matters relating to employment, 
labour legislation and working conditions, occupational and 
continuation training, social security, protection against 
occupational accidents and diseases, industrial hygiene, the 
law as to trade unions and collective bargaining between 
employers and workers. 

Each member state shall in the course of the first stap 
of the transitional period ensure and subsequently maintain 
the application of the principle of equal pay for men and 
women. 

The European Social Fund: See the section on Organisa- 
tion above. 

The European Investment Bank: See the section on 
Organization above. 


Part IV. OVERSEAS COUNTRIES AND 
TERRITORIES 


The member states agree to bring into association with 
the Community the non-European countries and territories 
which have special relations with Belgium, France, Italy 
and the Netherlands in order to promote the economic and 
social development of these countries and territories and to 
establish close economic relations between them and 
the Community as a whole. 

Member states shall, in their commercial exchanges with 
the countries and territories, apply the same rules which 
they apply among themselves pursuant to the Treaty. 
Each country or territory shall apply to its commercial 
exchanges with member states and with the other countries 
and territories the same rules which it applied in respect of 
the European state with which it has special relations. 
Member states shall contribute to the investments required 
by the progressive development of these countries and 
territories. 


Customs duties on trade between member states and the 
countries and territories are to be progressively abolished 
according to the same timetable as for trade between the 
member states themselves. The countries and territories 

to 
of 


may, however, levy customs duties which correspond 
the needs of their development and to the requirements 


21C 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


their industrialisation or which, being of a fiscal nature, 
have the object of contributing to their budgets. 

(The Convention implementing these provisions is con- 
cluded for a period of five years only from the date of 
entry into force of the Treaty.) 

Part V. INSTITUTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY 
Provisions Governing Institutions 

For accounts of the Eitropcan Parhament, the Council of 
Ministers, the Commission, the Economic and Social Com- 
mittee, the Monetary Committee, the European Investment 
Bank, the European Social Fund and the Development Fund, 
see the section of Organization above. 

For the achievement of their aims and under the con- 
ditions provided for in the Treaty, the Council and the 
Commission shall adopt regulations and directives, make 
decisions and formulate recommendations or opinions. 
Regulations shall have a general application and shall be 
binding in every respect and directly applicable in each 
member state. Directives shall bind any member state to 
which they are addressed, as to the result to be achieved, 
while leaving to domestic agencies a competence as to form 
and means. Decisions shall be binding in every respect for 
the addressees named therein. Recommendations and 
opinions shall have no binding force. 

Financial Provisions 

Estimates shall be drawn up for each financial year for 
all revenues and expenditures of the Community, including 
those relating to the European Social Fund, and shall be 
shown in the budget. 

The revenues of the budget shall comprise (apart from 
those contributions which are intended to meet the 
expenses of the European Social Fund, and apart from any 
other revenues) the financial contributions of member 
states fixed according to the following scale; 


% 


Belgium .... 

7-9 

France .... 

28.0 

Italy ..... 

28.0 

German Federal Republic 

28.0 

Luxembourg 

0.2 

Netherlands 

7-9 


The financial contributions of the member states which 
^e intended to meet the expenses of the European Social 
ond shall be fixed according to the following scale: 


% 


Belgium .... 

S .8 

France .... 

32.0 

Italy ..... 

20.0 

German Federal Republic 

32.0 

Luxembourg 

0.2 

Netherlands 

7.0 


The Commission shall implement the budget on ite own 
responsibility and within the limits of the appropriations 
®ade. The Council of Ministers shall: 

(a) lay down the financial regulations specifying, m 
particular, the procedure to be adopted for ^ 
lishing and implementing the budget, an o 
rendering and auditing accounts; 


(b) determine the methods and procedure whereby the 
contributions by member states shall be made avail- 
able to the Commission; and 

(c) establish rules concerning the responsibility of pay- 
commissioners and accountants and arrange for the 
relevant supervision. 

Part VI. GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS 

Member states shall, in so far as is necessary, engage in 
negotiations with each other with a view to ensuring for 
the benefit of their nationals: 

(a) the protection of persons as well as the enjoyment 
and protections of rights under the conditions 
granted by each state to its oivn nationals; 

(b) the elimination of double taxation within the 
Community; 

(c) the mutual recognition of companies, the main- 
tenance of their legal personality in cases where the 
registered office is transferred from one country to 
another, and the possibility for companies subject to 
the municipal law of different member states to form 
mergers; and 

(d) the simplification of the formalities governing the 
reciprocal recognition and execution of judicial 
decisions and arbitral awards. 

Within a period of three years after the date of the entry 
into force of the Treaty, member states shall treat nationals 
of other member states in the same manner, as regards 
financial participation by such nationals in the capital of 
companies, as they treat their own nationals, without 
prejudice to the application of the other provisions of the 
Treaty. 

The Treaty shall in no way prejudice the system existing 
in member states in respect of property. 

The provisions of the Treaty shall not detract from the 
following rules: 

(a) no member state shall be obliged to supply informa- , 
tion the disclosure of which it considers contrary to 
the essential interests of its security; 

(b) any member state may take the measures which it 
considers necessary for the protection of the essential 
interests of its security, and which are connected 
with the production of or the trade in arms, ammu- 
nition and war material; such measures shall not, 
however, prejudice conditions of competition in the 
Common Market in respect of products not intended 
for specifically military purposes. 

The list of products to which (b) applies shall be determined 
by the Council in the course of the first year after the date 
of entry into force of the Treaty. The list may be subse- 
quently amended by the unanimous vote of the Council 
on a proposal of the Commission. 

Member states shall consult one another for the purpose 
of enacting in common the necessary provisions to prevent 
the functioning of the Common Market from being affected 
by measures which a member state may be called upon to 
take in case of serious internal disturbances affecting 
public order, in case of war or serious international tension 
constituting a threat of war or in order to carry out 
undertakings into which it has entered for the purpose of 
maintaining peace and international security. 


217 


THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


In the course of the transitional period, where there are 
serious difficulties which are likely to persist in any sector 
of economic activity or difficulties which may seriously 
impair the economic situation in any region, any member 
state may ask for authorisation to take measures of safe- 
guard in order to restore the situation and adapt the sector 
concerned to the Common Market economy. 

The provisions of the Treaty shall not affect those of the 
Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Com- 
munity. nor those of the Treaty establishing the European 
Atomic Energy Community; nor shall they be an obstacle 
to the existence or completion of regional unions between 
Belgium and Euxembourg, and between Belgium, Luxem- 


bourg and the Netherlands, in so far as the objectives of 
these regional unions are not achieved by the application 
of this Treaty. 

The government of any member state of the Commission 
may submit to the Council proposals for the revision of the 
Treaty. 

Any European state may apply to become a member of 
the Community. 

The Community may conclude with a third country, a 
union of states or an international organisation agreements 
creating an association embodying reciprocal rights and 
obligations, joint actions and special procedures. 

The Treaty is concluded for an unlimited period. 


FINANCING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 


Under Article 200 of the Rome Treaty the budget of the 
EEC is contributed by the member states according to a 
fi.xed key: France. Germany and Italy 28 per cent each; 
Belgium and the Netherlands 7.9 per cent each; and 
Luxembourg 0.2 per cent. The European Social Fund is 
financed in a similar fashion but with different proportions. 
The Euratom and ECSC Treaties lay down the means of 
financing those two Communities. 

With the establishment of the common agricultural 
policy, variations on this basic EEC key were introduced 
for the years 1962-67 for agricultiual expenditure. From 
July ist, 1967, to December 31st, 1969, the budget of the 
European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund was 
financed in part by the payment to the Community of 90 
per cent of the product of the levies imposed on imports 
into the Community of foodstuffs subject to the common 
agricultural policy. The remaining revenue was raised by 
direct contributions by the member states in the following 
proportions: France 32 per cent; Germany 31.2 per cent; 
Italy 20.3 per cent; Netherlands 8.2 per cent; Belgium 8.1 
per cent; Luxembourg 0.2 per cent. These proportions 
represent the gross contributions to the Fund. The effect 
of the payments from the Fund to support Community 
agriculture (particularly to make export refunds) has been 
to make France and the Netherlands net recipients from 
the Fund, with the other member states maldng net 
contributions. 

Under Article 201 of the Rome Treaty the Commission 
is empowered to propose what means of financing the 
Community be adopted after the completion of the com- 
mon external tariff (which took place on July ist, 1968), 
in particular whether the direct state contributions shall 
be replaced by the revenue from the common tariff. In the 
summer of 1969 the Commission published proposals for 
giving the Community its own direct revenues, and these 
formed the basis of the agreement reached between the six 
governments on December 22nd, 1969. 

Direct revenue financing system: The essential elements 
of this agreement were that from January rst, 1975, on- 
wards, the three Communities' activities would be financed 
from tliree main sources: (a) the levies imposed on imports 
from non-member countries of products subject to the 
common agricultural policj’- (less lo per cent for adminis- 
trative expenses); (6) duties imposed under the common 
external tariff (less 10 per cent for administrative ex- 
penses); (c) the product of up to a i per cent rate of the 


value-added tax. In 1975-77'inclusive certain restrictions 
would prevent any one member country's annual contri- 
bution being more than 2 per cent greater or less than its 
contribution in the'previous year. The agreement is subject 
to final agreement on certain details and the ratification, 
expected in the course of 1970, by the six national par- 
liaments. The system wll be phased in over the years 
1970-74. 

In 1970 alone the overall expenditure by the Agricul- 
tural Fund was financed in the following proportions; 
Germany 31.7 per cent; France 28 per cent; Italy 21.5 per 
cent; Netherlands 10.35 per cent; Belgium 8.25 per cent; 
Luxembourg 0.2 per cent. Non-agricultural expenditure is 
being financed according to the keys in the three Treaties. 

On January ist, 1971, the phasing in of the tripartite 
financing system outlined above began for all forms of 
expenditure. Prom that day ail import levies will be paid 
over to the Community together with an annually increas- 
ing proportion of customs duties ivhich will be determined 
according to a reference amount based upon the total 
value of the levies and duties raised by each state. For 
example, in 1971 each state will pay in all its levies plus 
the value of customs duties sufficient to make up an amount 
equal to 50 per cent of the combined value of levies and 
duties. In 1972 the reference amount is 62.5 per cent; in 
1973' 75 p6r cent; in 1974, 87- per cent; in 1975> 
cent. Any further revenue required by the Community 
will be covered by direct contributions from the national 
exchequers in the following proportions: Germany 32.9 P’-'' 
cent; France 32.6 per cent; Italy 20.2 per cent; Netherlands 
7.3 per cent; Belgium 6.8 per cent; Luxembourg 0.2 per 
cent. This scale is based partly on the relative values of the 
GNPs of the member countries. In 1971-74 inclusive the 
annual contribution of any member state shall not vary bj 
more than lA per cent doumwards from the amount con- 
tributed in the previous year. 

Parliamenfary control: At the Council meeting of 
December 22nd, 1969, the six governments agreed on a 
draft resolution on the powers of budgetary control to bo 
granted to the European Parliament after 1975. The draft 
resolution provided for four stages in adopting tlie budget. 
(1) The Council draws up an estimate of the expenditurt 
and of revenue, the latter including the rate of value-added 
tax to be apportioned to the Community's budget; (2) 
This draft budget may be amended by the European Par- 
liament by a majority vote of its members, though any 


218 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


change in the VAT rate must be within the limits set by 
the Council Act establishing the Community tax; (3) The 
Council, acting by qualified majority vote may amend the 
Parliament's amendments; (4) The Parliament may amend 
the Council’s amendments in the three stages by a vote of 


a majority of its members and subject to three-fifths of the 
votes cast being in favour. Should the Parliament not have 
given a decision within a fixed period the Council’s amend- 
ments made in the third stage shall be deemed to be 
adopted. 


ASSOCIATION 

SUMMARY OF THE 
SECOND YAOUNDE CONVENTION 

Articles 1-16: Trade. The basic aim of the Association is 
free trade between the European Community and each 
of the associated states. In principle, free trade between 
the Community and the associated states was intro- 
duced on July ist, 1968, when the Community's com- 
mon external tariff came into force. However, the 
associated states retain the right to maintain, rcimpose 
or increase customs duties on imports from the Com- 
munity (in addition to fiscal duties) in the interests of 
their revenue, economic development, new industries 
and balance of payments. Conversely, the Community 
may impose a degree of protection for products subject 
to the common agricultural policy, though imports of 
those or similar products from the associated states are 
granted preference over imports from third countries. 

Article 17-30; Financial and Technical Co-operation. 
Provide for continued operation of Development Fund 
and the spending over a five-year period of a total sum 
of $828 million on the same lines as before and also for 
promoting the diversification of the economics of the 
Associated States. The European Investment Bank will 
make loans of up to a total of $go million, possibly at 
low interest rates. 

Articles 31-40: Right of Establishment, Services, Payment 
and Capital. 

Articles 41-55; Instihitions. 

Articles 56-66; General and Final Provisions. 

SUMMARY OF THE ARUSHA AGREEMENT 

Articles 2-15: Trade. Products originating in the East 
African Community are admitted to the EEC free of 
customs duties and charges with equivalent effect, 
without prejudice to the import rules for products 
subject to the European Community's common agri- 
cultural policy. 

Annual quotas are established for unroasted coffee 
(56,000 metric tons), cloves {120 tons) and tinned 


AGREEMENTS 

pineapple (800 tons). In the event of imports of these 
products into the EEC exceeding these totals, the EEC 
is authorized to consult with the exporting countries 
about measures to avoid disturbing traditional trade 
flows. The EEC will grant preferential treatment, case 
by case, to EAC products subject to the common 
agricultural policy and to processed agricultural pro- 
ducts after consultation with the East African countries. 

Imports of about sixty products from the EEC into 
the EAC will be freed of customs duties and equivalent 
charges, and from quantitative restrictions, though in 
the interests of their development needs and budgetary 
revenues the East African states may retain or introduce 
duties or charges on these products, and retain or 
impose quotas. 

The East African states are free to form customs 
unions or free-trade areas with African countries of 
comparable economic development, provided the pro- 
visions of this agreement concerning origin are not 
changed. 

Articles 16-20: Establishment. The East African states 
agree that no discrimination shall be made betiveen 
nationals or companies of the EEC states in matters of 
the right of establishment and the provision of services, 
and that more favourable treatment accorded to the 
nationals or companies of a third country shall bo 
extended to EEC nationals or companies. 

Articles 21-22: Payments and capital. 

Articles 23-29: Institutional provisions. An Association 
Council comprising members of the EEC Council of 
Ministers and of the Commission and of the govern- 
ments of the African states presides over the Associa- 
tion, and meets once annually. The Council may appoint 
a committee to provide continuitj' of co-operation. A 
Parliamentary Committee shall meet once a year to 
discuss matters concerning the Association; it shall 
consist of equal numbers of members of the European 
Community countries and the parliaments of the East 
African states. 

Articles 30-38: General and final provisio 7 is. 


219 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


SUMMARY OF ECSC TREATY 


THE EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL 
COMMUNITY 

The European Coal and Steel Community is based on a 
common market, common objectives and common institu- 
tions. The aims of the Community are to contribute to the 
expansion of the economy, the development of employ- 
ment and the improvement of the standard of living in the 
participating countries through the creation, in harmony 
with the general economy of the member states, of a 
common market. With these aims in view, the institutions 
of the Community are to ensure that the common market 
is regularly supplied, while taking into account the needs 
of third countries; to cissure to all consumers in comparable 
positions within the common market equal access to the 
sources of production; to seek the establishment of the 
lowest possible prices without involving any corresponding 
rise either in the prices charged by the same enterprise in 
other transactions or in the price-level as a whole in another 
period, while at the same time permitting necessary 
amortisation and providing the possibility of normal 
returns on invested capital; to ensure that conditions are 
maintained which will encourage enterprises to expand and 
improve their ability to produce and to promote a policy 
of rational development of natural resources, while avoid- 
ing undue exhaustion of such resources; to promote the 
improvement of the living and working conditions of the 
labour force in each of the industries under its jurisdiction 
so as to harmonise those conditions in an upward direction; 
to foster the development of international trade and ensure 
that equitable limits are observed in prices charged in 
foreign markets; and to promote the regular expansion and 
the modernisation of production as well as the improve- 
ment of quality, under conditions which preclude any pro- 
tection against competing industries except where justified 
by illegitimate action on the peirt of such industries or in 
their favour. 

The following are considered incompatible with the com- 
mon market and are therefore abolished and prohibited: 

(a) import and export duties, or taxes with an equivalent 
effect, and quantitative restrictions upon the move- 
ment of coal and steel; 

(b) measures or practices discriminating among pro- 
ducers, buyers or consumers, especially as concerns 
prices, delivery terms and transport rates, as well as 
practices or measures which hamper the buyer in the 
free choice of his supplier; 

(c) subsidies or state assistance, or special charges 
imposed by the state, in any form whatsoever; 

(d) restrictive practices tending towards the division or 
the exploitation of the market. 

The Community binds itself to assist the interested 
parties to take action by collecting information, organising 
consultations and defining general objectives; to place 
financial means at the disposal of enterprises for their 
investments and participate in the expenses of readapta- 
tion; to assure the establishment, the maintenance and the 
observance of the normal conditions of competition, and 
take direct action with respect to production and the co- 
operation of the market only when circumstances make it 


absolutely necessary; and to publish the reasons for its 
action and take the necessary measures to ensure observ- 
ance of the rules set forth in the Treaty. 

THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY 
See section on Organization, above. 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROVISIONS 
The High Authority is empowered to consult govern- 
ments and various interested parties such as enterprises, 
workers, consumers and dealers and their associations, as 
well as experts, and to gather such information as may be 
necessary to the accomplishment of its mission. It is not 
permitted to divulge information which by its nature is 
considered a trade secret, and in particular information 
pertaining to the commercial relations or the breakdown 
of the costs of production of enterprises. With this reserva- 
tion, it must publish such data as may be useful to 
governments or to any other interested parties. 

The High Authority may impose fines and daily penalty 
payments upon enterprises which evade tlieir obligations 
under this title. 

Financial Provisions; The High Authority is empowered 
to procure its funds by imposing a levy on the production 
of coal and steel, by borrowing, and by receiving grants. 
The levies are intended to cover administrative expenses, 
non-repayable assistance relating to readaptation, invest- 
ments and financial assistance and expenditure devoted to 
encouraging technical and economic research. Funds 
obtained by borrowing may only be used to grant loans. 

Investments and Financial Assistance: The High Author- 
ity may facilitate the carrying out of investment pro- 
grammes by granting loans to enterprises or by giving its 
guarantee to other loans which they obtain. With fte 
unanimous agreement of the Council, the High Authority 
may by the same means assist the financing of works. and 
installations which contribute directly or mainly to, an 
increase of production, to loxver production costs, or which 
facilitate the marketing of products subject to its jurisdic- 
tion. The High Authority may require enterprises to submit 

individual projects in advance, and, having given the 
interested parties an opportunity to express their, views, 
issue a reasoned opinion on any such projects. If the High 
Authority finds that the financing of a project or ,the 
operation of anv proposed installation would require 
subsidies, assistance, protection or discrimination contrary 
to the present Treaty, it may issue a binding prohibition to 
the enterprise in question, forbidding it to use resources 
other than its own funds to carry out such a project. - 
The High Authority is obliged to encourage technical 
and economic research concerning the production and the 
development of consumption of coal and steel, as well as 
workers' safety in these industries. If the introduction of 
technical processes or new equipment, within the frame- 
work of the general objectives laid dorvn by the High 
Authority, should lead to an exceptionally large reduction 
in labour requirements in the coal or steel industries, 
making it especially difficult in one or more areas to re- 


220 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


employ the workers discharged, the High Authority, on 
the request of the interested governments, may facilitate 
the financing of such programmes as it may approve for 
the creation, either in the industries subject to its jurisdic- 
tion or, with the agreement of the Council, in any other 
industry, of new and economically sound activities capable 
of assuring productive employment to the workers thus 
discharged, and shall grant non-repayable assistance as a 
contribution to payment of compensation, granting of 
re-settlement allowances and the financing of technical 
retraining of workers. 

Production: The High Authority is to give preference to 
the indirect means of action at its disposal, such as co- 
operation with governments to stabilise or influence 
general consumption, particularly that of public services, 
and intervention on prices and commercial policy. 

If, in the case of a decline in demand, it considers that 
the Community is faced with a manifest crisis, it must, 
after consulting the Consultative Committee and with the 
agreement of the Council, establish a system of production 
quotas. Failing this, any member state may bring the 
matter to the attention of the Council, which, by unani- 
mous vote, may oblige the High Authority to establish a 
quota system. The High Authority may in particular 
regulate the rate of operation of enterprises by appropriate 
levies on tonnages exceeding a reference level defined by a 
general decision. The sums thus obtained will be earmarked 
for the support of those enterprises whose rate of produc- 
tion has fallen below the reference level. 

If the Community is faced with a serious shortage of 
certain or of all the products subject to the jurisdiction of 
the High Authority, the latter must propose appropriate 
measures to the Council, unless the Council decides to the 
contrary by unanimous vote. On the basis of tliese pro- 
posals, the Council must establish consumption priorities 
and determine the allocation of the coal and steel resources 
of the Community among the industries subject to ite 
jurisdiction, exports and other consumption. On the bMis 
of the consumption priorities thus established, the Hig 
Authority is empowered, after consulting the enterprises 
concerned, to draw up production programmes which the 
enterprises are obliged to carry out. 

Prices: Pricing practices contrary to the provision of 
Title 1 are prohibited and in particular unfair competitive 
practices, especially purely temporary or local price 
reductions, the purpose of which is to acquire a monopo y 
within the common market and discriminatory practices 
involving within the common market the application y a 
seller of unequal conditions to comparable transactions, 
especially according to the nationality of the buyer, n 
certain cases, the High Authority may fix maximum and/or 
minimum prices for one or more products subject o i 
jurisdiction, both within the common market and wi 
regard to export. 

Agreements and Concentrations: All agreements 
enterprises, all decisions of associations of ente^rises, 
all concerted practices, tending, directly or indirec X' 
prevent, restrict or distort the normal operation oJ c - 
petition within the common market are forbidden, an 
particular those tending to fix or determine P”'-® ’ 
restrict or control production, technical deve 
investments, or to allocate markets, products, cus 
or sources of supply. However, the High Authority 


authorise agreements to specialise in the production of, or 
to engage in the joint buying or selling of specified pro- 
ducts, if it finds that this will contribute to a substantial 
improvement in production or distribution, or that the 
agreement in question is essential to achieve these results 
and is not more restrictive than is necessary, or that it is 
not capable of giving the interested enterprises any dis- 
criminatory powers or advantages. Similar regulations 
apply to concentrations. 

Impairment of the Conditions of Competition: If any 

action of any member state is liable to provoke a serious 
disequilibrium by substantially increasing difierences in 
costs of production otherwise than through variations in 
productivity, the High Authority, after consulting the 
Consultative Committee and the Council, may take the 
following steps: 

If the action of the state produces harmful effects for 
coal or steel enterprises falling under the jurisdiction of the 
said state, the High Authority may authorise that state to 
grant assistance to such enterprises, the amount, conditions 
and duration of which shall be determined in agreement 
with the High Authority. The same provisions are to apply 
in the case of a variation in wages and in working con- 
ditions which would have the same effects, even if such 
variation is not the result of an action by that state. 

If the action of that state produces harmful effects for 
coal and steel enterprises subject to the jurisdiction of 
other member states, the High Authority may address a 
recommendation to the said state with a view to remedying 
these effects by such measures as that state may consider 
most compatible with its own economic equilibrium. 

If the action of the said state reduces differences in costs 
of production by granting a special advantage to, or by 
imposing special burdens on, coal or steel enterprises falling 
under its jurisdiction in comparison with the other indus- 
tries in the same country, the High Authority is empowered 
to address the necessary recommendations to the state in 
question, after consulting the Consultative Committee and 
the Council. 

Wages and Movement ol Labour: The methods of fixing 
wages and social benefits in force in the various member 
states are not affected by the Treaty, subject to certain 
provisions. 

If the High Authority finds that any wage levels are 
abnormally low, whether these levels are fixed by enter- 
prises or by government decisions, it may address recom- 
mendations to the enterprises concerned or government 
interested. Similar action may be taken when a lowering of 
wages entails a drop in the standard of living of the labour 
force and at the same time is being used as a means of 
permanent economic adjustment by enterprises or as a 
means of competition bertveen enterprises. This provision 
does not apply to: 

(a) overall measures taken by a member state to re- 
establish its external equilibrium, without prejudice 
to the possible application of the provisions dealing 
with the impairment of the conditions of competition; 

(b) wage decreases resulting from the application of a 
sliding scale established by law or by contract; 

(c) wage decreases resulting from a decrease in the cost 
of living; 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


(d) wage decreases intended to correct abnormal in- 
creases previously granted under exceptional cir" 
cumstances which no longer apply. 

With the exception of (a) and (b) above, any wage 
decrease affecting the whole labour force of an enterprise 
or a sizeable proportion thereof must be notified to the 
High Authority. 

The member states bind themselves to renounce any 
restriction, based on nationality, on the employment iii 
the coal and steel industries of workers of recognised 
qualifications, subject to limitations imposed by the funda^ 
mental needs of health and public order. In the case of 
other (non-qualified) workers and where the expansion of 
production in the coal and steel industries might be 
hampered by a shortage of suitable labour, the member 
states agree to adapt their immigration regulations, and in 
particular, to facilitate the re-employment of workers fronJ 
the coal and steel industries of other member states. Any 
discrimination in payment and working conditions aS 
between national and foreign workers, without prejudice 
to special measures concerning frontier workers, are pro- 
hibited. Social security measures are not to impede the 
movement of labour. 

Transport: In order to implement the application of such 
transport rates for coal and steel as will make possible 
comparable price conditions to consumers in comparable 
positions, discriminations in transport rates and conditions 
of any kind, which are based on the country of origin or of 
destination of the products in question are forbidden. 

Commercial Policy: Unless otherwise provided in the 
Treaty, the responsibilities of the governments of the 
member states, for commercial policy are not affected by 
its application. Minimum rates, below which the member 
states bind themselves not to lower their customs duties on 
coal and steel with regard to third countries, and maximum 
rates, above which they bind themselves not to raise such 
duties, may be fixed by unanimous decision of the Council 
upon the proposal of the High Authority, which may act 
on its own initiative or at the request of a member state- 
Between these limits, each government is to set its tariffs 
according to its own national procedure, upon the modifica- 
tion of which the High Authority may issue opinions. The 
High Authority is empowered to supervise the administra- 
tion of import and export licences with regard to third 
countries in the cases of coal and steel. The member states 
bind themselves to keep the High Authority informed of 
proposed commercial agreements or similar arrangements 
as far as they relate to coal, steel or the importation of the 
other raw materials and of specialised equipment necessary 
for the production of coal and steel in the member states. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Among the numerous provisions of this title, the follow- 
ing are significant: 


The establishment of the Community does not in any 
way prejudice the system of ownership of the enterprises 
subject to the provisions of this Treaty. 

As far as they are competent to do so, the member states 
shall take any appropriate measures to guarantee the 
settling of international accounts arising out of trade in 
coal and steel within the common market; they will lend 
each other assistance to facilitate such settlements. 

If the High Authority considers that a state has failed 
in any of the obligations incumbent upon it by virtue of 
the Treaty, it shall, after permitting the state in question 
to present its views, . take note of the failure in a reasoned 
decision accompanied by a justification. It shall allow the 
state in question a period of time within which to provide 
for the execution of its obligation. Such a state may appeal 
to the Court’s general jurisdiction within a period of two 
months from the notification of the decision. If the state 
has not taken steps to fulfil its obligations within the 
period fixed by the High Authority, or if its appeal has 
been rejected, the High Authority may, with the agreement 
of the Council acting by a two-thirds majority: 

(a) suspend the payment of sums which the High 
Authority may owe to the state in question under 
the Treaty; 

(b) adopt measures or authorise the other member states 
to adopt measures which would otherwise be con- 
trary to certain provisions of Title i, so as to correct 
the effects of the failure in question. 

An appeal to the Court’s general jurisdiction may be 
lodged against these decisions within two months following 
their notification. Should these measures prove ineffective, 
the High Authority shall refer the matter to the Council. 

The decisions of the High Autliority imposing financial 
obligations on enterprises shall have executive force. 

After the period of transition, the government of any 
member state and the High Authority may ■ propose 
amendments to the Treaty. Such proposals shall be sub- 
mitted to the Council. If the Council, acting by a two-thirds 
majority, approves a conference of the representatives of 
the governments of the member states, such a conference 
shall be immediately called by the President of the Council, 
with a view to agreeing on any modifications to be made to 
the provisions of the Treaty. Such amendments shall come 
into force after ratification by all the member states. 

The Treaty is concluded for a period of fifty years from 
the date of its entry into force. 

Any European state may request to accede to this 
Treaty. It shall address its request to the Council, which 
shall act by unanimous vote after obtaining the opinion of 
the High Authority. Also by unanimous vote, the Council 
shall fix the terms of accession, which shall become 
effective on the day the instrument of accession is received 
by the government acting as depositary of the Treaty. 



222 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


SUMMARY OF EURATOM TREATY 


The preamble to the Treaty states that the signatory 
powers: 

"Realising that nuclear energy constitutes the essential 
resource for ensuring the expansion and invigoration of 
production and for efifecting progress in peaceful achieve- 
ment, 

"Convinced that only a common effort undertaken 
without delay can lead to achievements commensurate 
with the creative capacities of their countries, 

"Resolved to create the conditions required for the 
development of a powerful nuclear industry which will 
provide extensive supplies of energy, lead to the moderniza- 
tion of technical processes and in addition have many other 
applications contributing to the well-being of their peoples, 

"Anxious to establish conditions of safety which will 
eliminate danger to the life and health of the people, 

"Desirous of associating with international organizations 
concerned with the peaceful development of atomic 
energy, 

"Have decided to establish a European Atomic Energy 
Community (EURATOM).” 

AIMS OF THE COMMUNITY 

Article i. It shall be the aim of the Community to 
contribute to the raising of the standard of living in 
member states and to the development of commercial 
exchanges with other countries by the creation of conditions 
necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of 
nuclear industries. 

Article 2. For the attainment of its aims the Community 
shall: 

(a) develop research and ensure the dissemination of 
technical knowledge; 

(b) establish, and ensure the application of, uniform 
safety standards to protect the health of workers 
and of the general public; 

(c) facilitate investment and ensure, particularly by 
encouraging business enterprise, the construction of 
the basic facilities required for the development of 
nuclear energy within the Community; 

(d) ensure a regular and equitable supply of ores and 
nuclear fuels to all users in the Community; 

(e) guarantee, by appropriate measures of control, that 
nuclear materials are not diverted for purposes other 
than those for which they are intended; 

(f) exercise the property rights conferred upon it in 
respect of special fissionable materials; 

(g) ensure extensive markets and .access to the best 
technical means by the creation of a common market 
for specialized materials and equipment, by the free 
movement of capital for nuclear investment, and y 
freedom of employment for specialists within the 
Community; 

(h) establish with other countries and with international 
organizations any contacts likely to promote pro 
gress in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy- 


Article 3. The achievement of the tasks entrusted to 

the Community shall be ensured by: 

an Assembly 
a Council 
a Commission 
a Court of Justice 

The Council and the Commission shall be assisted by an 

Economic and Social Committee acting in a consultative 

capacity. 

PROVISIONS FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY 

Articles 4-1 1: deal with development of research. 

Article 8 provides for the establishment of a Joint 
Nuclear Research Centre. 

Articles 12-29: the dissemination of information, including 
(Articles 24-27) provisions concerning security. 

Articles 30-39: health protection. 

Articles 40-44: investment. 

Article 41 enacts that certain investment projects 
must be communicated to the Commission. 

Articles 45-51: joint enterprises. 

Article 46 enacts that any project for the establish- 
ment of a joint enterprise, whether originating from the 
Commission, a member state, or any other source, shall 
be the subject of an enquiry by the Commission. 

Articles 52-76: supplies. 

Article 52 provides for the establishment of a Supply 
Agency. 

Articles 77-85: safety control. 

Articles 86-91: property rights. 

Articles 92-100: the nuclear common market. 

Article 93 enacts the abolition after one year of all 
import and export duties and all quantitative restrictions 
on imports and exports in respect of certain nuclear 
materials and equipment listed in Annex IV to the 
Treaty. 

Articles 1 01-106: external relations. 

These articles lay down the conditions for agreements 
with third countries or international organizations. 

PROVISIONS RELATING TO INSTITUTIONS 

Articles 107-160: the Institutions of the Community. 

Articles 107-114: the Assembly. 

Articles 1 15-123: the Council. 

Articles 124-135: the Commission. 

Article 134: Scientific and Technical Committee 
attached to the Commission. 

Articles 136-160: the Court of Justice. 

Articles 161-164: provisions common to several institu- 
tions. 

Articles 165-170: the Economic and Social Committee. 


223 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


FINANCIAL PROVISIONS 
Articles 171-183. 

Article 171 provides for an operational budget and a 
research and investment budget. The former covers 
administrative expenses and safety control and health 
protection. Under Article 172 the scale of contributions to 
the operational budget is fixed as follows; 

% 


Belgium 



7-9 

Germany 



28.0 

France . 



28.0 

Italy 



28.0 

Luxembourg . 



0.2 

Netherlands . 



7-9 


The scale of contributions to the research and investment 
budget is as follows: 


% 


Belgium 



9.9 

Germany 



30.0 

France . 



30.0 

Italy 



23.0 

Luxembourg . 



0.2 

Netherlands . 



6.9 


GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Articles 184-208: cover certain legal aspects of the Com- 
munity’s status and define certain technical terms. 

Article 205 allows for the application of any European 
state to membership of the Community. 

Article 208 states that the Treaty is concluded for an 
unlimited period. 

PROVISIONS FOR THE INITIAL PERIOD 
Articles 209-224. 


PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY 

INDUSTRY AND MINING 


PRODUCERS 

General 

Union des Industries de la Communaut^ Europ£enne 
(UNICE): 4 rue Ravenstein, Brussels i ; Pres. F. Berg; 
Sec.-Gen. Mile H. M. Claessens: National Delegates 
Eichner, Schlotfeldt (German Federal Republic), 
Sauwens (Belgium), Astier (France), Mondello 
(Italy), Hayot (Luxembourg), van Rooij (Nether- 
lands). KotTLOPOULOs (Greece). 

Building 

Comitfi Permanent pour I’Etude des Probl&mes Pos£s par le 
Marchfi Commun European dans I'Industrie de la Con- 
struction: 3 rue de Berri, Paris 8e., France; f. 1957; 
Pres. Henri Courbot; Sec. Jacques Houdry. 

Ceramics and Glass 

Bureau de Liaison des Industries C£ramiques du Marchfi 
Commun (C§ramie-Unie): 47 Cantersteen, Brussels i; 
f. 1962; Permanent Sec. A. P. Thill. 

Comitfi Permanent des Industries du Verre de la C.E.E.: 3 

rue la Boetie, Paris 8c, France; Pres. Louis C. Ameye; 
Sec.-Gen. James Barrelet. 

F£d£rat1on Europ6enne des Fabricants de Tuiles et de 
Briqucs: 23 rue de Cronstadt, 75-Paris ise; f. 1952. 

Ffid^ration Europ£enne des Industries de Porcelaine et de 
Faience de Table et d’Ornementation (F.E.P.F.); 47, 

Cantersteen, Brussels i; f. 1958; 17 mems.; Pres. Sam. 
H. Jerrett; Sec.-Gen. A. P. Thill. 

Groupe de Travail G.E.E. de la F£d£ration Europienne de la 
Porcelaine et de Faience de Table et d’Ornementation: 

47 Cantersteen, Brussels i; f. 1958; Pres. M. Feron; 
Sec. A. P. Thill. 

Groupement des Fabricants d'Appareils Sanitaires en 
Ciramique de la C.E.E. (GEFACS): 44 me Copemic, 
Paris i6e: Pres. E. Vercouter; Sec.-Gen. J. Vuil- 

LAUME. 


Groupement des Producteurs de Carreaux Ciramiques du 
Marchfi Commun: 47 Cantersteen, Bmssels i; f. 1959; 
6 mems.; Pres. A. Gambigliani; Sec. A. P. Thill. 

Chemicals 

Bureau de Liaison des Associations de Fabricants de 
Peintures et d’Encres d’Imprimerie des Pays du March6 
Commun: 49 square Marie Louise, B-i.040-BrussoIs, 
Belgium. 

Comitd de Coodination des Industries do la Transformation 
des Matiires Plastiques de la Communautd Europienne: 
49 ave. d’Auderghem, Bmssels 4, Belgium; f. i960: 
Pres. J. Pennel; Sec.-Gen. L. Buslain. 

Groupement Europien des Associations Nationales de 
Fabricants de Pesticides— (GEFAP) — Section C.E.E.: 
49 square Marie-Louise, B-i.04O-Bmssels; f. i960; Pres. 
J. Borduge; Sec.-Gen. Y. Demaret. 

Seerdtariat International des Groupements Professionneli 
des Industries Chimiques des Pays de la C.E.E.: 49 
square Marie-Louise, B-i.oqo-Bmssels; f. IQS^- 

Clothing and Footwear 

Commission Interprofessionnelle des Industries de I’Habil' 
lement de la C.E.E.: 20 ave. des Arts, Bmssels, Belgium: 
f- 1959: mems.: professional organizations in the six 
EEC countries; Pres. A. de Stexhe; Sec. J. Decat. 

Marchd Commun — Comitd de Liaison et d’Etudes de 
I’Industrie de la Chaussure: 24 rueMontoyer, Bmssels 4, 
f. 1958; 5 mems.; Pres. M. Trolli; Sec.-Gen. Gilbert 
Maeyaert. 

' Domestic Goods 

Commission Executive pour la C.E.E. de la Fddirailon 
Europdenne de I’Industrie de la Brosierie et Pin* 
ceauterie: 70 Coudenberg, Bmssels i; f. 1958; 

M. Malgrain. 

Union Europdenne de la Literie: Kdnigsallec 68, 4 DOssri- 
dorf. Federal Germany; Pres. M. Legrand; Sec. R- 
GSrnandt. 


224 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Engineering 

Comit6 de Liaison de la Construction d’Equipements et do 
Pieces d’Automobiles (CLEPA) : Westendstrasse 6i, 
6 Frankfurt-am-Main, Federal Germany; Pres. J. M. 

DE VOOGD. 

Comitd Europ^en des Constructeurs de Matdriel de Blanch- 
isserie et de Nettoyage Sec (ELMO): c/o Fabrimetal, 
21 rue des Drapiers, 1050 Brussels; Sec. R. Vanden 
Eynden. 

Comitd Europden des Constructeurs de Matdriel Frigorifique 

delaC.E.E. (CECOMAF) : 10 ave. Hoche, Paris 8e; Pres. 
M. Meyre; Sec. M. de Rouvray. 

F£d6ration Internationale des Producteurs Autoconsom- 
mateurs Industrials d’Electricitd (FIPACE): 49 square 
Marie-Louise, 1040 Brussels; f. 195/1; 10 mems.; Pres. 
K. H. Bund; Man. Dir. M. de Leener; Sec. -Gen. A. 
Thonon. 

Groupement des Producteurs d'Isolateurs et de Pifeces 
Isolantes Mindrales h Usage Electro-technique de la 
C.E.E. (Groupisol): 47 Cantersteen, Brussels i; f. 1967; 
Pres. J. Dupuy; Sec.-Gen. A. P. Thill. 

Leather 

Confidfiration des Associations Nationalcs de Tanneurs 
et Mdgissiers de la C.E.E.: 122 rue de Provence, Paris; 
T- 95 T, Pres. M. Dayne; Sec. A. Gampert. 

Constil Europ£en du Cuir Brut (Comitd des Six): 2 rue 
Edouard VII, Paris 8e; i. 1958; Pres. A. Debessac; 
Sec.-Gen. Hubert. 

Metallurgy 

Comiti de Liaison de I’ORGALIME pour les Comtnunaut6s 
Europdennes: 13 rue des Drapiers, 1050 Brussels; Sec.- 
Gen. N. Groenhart. 

Comitd de Liaison des Industries de Mdtaux non Fcrreux 
de la Communautd Europ6enne: 12 blvd. de Berlaimont, 
B-iooo, Brussels; f. 1957; Pres.M. deMerre (Belgium); 
Assessor P. Guillaujie (Belgium). 

ComitS des Associations Europdennes de Fonderie: 2 rue de 

Bassano, F-75, Paris i6e; f. 1953: mems.: 14 West 
European countries; Pres. C. Blaauw. 

Confdrence de I’Industrie Europdenne Productrice d'ArticIes 
Emaillds (EUREMAIL): Hochstrasse 115. Hagen/ 
Westfalen, Germany; f. i960; Sec. Dr. Herbert Noth. 

Secrdtariat Europden des Fabricants d’Emballagcs Mdtal- 
liques Ldgers: 21 rue des Drapiers, B-1050 Brussels, 
1959; Pres. Henri ThiiSbaud; Sec. Jacques Molitor. 

Mining 

Comitd d’Etude des Producteurs de Charbon d’Europe 
Occidentale: 31 ave. des Arts, 1040 Brussels; Pres. 
P. Gardent; Sec.-Gen. A. Woronoff. 

Paper 

Commission “Marchd Commun” de la Fdddration Euro- 
pdenne des Fabricants de Cartons Ondulds: 36 rue de 
Chateaudon, Paris ge; f. 1959: Pres. L. Huughe; Sec. 
R. DU Boucheron. 


Pharmaceuticals 

Association Internationale de la Savonnerie et de la 
Ddtergence (A.I.S,): 49 square Marie-Louise, 1040 
Brussels; Pres. U. Albini; Sec.-Gen. J. Dcncker- 

WOLCKE. 

Commission Permanente de la C.E.E. de L’Association 
Internationale de la Savonnerie et de la Ddtergence: 49 

square Marie-Louise, Brussels 4; Pres. R. Couvreur; 
Sec. J. Donckerwolcke. 

Groupement International de I’lndustrics Pharmaceutique 
des Pays de la C.E.E. (G.I.I.P.): 49 square Marie- 
Louise, Brussels; f. 1959: Pres. A'^ekemans; Sec. A. 
Guilsiot. 

Precision Engineering 

Comitd Europdcn des Constructeurs d’Instruments de 
Pesage: 36 ave. Hoche, Paris 80; Pres. Berding; Sec. 
Michel. 

Comitd Europden des Constructeurs de Matdriel Aeraulique: 

10 ave. Hoche, Paris 8e; f. 1959: 10 mems.; Pres. 
Godefroi. 

Fdddration Europdenne de I’lndustrie de I’Optique et de la 
Mdcanique de Prdcision : Pipinstrasse 16, Cologne; Pres. 
Dr. Moller; Sec. Dr. von der Trenck. 

Rubber 

Bureau de Liaison des industries du Caoutchouc de la 
C.E.E.: 19 ave. des Arts, B-1040 Brussels; f. 1959; Pres. 

J. Billi.au; Sec. A. J. Zayat. 

Textiles 

Association des Enducteurs, Calandreurs et Fabricants de 
revetements de sols plastiques de la Communautd 
Europdenne (A.E.C.) : 49 ave. d’Auderghem, Brussels 4; 
Pres. J. C. BuNOUST-RoQuiRE; Sec. LioN Buslain. 

Association Europdenne Rubans, Tresses, Tissus Elas* 
iiques (AERTEL): 2 rue des Moulins, Paris ler; Pres. 
H. voN Baur; Sec. P. J. Rouchy. 

Comitd des Industries du Coton et des Fibres Connexes de la 
C.E.E. (EUROCOTON): 24 rue Montoyer, Brussels 4: 
Pres. Jacques Thiriez; Sec.-Gen. G. Massenaux. 

Comitd des Industries de I’Achdvement Textile des Pays de 
la C.E.E.: Building Lieven Bauwens, Martelaarslaan 65, 
Ghent; Pres. Baron G. de Gerlache de Gomery; Sec. 

A. Lanoye. 

Comitd des Industries de I’lmpression sur Tissus de la 

C.E.E. (C.I.I.T.): Baumschulallee 21, 53 Bonn; f. 1959; 
Pres. S. Yntema; Sec. Dr. D. Stunkel, 

Comitd des Industries du Jute du Marchd Commun: 33 rue 

do Miromesnil, Paris 8e; Pres. Tommy Martin. 

Comitd des Industries Lainidres de la C.E.E.: 24 rue 

Montoyer, Brussels 4; f. 1961; Sec. G. Maeyaert. 

Comitd des Industries de la Maille de la C.E.E. (MAILL- 
EUROP): 24 rue Montoyer, 1040 Brussels; Pres. J. 
Cantaert; Sec. Andr£ Joye. 


225 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Comity Europien de I’lndustrie de la Robinctterie (C.E.I.R.) : 

21 rue des Drapiers, Brussels 5; f. 1959; 14 mems.; Pres. 
P. E. Pinon; Sec. A. Lombaerts. 

Commission ''IV!arch6 Commun” de la Confederation 
International du Lin et du Chanvre: 8 rue Cardinal 
Mercier, Paris 9e; Pres. A. Dequae; Sec. A. Ritter. 

Commission “IVIarche Commun” de la Federation Inter- 
nationale de la Filterie; 37 rue de Courcelles, Paris 8e: 
Pres. Hubert Crespel; Secs. ANURi; Ritter, Michel 
Lotigie. 

Confederation Internationale des Fabricants de Tapis et de 
Tissus pour Ameublement (CITTA): Domaglnveg 8, 
Wuppertal-Elberfeld; f. i960; mems.: national associa- 
tions of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, German 
Federal Republic, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, 
S\vitzerland; Pres. F. C. Van Den Bergh; Dir. Dr. R. 
Meusers. 

Groupe de la C.E.E. du Comite International de la Rayonne 
et des Fibres Synthetiques: 29-31 rue de Courcelles, 
Paris 8e; Pres. J. de Pr£cigout; Recorder S. Mornard. 

Groupe de Travail “Marchd Commun” de I’Association 
Internationale des Utilisateurs de Files de Fibres Arti- 
ficiclles et Synth4tiques: 5 place du Palais-Bourbon, 
Paris ye; Sec. Gen. F. Vigier. 

Transport Equipment 

Comitd de Liaison de la Construction de Carrosseries et de 
Remorques: "Westendstrasse 61, D6 Frankfurt-am- 
Main; Pres. H. Eylert. 

Comit4 de Liaison des Fabricants de Pieces et Equipements 
de Deux Roues (COLIPED): 21 rue des Drapiers, 
Brussels; Pres. A. C. Beyltjens; Sec. E. Tribout. 

ComU4 de Liaison de la Construction Automobile pour les 
Pays de la Communautd Europ4enne: Corso Galileo 
Ferraris 61, Tiurin, Italy; Pres. Biscaretti. 

Wood and Timber 

Comiii Central de la Propri4t4 Forestiire de la C.E.E.: no 

route de Condroz, Ougr 4 e, Belgium; f. ig6i; Pres. 
Comte Charles de Limburg Stirium; Sec. Pierre 
Gathy. 

Comit6 des P4pinieristes Forestiers de la C.E.E.: c/o 

Zentralverband der Forstpflanzenbetriebe e.V., Hal- 
stenbek/Holstein, Germany; f. 1962; Pres. R. Rahte; 
Sec.-Gen. R. A. Streitberger. 

Commission Executive des Industries du Bois pour la 
C.E.E. : 36 ave. Hoche, Paris; Pres. A. Provost; Man. 
Dir. J. M. Macquart. 

F4d4raiion Europ4enne des Associations du Bois de Mine: 

27 rue N. Bosret, Namur; Pres. M. Demon; Sec. H. 
Schmitz. 

F4d4ration Europ4enne des Syndicafs de Fabricants de 
Menuiseries Industrielles de BStiment: 36 ave. Hoche, 
Paris 8e; Ikes. G. B. Crow; Sec.-Gen. A. Chevalier. 

Groupement des Scierics des Pays de la C.E.E.: 109-111 rue 
Royale, Brussels 1; f. 1958; Pres, (vacant); Sec. Albert 
Dejaiffe. 


DISTRIBUTORS 

Building 

Union des F4d4raiions Rationales des N4gocianis en 
Matdriaux de Construction des Pays de la C.E.E. 
(UFEMAT): 23 rue de la Limite, Brussels 3; f. 1959; 
9 mems.; Pres. H. Druart; Sec.-Treas. P. Legrand. 

Chemicals 

Confdddration Internationale du Commerce de la Droguerie; 

Klosterstr. 92, Cologne-Lindenthal; Pres. R. Gentzch, 

Groupement International de la Repartition Pharmaceuti- 
que des Pays de la C.E.E.: 6 rue de la Trdmoille, Paris 
8e; Pres. D. Saupke; Sec.-Gen. J. Perier. 

Union du Commerce des Engrais des Pays de la C.E.E.: 

piazza G. G. Bolli 2, Rome; Pres. Armando Gavagni; 
Sec. Ernesto Bassanelli. 

Fuel and Power 

Comitd de la Communautd Europdenne de I’Union Inter- 
nationale des Producteurs et Distributeurs d’Energie 
Electrique (UNiPEDE); 124 blvd. Haussmann, Paris Se; 
Pres. L. DE Heem. 

Comitd Europden de Liaison des Ndgociants et Utilisateurs 
de Combustibles (C.E.L.N.U.C.O.): 62 blvd. Flandrin, 
Paris i6e; Pres. Jean Picard; Sec. P. Delmon. 

Metals and Machinery 

Centre de Liaison International des Marchands de Machines 
Agricoles et Rdparateurs Commission pour le Marchd 
Economique Europdenne: Stadhouderslaan 126, The 
Hague; Pres. B. G. Steenbergen; Sec. J. Permilleu.t. 

Commission de la C.E.E. du Comitd Europden des Groupe- 
ments de Constructeurs du Machinisme Agricole: 19 

rue Jacques-Bingen, Paris rye; f. 1962; Pres. P. RE 
Saint-Hubert; Sec.-Gen. C. Antoine. 

Fdddration Internationale des Associations de Ndgociants 
en Acier, Tubes, Mdtaux: 65 ave. Victor Hugo, Pans; 
Pres. G. P. Philipson-Stow; Sec.-Gen. A. Noel. 

Fdddration Internationale des Associations de Quincailliers 
et Marchands de Fer: Talstrasse 66, CH 8001 Zurich, 
Switzerland; f. 1909; Gen. Sec. Dr. C. E. Bischoff. 

Paper 

Comitd Europden de Liaison du Commerce de Gros do 
Papiers et Cartons (COMEPA): 2 rue de I’Aurorc, 
1050 Brussels; f. 1967; Chair. A. Gibson; Sec. E- 
Jonckheere. 

Union des Distributeurs de Papiers et Cartons de la C.E.E. 
(EUGROPA): 2 rue de TAurore, Brussels 5; f. 1957 ' 
Chair. J, Martin; Sec. E. Jonckheere. 

Union Europdenne des Groupements de Grossistes spdclal- 
isds en papeterie tUEGGSP): Kromrae Nieuwe Gracbt 
38, Utrecht; Pres. J. A. Dortmond (Netherlands). 

Textiles 

Comite "Marchd Commun" de L’Association Europdenne 
des Organisations Rationales des Commercants-Ddtsil- 
lants en Textiles: 18 me des Bons Enfants, Paris; Pres- 
R. Boisde; Sec. J. Chouard. 


226 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Comity de Travail C.E.E. de I’Association Internationale 
des Groupements d’Achats de Textiles: Iseumarkt 14, 
Cologne; f. 1951; 45 mems.; Pres. J. D. Jougma; Sec. 
Dr. Weinwurm Wenkhoff. 

Timber 

Association des Groupements du N6goce Intdrieur du Bois 
et des Produits Ddrivds dans les Pays de la C.E.E.: 

Vereniging van Nederlandsc Hoatkopers, Kefzers- 
gracht 298, Amsterdam-C; Pres, (vacant); Sec. Dr. 
J. W. Barker. 


Confdddration du LiSge de la C.E.E. (Industrie et Com- 
merce): 52 blvd. Malesherbes, Paris 8e; f. 1962; Pres. 
P. Adnot; Sec.-Gen. E. Bose. 

Union pour le Commerce des Bois Tropicaux dans la C.E.E.: 

rog-iir rue Royale, rooo Brussels; Pres. A. de 
Wagheneire; Sec. id. Maelfevt. 

Union pour le Commerce d’Importation des Sciages de 
Conifdres dans la C.E.E,: Keizcrgracht 298, Amster- 
dam; f. i960; Pres. J. Key; Sec. Dr. J. W. Barker. 


AGRICULTURAL AND FOODSTUFFS 


PRODUCERS 

General 

Comit6 de Liaison des Vdtfirinaires de la C.E.E.: 28 rue des 

Petits-Hotels, Paris; f. 1961; Pres. Dr. J. Derivaux; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr. Merkt. 

Comity des Constructeurs Europ6ens de Materiel Alimcn- 
taire (COCEMA), Commission de la C.E.E.: UDMA, 
4 DUsseldorf-Oberkassel. Luegallee 65; f. i960; Pres. 
Robert Andr£; Sec.-Gen. Dr. F. Gasde. 

Comitfi des Organisations des Entrepreneurs de Travaux 
Agricoles de la C.E.E.: rz rue dc Spa, 1040 Brussels; 
f- 1962: I^cs. R. DE Mun-ck; Sec.-Gen. E. Tessier. 
Comiti des Organisations Prolessionnelles Agricoles de la 
C.E.E. (COPA): 8 rue de Spa, 1040 Brussels; f. 195S; 
Pres. M. Vetrone (Italy); Sec.-Gen. A. Herlitska. 

Comit6 G6ndral de la Cooperation Agricole de la C.E.E. 
(GOGECA); 8 rue dc Spa, 1040 Brussels; Pres. C. R. 
Tybout (Netherlands); Sec. A. Herlitska. 

Animal Foodstuffs 

Federation Europeenne des Fabricants d’Adjuvants pour 
la Nutrition Animate (F.E.F.A.N.A.): Adenauerallee 
^70. 5300 Bonn 1; f. 1963; Pres. Dr. J. P. Spanoghe; 
Sec.-Gen. Dr. G. Behm. 

Federation Europeenne des Fabricants d’AIiments Com- 
poses pour Animaux: 65 rue JVIontagne aux Herbes 
Potageres, Brussels i; f. 1959; 9 mems.; Pres. A. 
Kuhn; Man. Dir. Maurice Weber; Sec.-Gen. A. P. 
Namur. 

Bakery 

Association Internationale de la Boulangerie Industriello: 

1 12 blvd, Montebello, Lille; Pres. Henri Jooris; Sec.- 
Gen. Werner Sard. 

Homite des Fabricants de Levure do Panification de la 
C.E.E.: 7 rue Leonce Reynaud, Paris i6e; Pres. K. B. 
Benecke; Sec.-Gen. R. van de Wiele. 

Beverages 

Oomite de la C.E.E. des Industries et du Commerce des Vins, 
Vins Aromatis 4 s, Vins Mousseux, Vins de Liqueur: 

^3-15 rue de Livourne, Brussels; f. 19591 Pres. G. S. 
Roders; Sec. Mme M. Coorejian. 

Comitfi do I’industrie des Cidres et Vins de Fruits de la 

. C.E.E.: 55 rue de la Loi, Brussels 4: Pres. P. J- 
Teebaal. 


Comitd des Professionnels Viticoles de la C.E.E.: 3 rue de 

Rigny, Paris 8e; f. 1959; Pres. F. Chevalier; Sec.- 
Gen. Mile J. Muller. 

Communautd de Travail des Brasseurs du Marche Commun: 

207 blvd. du Souverain, 1160 Brussels; Pres, M. le 
J oNKHEER O. WiTTERT Van Hoogland; Sec.-Gcn. 
A. A. M. Kemperink. 

Union Europeenne des Associations de Boissons Gazeuses 
des Pays Membres de la C.E.E.: 43 rue de Provence, 
Paris 9e: Pres. Allary. 

Union Europ6ennc des Alcools, Eaux de Vie et Spiritueux: 

29 passage International, Brussels i; f, 1959; Pres. 
Otto von Geote; Sec.-Gen. R. Carbonnelle. 

Union Europ£enne des Sources d’Eaux Minirales Naturelles 
du Marche Commun: Kennedyallee 28, 53 Bonn-Bad 
Godesborg: f. 1959: Pres. Dr. O. Wuttke; Sec.-Gen. 
R. Fa YARD (France). 

Cbrbals 

Association des Amidonneries de Mais de la C.E.E.: 29 

passage International, Brussels i; Pres. P. Callebaut; 
Sec. R. Bauer. 

Association des Petites et Moyennes Meuneries de la C.E.E.: 

Baumschulallee 6, 5300 Bonn; f. 1959: Pres. Prosper 
Convert; Sec.-Gen. Dr. M. Berten. 

Comite de Liaison des Amidonneries de Riz de la C.E.E.: 

7 rue Joseph Stevens, Brussels i; Pres. Horst Klein. 
Groupement des Associations des Maisiers de la C.E.E. 
(Euromaisiers): 149 Bourse do Commerce, Paris ler; 

L 1959: Pres. Jacques van der Vaeren; Sec.-Gen. 
G. May. 

Groupement des Associations Meunieres des Pays de la 
C.E.E.: 66 rue la Boetie, Paris 8e; 165 rue du Midi, 
Brussels; f. 1959; Pres. Gerald Bertot; Del. Gen. 
Maurice Loubaud. 

Seerdtariat de I’Association dcs Amidonniers de Bid de la 

C.E.E.: Postfach 3065, 5300 Bonn 3; Pres. Hugo Carl 
Deiters; Sec.-Gen. Wolfgang Hees. 

Union des Associations des Riziers de la C.E.E.: 25 rue du 
General Foy, Paris 8e; f. 1961; Pres. G. Luthke; 
Sec.-Gen. G. Lebucle. 

.Union des Associations des Semouliers de la C.E.E: via del 
Viminale 43, Rome; Pres. A. Cocozza; Sec.-Gen. G. 
Portesi. 

Union des Riziculteurs de la C.E.E.: Palazzo deU’Agricol- 
tura. Piazza Zumaglini, Vercelli, Italy; f. 1963; Pres. 
M. Greppi (Italy); Sec. R. Metz (France). , 


227 



THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 


Dairying 

Association des Fabricants do Laits do Conserve des Pays 
de la C.E.E. (ASFALEC): 140 blvd. Haussmann, 
Paris 8e; f. 1959; Pres. M. K. Schwemer; Sec. Mme S. 
Smee. 

Association de I’Industrie de la Fonte de Frontage de la 
C.E.E. (Assifonte): Kaiser-Friedrich-Strasse 13, 5300 
Bonn; f. 1964; Pres. E. Piaget; Sec.-Gen. H. Mahn. 

Association de I’lndustrie Laitibre de la C.E.E.: 140 blvd. 

Haussmann, Paris 8e; f. 1959; Pres. Ercole Locatell; 
Secs. J. G. Becue, H. Jarrousse; Admin. Sec. J. F. 
Oppenheim. 

Fertilizers 

Comit6 Specialist des Cooptratives Agricoles des Pays do la 
C.E.E. pour les Engrais et Pesticides: Reutenveg 51-53. 
D6 Frankfurt-am-Main; f. 1963; Pres. J. Grape; Sec.- 
Gen. J. Kunze. 

Union des Fabricants Europtens de Farines Animates: 

3 rue de Logelbach, Paris rye; f. 1959; Pres. A. 
Verdier-Dufour; Sec. J. K. Kroes. 

Food Industries 

Association des Fabricants de Caft Soluble des Pays de la 
C.E.E. (AFCASOLE): 12 rue du 4 Septembre, Paris 2e; 
Pres. A. Iveller; Sec.-Gen. R. JMar